|Publication number||US5111 A|
|Publication date||May 15, 1847|
|Publication number||US 5111 A, US 5111A, US-A-5111, US5111 A, US5111A|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (2)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
FREDERICK LEYPoLDr, E PIIILDELPIIIA, PENNSYLVANIA.
Specification of Letters Patent No. 5,111, dated May .15,21847.
To all 'whom yi?? may yconcern Be it known that I, FREDERICK LEYPOLDT,
of the Northern Liberties, in the county of Philadelphia, in the State of' Pennsylvania, have invented new and useful additions and Improvements in the vSurgical Instrument or Machine Commonly Called a Scari-4 "cator; and I hereby declare thatthe fol# lowing is a true and exact description there-A of, reference being made to the accompanying drawings, as part of this specification.
' To enable manufacturers of the said maf chine or instrument vto distinguish my improvements and the machine, as heretofore made, I proceed first to describe the latter as follows The case (Figure 1, an outside `bottom view, and Figs. 5 and 6, lateral views of opposite sides `and A, figure view of the outside of the top section of the case,l andB, figure, an angular downward view'of the inside of the lower section of the case, containing the mainspring, axle and tumbler) in which. the machine is. principally constructed, is soft metal, of such dimensions as contains the works and operate. as hereinafter described. kThe case is madey in two sections (Figs. A. and 13,) horizontally, the upper section fitting on and sliding down,
over the lower section, a short distance. AV
tumbler (Fig. C, spring E,) with a lever or handle, (a, Fig., 1,) extending 4therefrom through and beyond the case, is furnished, within thev case, with cogs (c c c Figs. 2 and C) on several segments of concentric circles, and turns on the end of a fixed axle (d, B
figure, and d, Fig. 4,) at right angles therewith, in segments of revolutions, backward and forward. Another part of the klower edge of the tumbler (F, Fig. C) is cut into teeth, into which a trigger (f, Fig. 4 and f, Fig. B) moving on a screw or rivet, (g, Fig. 4 and g, Fig. 13,) fastening it to the bottom of the case, works, to keep the machine set or cocked for an operation, and is pressed against the said teeth by a small spring (71 Figs. 1, 9 and 4 and l1., Fig. B,) and to the trigger is attached a button (z', Figs. 1, land 5,) outside the case; and pressure onthe said button withdraws the trigger from the tumbler. Nearly at right angles with the horizontal diameter of the tumbler, under its side -which is opposite ltothe said teeth, afmainspring (E, Figs. `B and C) is fastenedwith a screw or rivet (01:, Fig. 13,) to the bottom of the case; and
pulling the'lever (GFig.`C and a', Fig".` l1), `in the proper direction, ben-ds the main 4spring, down, yand thetrigger Aholds it so;
lOver eachof the said cogged Vsegnf'ients of concentric circles, on the tumbler, is placed ashaft (Fig.`10,)l parallel with the"said\ axle and extending into holes (m, fm, m
Figs. 2 and 5,) in opposite sides of the case .near 'its' upper edge, in which holes the shafts turn on their endsrv as pivots, each shaft having lix'ed on itsen'd, over the cogs,y
la pinion (n, n, n, Fig.V 6 and n, Fig. 10,) in which one of thefsaid cogged segments Works. .On eachof said shafts are fastenedy as'many lancetsor cutters (0,1Figs. 5, 10
jand lll) as the length of the shaft and the `Imakers choice will admit,vand of such form that, the shaft being turned on its central line, nearly they whole edge of the lancets willdescribe equal circles. The lancets are kept separate and fast, onthe shafts,by
`metallic washers (p, p, Fig. 10 and Fig. 12, vFig.,13, representing a transversesection of a1- `washer) slipped. on the shaft alternately with the l'ancets and fastened against the pinion (which is4 on ytli'e other end ofthe (In the said bar, near its end,there is, sometimes, a` hole for a slide, 'which' slide. isa shaft) by a screw andy nut (g Fig. 1`0and Fig. .15,)' on that end of the shaft overA whichr they are slipped. In the middle ofl thecase, under and at right angles `with the axle is placed a bar (Figs. 16' and A1'? and yIt Fig. 18) reaching to both sidesof the case.
