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Publication numberUS5078543 A
Publication typeGrant
Application numberUS 07/550,908
Publication dateJan 7, 1992
Filing dateJul 11, 1990
Priority dateJul 11, 1990
Fee statusPaid
Publication number07550908, 550908, US 5078543 A, US 5078543A, US-A-5078543, US5078543 A, US5078543A
InventorsRonald L. Terrel
Original AssigneeTerrel Ronald L
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Storage system for solid waste material
US 5078543 A
Abstract
A storage system for solid waste material has a sloped storage basin with a subgrade covered by a 3-layer liner comprising top and bottom liquid impermeable layers separated by a drainage layer. The top layer drains into a leachate collection site and the drainage layer drains into a secondary collection site for detection of leakage through the top layer. A cap covers solid waste material stored on the liner. The top and bottom layers of the liner, and an upper layer of the cap are preferably dense-graded asphalt cement, and the drainage layer of the liner is preferably open-graded asphalt cement.
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Claims(4)
I claim:
1. A system for storage of solid waste material comprising:
a storage basin having a subgrade of compacted soil and aggregate sloping toward a leachate collection site;
a liner comprising:
a dense-graded, hot-mixed asphalt concrete bottom layer covering said subgrade,
an open-graded, hot-mixed asphalt concrete intermediate layer covering said bottom layer, and
a dense-graded, hot-mixed asphalt concrete top layer covering said intermediate layer and draining from its upper surface to said leachate collection site;
means for detecting leachate if it leaks into said intermediate layer;
solid waste material stored on said top layer; and
a cap covering said waste material and comprising a dense-graded, hot-mixed asphalt concrete cover layer merging at its periphery with said liner.
2. A system according to claim 1 in which said storage site has a peripheral berm and said bottom, intermediate and top layers extend over the inside face of said berm.
3. A system according to claim 1 in which said means for detecting leachate comprises a drain from said intermediate layer.
4. A system according to claim 1 in which the asphalt in each of said dense-graded layers is polymer modified.
Description
TECHNICAL FIELD

The present invention relates to solid waste storage, and more particularly to a system by which large quantities of said waste materials can be safely stored on a long-term basis.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Heightened awareness of the consequences of poor practice in the disposal and storage of waste materials has led to governmental regulations requiring improved waste management systems. As a result, systems using a combination of synthetic flexible membrane liners and clay layers and incorporating leachate detection and collection procedures have been designed to meet stringent standards. However, such systems are relatively expensive and difficult to construct, particularly for large storage areas. As a consequence, most liners for non-hazardous waste are constructed of clay, it having been assumed from laboratory tests that if clay were compacted to a reasonably high density in a liner, it would be impermeable to water. Unfortunately, it has been found from field trials that typical clay clods or clumps are often not broken down to as small particles as in laboratory tests. Consequently, water passing through field compacted clay tends to flow around and between soil clods in much same way as if the clods were mineral aggregate particles. Furthermore, during full-scale construction operations in the field under varying soil, terrain, and weather conditions, it is very difficult to achieve the uniformity of mixing and compaction required for waste storage liners. The overall result is that, generally, field clay liners turn out to be significantly more permeable than initially predicted from laboratory tests.

A further problem with the current system is the installation and maintenance of the synthetic membrane (geomembrane) placed on top of the clay layer. For large areas, seams or joints need to be welded or glued watertight. The membranes are easily punctured by construction equipment or large animals and they are difficult to maintain watertight. In addition, they are very expensive to construct because of the hand-labor required.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The present invention aims to provide a safe, practical and effective system for large scale, long-term storage of solid waste materials which utilizes polymer modified, hot mix asphalt cement materials and utilizes highway construction skills and equipment. In the practice of the present invention, a storage basin is prepared which is sloped to drain into a leachate collection site. The storage basin is faced with a three-layer liner having top and bottom liquid-impermeable layers and an intermediate drainage layer. The upper surface of the liner drains to the collection basin and the upper surface of the bottom layer of the liner drains to a secondary collection site for detection of leachate in case of failure of the impermeability of the top layer. When the storage basin is full of solid waste material, it is covered with a cap having a top impermeable layer and sloped for collection of rain water.

In the practice of the invention it is preferred that the top and bottom impermeable layers of the liner and the top impermeable layer of the cap be made of dense-graded, polymer-modified, hot mix asphalt concrete, and that the intermediate permeable layer of the liner be made of open-graded hot mix asphalt concrete.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is a layout of a typical storage site in accordance with the present invention; and

FIG. 2 is an enlarged fragmentary cross-section view taken as indicated by line 2--2 in FIG. 1 after preparation, filling, and covering of the storage site.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

The waste storage system of the present invention utilizes materials and practices in the asphalt highway paving art. Much of the terminology hereinafter utilized is common to that art. For example, "dense-graded" asphalt concrete indicates that a full range of aggregate sizes are used, as for example, from dust (No. 200 sieve) to 11/2"; and "open-graded" asphalt concrete indicates that only coarser sized aggregates are used, as for example, from No. 10 sieve to 3/4". In a dense-graded asphalt concrete the air voids are smaller and much lower in quantity (normally less than 4% by volume), than for conventional asphalt concrete whereas, in open-graded asphalt concrete, the voids are larger and higher in quantity (normally greater than 12% by volume). Furthermore, dense-graded asphalt concrete is substantially impermeable to water and other liquids, whereas the structure of open-graded asphalt concrete is porous to an extent allowing liquid such as leachate to freely drain through it.

