US 512265 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
(No Model.) 2 SheetsSheet 1.
E. ANDREOLI. APPARATUS FOB, PRODUCING OZUNE BY BLBTRIGITY.
Patented Jan. 9, 1894.
. 7/////////lV///////////,I'/////// INVENTOR WITN ESSES ATTORNEY THE NATIONAL Ln'nocnnrmna COMPANY.
wAsHlNafoN. n4 c.
' 2 Sheets-Shet 2. E. ANDREOLI.
. Patented Jan. 9, 1894.
INVENTOR ATTOR N EY (No Model.)
APPARATUS PoR PRODUGI'NG ozoNE BY BLEGTRIGITYJ. No. 512,265.
WITNESSES: A a
J UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.
EMILE ANDREOLI, OF LONDON, ENGLAND.
APPARATUSrFOR PRODUCING OZONE BY ELECTRICITY.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 512,265, dated January 9, 1894.
Application led August 25,1892. Serial No. 444,064. (No model.) Patented in England October 13, 1891, No. 17,426, and May 20,1892,No. 9,631; in France April14, 1892, Nos. 207,706 and 207,707, and May 23, 1892,1To.y208,6514i in Belgium June 2, 1892, No. 75,564, and in Germany June 10, 1892,170. 13,954.
To all whom it may concern,.-
Beit known that I, EMILE ANDREOLI, a citizen of France, residing at Brixton, London, in the county of Surrey and Kingdom of Great Britain, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Apparatus for Producing Ozone by Electricity, of which the following is a full, clear, and exact description, and patented in the following countries: Great Britain October 13, 1891,. No. 17,426, and May 20, 1892, No. 9,631; France April 14, .1892, Nos. 207,706 and 207,707, and May 23, 1892, No. 208,654; Belgium June 2, 1892, No. 75,564, and Germany June 10, 1892, No. 13,954.
This invention relates to the production'of ozone by electrifying oxygen or atmospheric air in an apparatus which enables me to produce, in a cheaper and simpler manner than has been done heretofore, ozone for commercial uses such as bleaching paper pulp or bers, yarns, tissues, treating oils, liquids, and organic and inorganic substances orapplying to therapeutic or hygienic purposes.
Briefly described, my invention consists in effecting silent discharges by aid of point bearing electrodes, separated from the electrodes of the opposite pole by a layer of dielectric placed close to the points.
Heretofore in ozone producing apparatus, the points of the electrodes touch the dielectric, while in my apparatus, the points are only close to the dielectric which increases the action of the effluvia. Where the points touch the dielectric, the glow which appears on the points, due to the silent discharges, produces a greater rise in temperature.
In the forms of my invention where the ozonizers are open, hardly any heat is developed.
In the accompanying drawings, in which similar letters of reference indicate like parts,
` Figure 1, indicates one form in which my invention is employed, showing a series of plates with points and dielectrics inclosed in a casing. Figs. 2 and 3 are detail views showing detail constructions in which the points are arranged close to a single plate or dielectric. Fig. 4 is another form or arrangement of the invention in a closed box. Fig. 5 is a form to be used as an inhaler. Fig. 6 is a cylindrical form, termed the hedgehog type. Figs. 7, 8, and 9 represent other forms.
In the accompanying drawings, Fig. 1 shows a closed box A, made of marble or other suitable non-condncting material or of wood internally coated with pitch, or lined with glass or other convenient non-conducting material, not acted upon by ozone. Inthis box are shown mounted three pairs of a seriesof platesE and G on an electric circuit, between which plates E G, a dielectric plate F of glass, mica or other equivalent is situated. This box is provided with a false bottom B, which is pierced with manysmall holes to admit dry air or oxygen, to be forced at a convenient speed into the box, by a pump or injector, through a pipe C, for the purpose of being acted upon in its passage through the box, by the electric eftluvia generated therein. The plates E and G are respectively connected with the opposite poles of an induction coil, or an alternating current dynamo, for the purpose of producing silent discharges into the air passing through the box. The air thus submitted to the electric effluvia is more powerfully ozonized than if vinstead of points I used flat surfaces, or if instead of an induction coil, an induence electric machine had been used. The ozonized air escaping through the pipe D maybe conducted to some suitable receptacle or utilized at once.
atmospheric air or oxygen, it is advisable to cool the air or oxygen, either by passing it# through a coil surrounded by ice and salt or other refrigerating compound or by cooling down the compartment below the false bottom B, or the whole box B to a low temperature; this can be done by any known means.
