|Publication number||US513423 A|
|Publication date||Jan 23, 1894|
|Filing date||Jan 10, 1893|
|Publication number||US 513423 A, US 513423A, US-A-513423, US513423 A, US513423A|
|Inventors||Octavius B. Schmall|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (9), Classifications (1)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
(No Model.) 3 Sheets-Sheet 1.
O. B. SGHMALL. BUILDING BLOCK.
No. 513,423. Patented Jan. 23, 1894.
Milllawea (No Model.) 3 Sheets-Sheet 3.
0. B. SOHMALL.
No. 513,423. Patented Jan. 23, 1894.
W. i, 62/ a ATEN'I ooTAvIUs B. soI nvIALu-oI CINCINNATI, OHIO.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 513,423, dated January 23, 189 4.
Application filed January 10, 1893. Serial No.457,954. (No model.)
' To aZZ whom it may cn0ern.-
Be it known that I, QCTAVIUS B. SOHMALL, residing at Cincinnati,in the county of Hamilton and State of Ohio, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Building- Blocks for Walls, Conduits, &c., of which the following is a specification.
My invention relates more particularly to a peculiar construction of hollow building blocks and means forjoining such blocks into walls of buildings, for underground conduits, and for use as pavements and other allied structures, and it has for its object to'provide a block of this character, which when used in buildings will improve the sanitation of the house and increase the lateral strength of the structure, and when used to construct conduits, to provide a multiple conduit, having insulated ducts for the electrical wires.
In the present state of the art there are no means for providing a stifi dry wall, except by lateral braces, and the natural bond of the flat surfaces laid in cement, vitreous material being sometimes used, the benefits of which however are annulled by the use of porous cements. In conduits of earthen material, they are made in sections with a large number of openings, either grouped, or forming a series of rows or tiers across the end of the block, and when such sections are joined together the internal spaces are all open or communicate with each other, or the joints are weak or inefficiently made, the same conditions being present when laid in rectangular blocks, which have flat surfaces with porous cement as a binding material. This furnishes no protection from water and little strength for resistance to large cables or elbows in them. I
My invention consists in the peculiar construction of the blocks and the means for con necting them into a mass, as hereinafter fully described in the specificatiorgand particularly pointed out in the claims, reference being'had to the accompanying drawings, in which-- Figure 1 is a perspective view of two of my improved blocks adjusted together. Fig. l is a perspective view of my improved block for conduit service formed with end slots and ducts having flared ends. Figs. 2 and 2 are perspective views of modified forms of block. Fig. 3 is a sectional plan View of the block with the connections. Fig. 3 is a perspective view of a modified form of block. Fig.4-is a view of another modification of the same. Fig. 5 is a diagram illustrating a portion of a conduit constructed by a number of my improved blocks. Fig. 6 is an end view of an electrical conduit constructed of a series of my improved blocks. Fig. 7 an end View of a modified form of block. Fig. 8 is an end View of a slightly modified form of my improved block. Fig. 9 is a sectional plan view of a portion of a conduit.
My improved block in its preferred form is substantially like that shown in Fig. 1, and consists of the body A proper formed with a number of parallelly arranged ducts of, which may be circular, octagonal, square, or such other shape desired, or found advantageous. The ends of the blocks are fiat as at a a, while their bearing faces are corrugated to form channelways co 0..
As an additional means for joining the blocks, they may be formed in the manner shown in Fig. l In this construction. the ends of the block, at a point between the openings a have vertical recesses B, which. are adapted to receive interlocking keys hereinafter referred to which keys serve to isolate the ducts from each other. For conduit service, it is also preferred that the ducts a have their ends flared outward as at a and at points Where it is desired to have openings in the service ducts for taking out loops along the line, between the manholes, Ts O are formed in the upper blocks, of which Ts, one or more may be used over each service duct, see Figs. 6 and 9, and such Ts may be round or oblong in their internal openings, for the advantage of using a double nipple plate for service on both sides of the conduit. The upper face of the Ts O are formed with a recess 0 to receive the nipple 0', when closed down, such nipple being held down and sealed by an asphalt or other suitable sealing material.
When my improved blocks are used for conduit structures, they are arranged and conably prepared foundation, the bed plates or bottoms are laid, their ends abutting, and when blocks having the end slots are used, keys K dipped in asphalt are dropped into the key ways formed by the end recesses in nected in the following manner: Upon a suitthe several blocks, which serve to interlock such blocks and also to isolate the duct as before stated. Tarred paper or other fabric Y is laid over the joints between the blocks and cement poured over the paper and upper channeled surface of the blocks, after which the next course is laid and joined in a similar manner, such course beinglaid to breakjoints, the same as in masonry. The service ducts should for convenience be situated at the top, but may be located on either-side. Every joint of the service ducts may be reinforced with a plate of the same material as the block if desired, or tarred paper may be used for the same purpose. By constructing the conduit in the manner stated and shown, it will be noticed that the ducts are perfectly isolated from each other, and induction from one duct to another is thereby prevented.
When my improved blocks are used in the construction of houses, the fabric over the joints, and the vertical slots in the ends are unnecessary, as the joints are pointed up, as the Wall progresses toward completion.
When the block is especially designed for walls, the external angles of the block may be curved from the oblique to the horizontal plane as shown at D Figs. 1 and 1*, the object being to hold the cement used in pointing up the joints.
The blocks in some instances have such horizontal portions extended as at E Fig. 2 to provide a flat support for the joists or girders; and in other instances such blocks have one face entirely flat as shown in Fig. 4., which blocks are used as top or bed plate blocks.
In pavements, it is desired to produce a rigid structure without the use of the cement. To this end when such blocks are used for paving purposes, they are set on their ends upon a suitable foundation.
The process of laying the blocks in asphalt is designed to produce a dry structure by simple and expeditious means. The blocks may, however, be laid in a calcareous or other cement, while in conduit construction the keys may be replaced by a simple cement joint or a suitable gasket may be interposed between the ends of the blocks. I however prefer the method of construction hereinbefore set forth and specifically claimed in claims 4 and 5.
Having thus described my invention, what I claim, and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is
1. As an improvement in interlocking building blocks, in combination,blocks having each a longitudinal series of ducts and parallel key slots across their ends between the ducts, keys fitted in such ways to interlock the adjoining ends of such blocks and form partitions between the ducts, all substantially as shown and for the purposes described.
2. In a conduit or other structure, in combination,v blocks having longitudinal ducts and corrugated or channeled bearing faces I adapted to interlock, key ways in the ends thereof arranged between such ducts, and insulated key members adapted to fit such ways to interlock the ends of the blocks and insulate the ducts from each other, substantially as shown and described.
3. In an interlocking building block, the combination of interlocking surfaces substantially as shown with perforations-in the enlarged portions of the block and T connections therewith substantially as described.
4. The combination in a wall, conduit or other analogous structure, of a series of interlocking blocks substantially as shown united by interlocking partition keys, strips of fabric over the joints, andacementing material over the fabric supporting and binding the blocks together, substantially as shown and for the purposes described.
5. In a conduit structure, in combination blocks having longitudinal ducts laid end to end in layers, said layers arranged to break joints, a fabric or analogous substance laid over the meeting ends of such blocks and a cement filling over such fabric and between each layer of blocks, all arranged substantially as shown and described.
OCTAVIUS B. SOHMALL.
OHAs. B. WILLIAMS, SCOTT BONHAM.
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