In the practice of the present invention, a 3-layer liner 10 on a subgrade 11, and a 2-layer cap 12 on the stored solid waste material, are preferred for long-term storage facilities. The subgrade 11 is preferably similar to that prepared for highway paving, namely, compacted soil, gravel, crushed rock, or layers of these to provide a strong base on which to pave using standard highway asphalt paving equipment.

Normally the waste storage site will be many acres in size, and should be graded to drain to a collection basin. For purposes of example, the storage site may encompass a generally rectangular storage area 14 graded to slope downhill about 4 degrees to a primary catch basin 16 adjacent one corner. The storage site is surrounded by a berm 15 providing a sloped inner side wall 15a which typically may be 40 or 50 feet high.

The liner 10 covers the site 14, including the side wall 15a, and has a base layer 10a and top layer 10b of dense-graded, hot mix asphalt concrete, and an intermediate free-draining layer 10c of open-graded, hot mix asphalt concrete. The providing of two dense liquidimpermeable layers 10a, 10b is to provide a back-up layer in case a leak were to develop in the top layer 10b, such, for example, as a crack from a mild earthquake. The intermediate permeable layer 10c functions as a catchment in case of such a leak in the top layer 10b, and drains to a secondary catch basin 18. Liquid sensitive sensors may be placed in zones of the intermediate layer 10c, during the initial paving operations to assist in determining leak locations if they later develop.

The cap 12 preferably consists of a bottom soil cover 12a prepared generally in the same manner as the subgrade 11, and a lid layer 12b of dense-graded, hot mix asphalt concrete. The soil cover 12a is graded on the stored solid waste material 20 to provide a relatively even, compacted upper surface for receiving the lid layer 12b. The cap 12 should be crowned to drain to a peripheral gutter 19 which empties at appropriate drainage ports, or may be otherwise shaped and sloped to drain the cap 12. Standard highway grading equipment and techniques can be used to apply the compacted earth cover 12a as well as the subgrade 11.

Preferably, the asphalt material utilized as the binder for the lid layer 12b and the dense-graded liner layers 10a, 10b are polymer modified to contain polymer in an amount normally ranging between about 3% to 12% by weight of the asphalt. The polymers are preferably elastomeric and may be selected from the group comprising natural rubber, synthetic rubber, reclaimed rubber, polyethylene, polypropylene, ethyl-vinyl-acetate, or polyvinyl-chloride. It is preferred that the dense-graded layers have a minimum resilient modulus (Mr) of about 400,000 psi at 73 F. (ASTM D4123), and an indirect tensile strength (St) of about 150 psi at 73 F. (ASTM D4123). The dense-graded layers should be impermeable to the extent that they have permeability less than 110-8 cm/sec when measured in accordance with ASTM D3637 or appropriate equivalent test procedure.

In the practice of the invention, a suitable site is appropriately excavated and graded to provide the storage area 14 and surrounding side wall 15a which are appropriately sloped and compacted. The subgrade 11 is then prepared and the layers of the 3-layer liner 10 are applied. A drain culvert 16a is arranged to drain from the upper surface of the liner 10 to a lined primary catch basin 16 for leachate, and a drain pipe 18a is provided from the bottom of the open-graded intermediate layer 10c to a secondary catch vessel or basin 18 for leak-detecting in the leachate. Solid waste material is dumped onto the liner 10 from time to time and leachate and rain water draining from the liner 10 are collected in the catch basin 16 for processing. When the storage site is full of solid waste material it is graded appropriately to receive the compacted cover layer 12a, formed in the same general manner as the subgrade 11. The latter fills irregularities in the upper surface of the solid waste material in preparation for application of the top layer 12b of dense-graded asphalt cement. It will be appreciated that the lid 12 can be applied in stages as the solid waste material is collected.

After the lid 12 has been applied, leachate from the stored material continues to drain into the leachate collection basin 16 for processing. Should a leak develop in the upper layer 10b, it will drain through the open-graded intermediate layer 10c and along the upper surface of the bottom dense-graded layer 10a for collection and detection. It will be appreciated that for temporary storage of solid waste materials, only the bottom dense-graded layer 10a of the line 10 need be used.