The ozonized platesE G are made of tinned iron, copper aluminum or other convenient pairs will be connected with one terminal of metal or alloy, but especially tin or an alloy IOO a Ruhmkorll coil or of an alternate current dynamo or some other convenient apparatus for producing high potential electricity and the plates G of the series will be similarly connected with the other terminal of the same apparatus. When the current flows through the receiving plate a phosphorescent glow, which is the characteristic feature of the silent discharge, appears between all the points and to illumines the surface of the interposed dielectric plates F. This is accompanied by the strong peculiar smell of ozone. Through the walls of the ozonizer A, pass the wires a, which connect the plates with the source of elecr5'tricity, care being taken `that the wires are thoroughly insulated. Instead of having the plates arranged in the ozonizer so as to have theirpoints opposite each other, I may have, as in Fig. 2, the points of one plate facing a plain zo plate, or as in Fig. 3, facing balls or small disks, carried by a pinned plate. The point bearing plates will be preferably made after the manner of gill-bars and the pins may be protected from oxidation by a coating of tin,
z5 or the points for diffusing the electric discharge may be obtained by the employment of wire brushes, composed of copper of other suitable material.
I do not confine myself to any size or shape 3o of electrodes; it must also be understood that I can dispose together any number of couples in such electrodes. In all cases, I prefer tin among the cheap metals. p
Fig. 4 shows an ozonizer, which instead of working in the air, so that the ozone circulates and spreads out in the room, is in the form of a rectangular box or tube made of glass or porcelain, or other insulating material. This ozonizer is fitted inside with a 4o plate b, bearing points on both sides, between two sheets of tin or tin-plate D', carefully tinned on the edges to prevent rust, the point bearing and flat electrodes being separated by a piece C of glass, mica, tbc.
gen which is forced into the apparatus; at the other end is an outlet c through which the.
air escapes after its oxygen has been ozonized while passing between the points and the di- 5o electric separating them from the opposite electrode under the influence of the electric effluvia. See Fig. 5. This form of apparatus may be used as an inhaler. Instead of having as dielectrics two sheets of glass iixed one 5 5 on each side of the double point bearing electrode bet-Ween it and the two dat electrodes which face it ongeither side, I may use enameled flat electrodes, that is metallic plates perfectly coated with a sufficient layer of enamel 6o to avoid the formation of sparks. Enamel 4 and 5.
For the sake of saving labor and money,
At one end 45 of this ozonizer is an inletcfor the air or oxythe numerous points, pins, risc., which are fixed on the plates can be obtained by casting the point bearing electrodes in appropriate molds so as to have a plate of uniform thickness, the pins of the same length and size having their. ends more or less sharp or blunt, or of an arrow, angular or triangular shape,or otherwise, as desired. Another way of obtaining point bearing plates in an economical manner is to punch, stamp or emboss sheets of met-al by mechanical means in such a way that on one side or on the two sides of the metal sheet angular portions of a convenient length and shape will protrude or project and will work exactly as pins fixed by riveting or soldering on metal; the same result may be obtained by using strips shaped like fret saws or band saws fixed on a metal frame their toothed edges being parallel with and close to a dielectric sheet with a plain plate as electrode on the other side of it. Instead of such parallel plates, disposed at a convenient distance in aclosed box,I prefer in many cases to use cylindric ozonizers which I construct in the following manner:
Fig. 6 shows a transverse section of a cylindrical ozonizer, of what I call the hedgehog type. A is a metallic core, inserted in a glass or earthenware or other dielectric tube B; this core is thoroughly tinned, in order to prevent corrosion, and provided with a wire which is connected to one of the poles of the source of electricity. The tube B is hermetically closed at both its ends which must be coated with insulating material. Instead of a tube or metallic core, I may have an iron or copper core, thickly coated with enamel and connected in the same manner to one of the poles ofthe source of electricity. Around this tube containing a tin or tinned metal core, or round the enamel cylinder is the double point bearing plate E', rolled into the form of a cylinder, which communicates by means of a wire cl with the other pole of the coil or dynamo. This porcupine cylinder is closely enveloped by a metal tube enameled inside and outside or by a glass or earthenware tube C2 surrounded with a metallic cylinder C3 which is connected with the core by means of a wire.
When I have to produce large quantities of ozone for commercial purposes or to ozonize the air of hospital wards, assembly halls, &c., I use large ozonizers of the hedgehog type packed together and suitably connected with the source of electricity, in an air tight tank.