perpendicular to the bar; its use' being-to prevent the bar from'turning, but this obf" ject beinganswered by the pins in the arms,` hereinafter described,- the said slide is oftenomitted, it is marked in the drawings, however, as d, Figs. 17 and 18.) On each end' of vsaid bar is an uprightl arm, (S, Figs. y6, 14, 17 and 18) reaching to near the upp'er edge of they case; and into the upper end of each armis screwed, horizontally, a' lmetallic pin (ht, Figs. 6 and 14;) through Athe case, wherein, a slit (Z Figi) ism'ad/e the middle of the said bar is a hollow screw (u, Fig. 17) in which works another long screw (Q1, Figs. 18 and 20,) from the-outside of the cases bottom, up through Vit and the said hollow screw and the axle; and'on the upper side of the axle the top of the said long screw is secured by a screw nut (fw, Figs. 18 and w). By turning the long screw (y, Figs. 5, 6 and 18,) the said bar, arms and pins may be altogether loweredYV orraised, a short distance, along thesaid case and slits. The upper section of the said case (A figura) (acting as a gage to the depth-of scariiications made'by the op-` eration of the said lancets,) fits the outside of the top of the lower section and slides down over it, as far as the pins in the arms will permit it. In the top of the said upper section, opposite to each lancet, 'is a slit (A Figs. l, 2 3, 4 andV C)in the direction of the lancetgs movements and just large enough fto, permit-the lancets moving with their edges above thelid or upper section of the case, and without touching any part of it. Now the parts of .this scarificator being fixed in their proper positions, and the lid or top section of thecase put on and adjusted as the operator desires, the machine may be set or cocked, for operating, by pulling the said vlever so as to press 'down the mainspring until the trigger will catch the teeth; and then, by pressing on the button, toward the trigger, the latter is withdrawn from the tumbler, and the mainspring causes' the tumbler to perform a segment of a revolution on said aXle, and the cogs turn the pinions and shafts, giving a quick and regular motion to the lancets.
Now the above described machine I wholly disclaim; but init I detect the following defects The fmainspringv acts, in some stages of its movements, more forcibly on one'side of the tumblers edge or periphery than on the other, makes the strain on the axle-joint unequal; and the power being applied nearer thetumblers centerofmotion than is necessary, partl of the springs force is worse than wasted-is straining and injuring the machine."` The means of stopping the machine (when let off in perform;`
ing operations)is the strikingV of the lever against the case, which is thus gradually in` jured; and to retard that injury the case must be "made thicker `and heavier than'else would be needful'y orconvenient; 'but'fstill the case is battered where struck, and this lengthens the range of the leversy movement aswell as of that of the co'gs; so that the latter will derange thepinions and lancets,
and render the machine (requiring very,
delicate and secure adjustment and `operation).V finally uselessand even dangerous, causing undeserved blame to the most meritorious and scientific skill. The case, as hitherto made, is necessarily made of brass, copper, silver, iron and such as are strong and liable to oXidizeV readily, or are too costly for,l general use, andeither putting it, by its cost, beyond the reach of the poor, or, by its too great affinityV for oxygen, liable to be impure and unsafe tothe patient;
'whereas the case, with my improvements,
may be made of tin; and if the precious metals. be'chosennfor it, its lightness wlll contribute toA its cheapness; and in either case be less liable toy verdigris `or other metallic `oXids thattwould be deleterious to patients by their contact;V v
To remedy the aforesaid defects isthe ,ob-A ject of my improvements; `and this object I.
accomplish as follows- I form my mainspring (Figs. 7 and 8 and R, Figs. 2 3 and 4) with thel end of its stationary or fixed part or side extended around inside and on the bottom ofthe case, towhich a screw or `rivet (Z, Figs. 3 and t)l fastens it, its.- cur ve assisting, greatly to keep it firmly 1n lts place, which (instead of its position 1n the machine above described) is below and inside of` the tumbler, lparallel with the lat.-
ters horizontal diameter. This springs.
moving end is bent aside,l so as to press upward against the lower side or` edgeof the. tumbler, at a point the most distant,in that direction, from the latters center of mot-ion. Thus, I use the 'wholeforce of the spring, (Without abusing any of it to the injury of Vthe other 'works) and make al smaller'springproduce a better'eiiect, and
the machine more efficient, safe and durable. To stop the motion of the ,tumbler (when` the machine is let off) I make astrong catch (m, Figs. 3, 7 and 8,) on that side ofthe movingl end ofthis spring, that `is. next to and `under'the tumbler alsov on .the tumblers under edge or side,\neXt tothe said i catch, I form a step or shoulder (catch, Fig.` 21,) whichit strikes against (fr, Fig. 3,) and which stops its moving farther when the machine is let `oft" in performing an opera` tion. Further to secure the same stoppage, lI 11X a strong iron p in (0, Figs. Sand 2,)
intov the innerdi'sk ofthe tumbler on thev opposite side (to the said step or shoulder) of its center of motion, and nearly over the turn or doubling point ofthe mainspring, so as to restf on that springs upper surface when the machineshall Vhavebeen let oft' in .performing an operation. The said pin y andshoulder orstep in the tumbler,and the catch in the sideV ofthe mainspring fitting` and catching against the i sai-d step or shoulder, act so equally on the opposite sides ofthe tumblers center of motion as to stop thema'chine with the utmost certainty, and wlthout straining,l wrenching `or injuring 4any of its parts; while also the material (iron) of which they are made is most durable and least liable to be impaired by these parts being arranged and operating use. 1n the manner and for the prposes de:
What I claim as 1115]?) invention, and desire s scribed. n to secure by Letters atent is- 5 The combination of the tumbler and FREDERICK LEYPOLDT' mainspring, substantialb7 as herein de- -Wtnessesz scribed; thelmainspring having a catch, and DANL. MGLAUGHLIN, the tumbler a shoulder or step and pin; J. H. SMITH.
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