Patent Citations
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Non-Patent Citations
Reference
1Tessel et al., "Using Additives and Modifiers in Hot Mix Asphalt (Part A)", National Asphalt Pavement Association.
2 *Tessel et al., Using Additives and Modifiers in Hot Mix Asphalt (Part A) , National Asphalt Pavement Association.
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US5180251 *Jun 11, 1991Jan 19, 1993Paurat FUnderground protection underneath a dump
US5183355 *Nov 12, 1991Feb 2, 1993Battelle Memorial InstituteMethod of draining water through a solid waste site without leaching
US5199816 *Jun 5, 1991Apr 6, 1993Paurat FSystem for isolating a dump
US5387741 *Jul 30, 1993Feb 7, 1995Shuttle; Anthony J.Method and apparatus for subterranean containment of hazardous waste material
US5533833 *Jun 3, 1994Jul 9, 1996John LombardiBulk backfill in situ liner for hard rock environment
US5562586 *Jun 17, 1994Oct 8, 1996Foamseal, Inc.Used for sealing the waste; monolithic fast curing elastomeric layer
US5905184 *May 11, 1998May 18, 1999Carter, Jr.; Ernest E.In situ construction of containment vault under a radioactive or hazardous waste site
US6004070 *Jul 8, 1997Dec 21, 1999Van Camp; John W.Waste storage containment cell, method of operating, and apparatus therefore
US6280521Feb 18, 1999Aug 28, 2001Carter Ernest E JrControlling density so cut block of soil is buoyant in same
US6569235Aug 27, 2001May 27, 2003Ernest E. Carter, Jr.Grout compositions for construction of subterranean barriers
US6595723 *Aug 30, 2002Jul 22, 2003Peter J. IannielloConversion of gypsum stacks to waste containment facilities and related construction and business methods
US6846131 *May 19, 2003Jan 25, 2005Peter J. IannielloMethods and facilities for producing revenue from gypsum-based refuse sites
US6860680 *May 19, 2003Mar 1, 2005Peter J. IannielloWaste containment and processing facilities formed contemporaneously with the disposal of mineral refuse, and related methods
US6860936Apr 29, 2003Mar 1, 2005Ernest E. Carter, Jr.Especially radioactive burial sites; buoyant lift technique to isolate a block of soil containing the contaminates from the surrounding soil; impermeable synthetic liner is embedded in the vault
US6939077 *Jun 10, 1999Sep 6, 2005Formpave Holdings LimitedPaving block
US7077602 *Jan 20, 2005Jul 18, 2006Wilder Construction CompanyMethod and system for containment, such as a containment cap for solid waste constructed of modified asphalt
US7250287 *Mar 29, 2005Jul 31, 2007Richard L. AhoIntroducing liquid and oxygen into a structure for holding a volume of biodegradable solid waste; mixing; adding the oxygen-enriched liquid into the solid waste
US7404693Jun 29, 2006Jul 29, 2008Wilder Construction CompanyMethod and system for a containment system, such as a seamless containment cap for solid waste constructed of polymer-modified asphalt
US7430834Apr 6, 2005Oct 7, 2008Geomembrane Technologies Inc.Membrane-covered reservoir having a hatchway therein
US7479185Aug 3, 2005Jan 20, 2009Blankenship Phillip BMixture of aggregate having no more than 5% passing through a 75 mu m screen and at least 70% passing through a 2.36 mm screen and a bituminous binder; dust to asphalt ratio of less than 09; preferably has at least 18% voids in the aggregate; design for makeing a vapor-permeable layer of pavement
US20100278592 *Feb 18, 2009Nov 4, 2010Carlisle Construction Materials IncorporatedSolar Energy Cover System
US20130089376 *Oct 5, 2012Apr 11, 2013D.A. Nolt, Inc. (a Pennsylvania corporation)Fluid containment and management system
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Classifications
U.S. Classification405/129.57, 405/265, 405/129.7, 404/82, 405/270
International ClassificationE02D31/00, B09B1/00
Cooperative ClassificationB09B1/00, E02D31/004
European ClassificationE02D31/00B2, B09B1/00
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Apr 28, 2010ASAssignment
Owner name: MATCON, INC.,WASHINGTON
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:GRANITE CONSTRUCTION COMPANY;REEL/FRAME:024305/0152
Effective date: 20100115
Owner name: MATCON, INC., WASHINGTON
Jul 7, 2003FPAYFee payment
Year of fee payment: 12
Feb 3, 2003ASAssignment
Owner name: WILDER CONSTRUCTION COMPANY, WASHINGTON
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:TERREL, RONALD L.;TERREL RESEARCH LLC;REEL/FRAME:013712/0195
Effective date: 20030106
Owner name: WILDER CONSTRUCTION COMPANY 1525 MARINE VIEW DRIVE
Jan 7, 2003ASAssignment
Owner name: TERREL RESEARCH LLC, WASHINGTON
Free format text: SECURITY INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:WILDER CONSTRUCTION COMPANY;REEL/FRAME:013634/0990
Effective date: 20030107
Owner name: TERREL RESEARCH LLC 9703 241ST PLACE S.W.EDMONDS,
Jul 6, 1999FPAYFee payment
Year of fee payment: 8
Jun 30, 1995FPAYFee payment
Year of fee payment: 4