The tank is made ot' insulating material, not
acted upon by ozone, and provided lwith an inlet and outlet pipe. The ozonizers may be supported in position by built up partitions, which insure all the air or oxygen supplied to the tank passing through the ozonizers. The air o r oxygen which I supply to the tank, by means of a pump, circulates through the ozonizers and emerges by the outlet charged with ozone, ready to be diffused through the IOO room or building, or employed for bleaching or other purposes or stored for subsequent use. I may have also larged closed boxes or tanks containing, instead of porcelain cylinders, as many couples as required of large double point bearing plates, of the kind shownl in Fig. 5, and of the plain plates either enameled or having dielectric plates Vintervening between them and the points. Before being ozonized, the atmospheric air may be passed through filtering boxes containing cotton, wool or other suitable material so that all solid impurities in suspension are stopped and cannot penetrate intothe ozonizer.
,Other forms of apparatus are constructed as follows:-Fig. 7 shows a transverse section of the pairs of plates, one pointed and the other plain, suitably connected, with the sheet of glass or other dielectric between fixed in position resembling the laths of a Venetian blind.
The distinguishing feature of my invention -electric discharge occurs more rapidly than from a flat, corrugated or undulated surface. I do not confine myself to the use of points, needles, carding brushes, or other pointed things such as I have described above. As I can use, especially for the small ozonizers very fine band saws or other equivalents in the shape of very tine metallic wires of any shape convenient for the production of ozone. Fine metallic cords stretched upon glass, separating them from a metallic electrode, similar to the stretching of the strings of a piano, mounted upon the sounding board,can be used, as well as any metallic substance which has a sharp edge which can be considered as being equivalent to al series of points adjoining each other and forming a continuous chain on which the electric charge cannot stay and discharges, in a continuous stream, efliuvia, as the surrounding air, which is in itself a dielectric, .does not offer upon points, sharp edges or fine metallic wires the same resistance as on fiat, curved, corrugated or undulating surfaces; hence the flow is relatively weakened.
Instead of perforated or non-perforated plates, provided with many points, nails, dac.,
,or upon which are formed by stamping or otherwise, tongue-shaped projections from which the eftluvia flows, I also use preferably, as supports, grids or metallic open work on both sides of which are conveniently fixed long metallic bands the edges of which are cut out into teeth like combs "or saws.
Figs. 8 and 9 show an e'liicientarrangement of the above mentioned kind which constitutes an improvement both as regards working, economy and simplicity of construction. K is a tinned metallic rod, to which are perpendicularlyl fixed metallic bands N whose edges L are stamped intodouble combs, the
points of which are of equal length. K is a metallic rod on which rest and are fixed all the metallic rods M which are inclosed in glass tubes and form the second electrode. Enameled metallic rods may be substituted for these.
At various places on the glass tubesI wind very tightly, and cement it to the glass, a ne copper wire so as to form a small ring m, or I can fix on these tubes, small thin bands of copper or other metal. From these rings, previously tinned, I allow a short wire to project one or two millimeters, formed by twisting the two ends of the wires, around the tube, and I solder to these the points of the opposite comb-like plates. Fig. 8 shows the comb N between the two glass tubes, each inclosing the metallic electrode M M, and mmc, m,m, the four rings or bandsjoined to the combs. Fig. 9 shows an ozonizer, in which can be placed, as many rows of the electrodes shown in Fig. 8 as is desirable. The air or oxygen is introduced at the required rate by means of an injector, and passes either through a false bottom or along the walls of the ozonizer which is preferably long and narrow. Instead of its passage being impeded by glass plates or metallic plates either plain or perforated preventing its uniform diffusion between the electrodes and its consequent ozonization, it circulates freely, and the action of the efduvia which arises on the numerous points is rapid and very powerful.
It will be easy to understand the advantages derived from the application of this new arrangement in the construction of ozonizers of every shape and dimension for the production of ozone on a small as on a commercial scale.v
Having thus described -my invention, I claim- 1. An apparatus for the production ofy ozone consisting of a closed chamber having inlet and outlet passages in combination with a pair of electrodes located therein, one of the same provided with a series of points or projections, close to, but not touching, the dielectric, a sheet plate or layer of dielectric material-interposed between said electrodes and av source of alternating currents connected to said electrodes, substantially as described.
2. An apparatus for the production of ozone, consisting `of a closed chamber having inlet and outlet passages in combination with a plurality of pairs of electrodes provided with a series of points or projections, close to, but not touching, the dielectric sheets, plates or` IOC IIO
layers of dielectric material interposed betion with a dielectric located between `zuid In testimony whereof I subscribe my sigfacingthe points of the electrodes, but not nature in presence of two witnesses.
touching the same. EMILE ANDREOLI.
4.-. In an apparatus for the production of Witnesses: 5 ozone', point-bearing e1ectrodes,in combina- M. ANDREOLI,
tion with au enameled plate, located between 18 Someoleyton Rd., S. T/V., London. and facing, but not touching, the electrode S. F. CHAMBERLAIN,
points. U. S. Consulate-General, London.