|Publication number||US51398 A|
|Publication date||Dec 5, 1865|
|Publication number||US 51398 A, US 51398A, US-A-51398, US51398 A, US51398A|
|Inventors||Manufacture Of Iron|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (3), Classifications (1)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
-5 Sheets-Sheet l.
H. BESSEMER. MANUFACTURE QF IRON AND STEEL.
Patented Dec; 5, 1865.
5 Sheets-Sheet 2.
H. BESSEMER. MANUFACTURE? OF IRON AND STEEL.
No; 51,398. Patented Dec. 5, 1865.
. EQQ N 5 Sheets-Sheet 3.
H. BESSEMER. MANUFACTURE OF 1301 AND STEEL.
No. 51,398. Patented Dec. 5, 1865.
, Y 5 She-e*ts8heet 4.
H. BESSEMER. MANUFAGTURE OF IRON AND STEEL.
No, 51,398. Patented Dec 5, 1 865.
5 Sheets Sheet 5,
H.BE SSE1VIER. MANUFAGTURE OF IRON AND STEEL.
110.51398. Patented Dec, 5,1865.
v w? a :l
[ing to bea full and exact description of the.
UNITED STATES PATENT ()FFICE. I
HENRY BEssEME-n, OF LONDON, ENGLAND.-
IMPROV EMENT IN THE MANUFACTURE OF lRON AND STEEL.
Specification tbrining part. of Letters Patent-No. 51.398, dated December 5, 1865.
To all-whom it nm-jconccrn:
Be it JillOWll that; I, HENRY BEssEMEmof Queen Street Place, New Cannon Street, in the provements in the Machinery and Apparatus Employed in theManufactnrc of M alleable Iron aud-stcel j-and I do hereby declare the follow same, reference being bad to the accompanying drawings. i
Myimprovemcnts refer to the process of makin g malleable-iron and steel byiorcing currents of air through molten crude metal, as patented by meNovember 11 1856;, and consistin gencrating steam bythe waste heat ot'the mel ti n gfurnaces,"in the means' and methods'ot admitting air to theconverting-vessels, in the situation and moving of theconverting-vessels, in
the use and construction of apparatus for controlling the movement and operation of corn struction of converting-vessels and ladies, in
the construction of ladles, and in certain arran gem euts and combinations of apparatus;
To enable this specification to be better n'nderstoodl have included therein and in the accompanying drawings various matters which pertain to inventions heretofore made by ine, upon which thcseimprovements are additions. To enable others skilled in the art to more fully understand and construct and use m y 'i nvention, I will proceed to describe the apparatuseand its operation.
When it is desired vto operate upon crude metal that has. been formed into-pigs of iron in the usual manner or which has previously been refined, I employ for the remel ti n g of such metal areverberatory furnace similar'to those employed in melting iron for founding, but sometimes differing from them in having a secondbed orhearth placed beyond the ordinary hearth or bank of the furnaceand below the pressure to which it is'subjected. I tractcd. part c of theflue-tube is'lined with fire contracted in size and lined with fire-bricks, so that the highly-heated vapors of the furnace are prevented from impingiu'giorcibly on the 1 metal surface of the boiler, whereby its durability is increased, while the utilization of t'he heat'cscaping from the melting-furnace will lessen the cost of manufacture by furnishing steam for driving" the blast-engine or other nurchinery employed.
And. in order that this arrangement of a steam-boiler in connection with the melting- -i'urnace may be fully understooml have shown a vertical section of thcsame on Sheet A, Figure 1', of the drawings hereunto" annexed, wh'ere--.
.a represents the end print of thejreverberatol'y furnace, on which is placed the vertical cylindrical boiler b,itslowerend beingm'ade flat and stayed by vertical radial plates (not seen in the drawings) for the purpose of enabling the lower part'to sustain the-great internal The conbricks, (I, as shown, so as toconduct thehighly-heated products of combustion into the'enlarged part of the flue-tn be bfwithoutallowing the flame to impinge forcibly upon t-he metallic surface of the boiler.
fire-bricks a, so that no part'of the metal of the boilerflue which is surrounded by steam shall he in contact with the flame or heated vapors of the furnace. a
The boiler should be provided with the usual steam-pipes, water-supply pipe, and safety-- valve, (not shown in the drawings,) and the outer and inner shell may be counectedat intervals with'stay-bolts in a manner similar to that employed in the construction of the tireboxes of locomotivc eugines. I
Access to the interior of the boiler may be had through a man-hole in the usual manner,
The upper part of the flue-tube 11* is also contracted: and lined with The space between the flue-tube and the outer shell of the boiler I prefcrto be such as will admit a workman, to clean the whole interior of the boiler when required.
The converting-vessels, in which the incited iron is convertediuto malleable iron or steel, are provided with axes on which they are moved by h ydraulicapparatus,as-shown in the drawings, or by any other convenientmeans,
when required. Through one ot'thescnxes the air is conducted from a lined pipe". 1 v It IS of'great importance, to the successful working of the apparatus that the admission of the air tothe vessel and its exclusion therefrom should never fail to take place whenever the vessel assumes certain positions both in its upward or downward movements. Otherwise the tuyeres may become stopped up with fluid metal or the metal. may be blown out at the mouth of the vessel. To render the operation certain I employ a valve in the airpipe near the axis of the vessel, and I fix onto the axis a cam which acts on a lever so placed as to open or shut off the air by the vessels own motion, instead of moving the valve by the hand of the workman, as hitherto practiced.
In order that the construction and mode of working this valve may be fully understood, have shown the same in elevation in its proper place on Sheets B and O of the drawings hereunto annexed, and in vertical section in the detached Fig.2 on Sheet E. In each figure, Arepresents the stand-pipe which conducts the air upward from the main pipes Z. Below the door B is the valve-box, which consists of a cylindrical chamber with an inner. cylinder, 0, forming a continuation of the vertical pipe A. The
cylinder (3 is bored truly, and'has titted to it a piston-valre,E, having an elastic m etalli'c packing. Slots are formed in the cylinder U, which allow the air to pass from the pipe A into the annular space D formed between the two cylinders, and i'rom'th'ence into the axis F of the converting-vessel. The piston B, when lowered dow'n, covers the slots and shuts off the communicatiohfwith the main blast-pipe. It will be observed that the piston-valve has openings,throngh which the air may pass to its upper side, in order that the pressure of the air may be equalized on both sides of it.and thereby allow the weight G to retain it in place when lowered down. A cam, H, is keyed onto the axis of the vessel, and above it there is a lever, I, jointed at one end, and at the other it passes through a slot inthe rod of pistonvalve E. A projecting piece from this lever rests on the cam so thatthe cam mny,by means of the inclines formed on its periphery, cause the lover I to rise and fall, and with-it the piston-valve, and thus, by the motion of the convertingvessel, the air may be let on or shut off at any point required, and which will depend on the configuration of the earn, as is well understood The tuyere box or chamber formingthe lower part of the converting-vessel has hitherto been madeso as to gain access to each of the tuyeres through one opening, leach tuyere communicating with one air-chamber common to all. It has therefore sometimes h appened that the flailure of one tuyere has allowed the fluid metal to descend into the tuyere-hox, and thus for the time prevent all further use with either of the other tnyeres, and thus rendering the completion of the process'impossible, as well as rendering each tuyere unfit for further use.
Now, my present improvement in this part of the apparatus consists in forming several small tuyere-boxes, each containing a single tuyere, with any suitable number of'openings in it. A single tuyerc-box so formed is shown iii section at Figs. 8 and 9, Sheet E. It is of a cylindrical form, and has a beveled opening, J ,at one end, into which the conical end of the tuyere K is fitted. The box is closed by alid, L, and thetnyere-box is provided with an outer flange, M, by which it is bolted to the lower side of the converting-vessel. An y convenient number of such separate tuycre-boxes' may be grouped together and be connected to the blastpipe by separate branch-pipes communicating with ah opening made in the side of the box, as shown at N.
My improvements also consist in forming one tnyere-box with several separate compartments, so that a failure of one of the. tuyeres may not prevent'the continuation of the pro-. cess with the other tuyeres, the faulty tuyere being stopped by a plate of iron. coated with loam, or it may be removed and the full elliciency of the apparatus insured by the insertion of afresh tuyere in its place. The tuyercs being made conical andoccupying separate compartments will give great facility fortheir removal and replacement with new ones,cither before the completion of a charge ofmietal under operation or after it has been converted and run out ofthe vessel and previous to a repetition of the process. This mode of combiniug several separate compartments each containing a tuyere admits of the several tuyeres being placed nearer to each other than can conveniently be done when separate tuyere-bores are used.
The mode of construction which I prefer is represented on Sheets A and E of the drawings hereunto annexed, where Fig. 10 isa vertical section through the lower part of the vessel and tnyere-box; Fig. 11, a plan of the under side, and Fig. 12 a section taken through the box on the line G H of Fig. 10.
The tuyere-box Q, as here represented, consists of an iron casting having seven circular chambers, W, formed therein, into each of which the tuyeres-R are fitted and made airtight by a luting of clay smeared upon the lower conical part of the tuyere at the time of fitting it into the box, the conical opening into which it fits having rings or grooves formed around it the better to hold the luting in place. A bar of iron, S, with a screw passingthrcugh .its center, is fitted across the circular chamhere, for the purpose of forcing the tuyere tightly into its seat and retaining it there.
1 T are covering-plates, for the purpose of closing the several compartments of the tuyerebox by means of slotted studs having cotters passing throughthem, as shown. The joints of the coveringrplates are rendered tiglu by a gasket of hemp covered with very soft clay or lime and water in a semi-fluid state. The air is forced into the tuyere-box by the pipe U,
and, psssiu g into the closed space between the circular chambers, enters them through lateral openings X, and from'thence through the oridoes of the tuyeres into the fluid metal. The
tuyere-box is attached to the converting-ree sel by. bolts, which pass through the flange Q) of the tuycre-box.
4 V It is sometimes found desirable to form in-i gots or castings of a greater weight than can be produced in a converting-vessel of a conv venientsize. To elfect this object wilhont'the necessity of erecting larger vessels I. place two or more converting-vessels in such a posi? tion with reference to each other and to'the crane which supports the casting-ladlc that two separate chargesof metal may simultaneingot or casting, in one piece equal in weight to the produce of the two vessels. the position of the saidvessels with reference to each other being also such as to render it convenient, to
'repair either. of them while the other one-is in active operation. For this purpose I place the vessels several feet apart and opposite" each v other, each one having a separate chimney to take off the flame and products of combustion, the chimneys being in a line with the two vessels which are placed between them and at a small distance from the-wall'of the meltinghouse, the axes of the vessels being parallel to each other and at right angles to the plane of the said wall. The chimneys are built-on open arches, from under which the workman may-have ready access to. the tuyere=boxcs when the vessels are turned intoahorizonial position. The space above the arches may be lined with iron plat-cs and thus form receptacles for the splashes or slags thrown out during the converting process,
Therelative position of the convcrling-ves sels and the construction of the chimncyswill be seen by reference to Sheets B and (J of the annexed drawings.
At Fig. l on Sheet B I havcsho'wn the chimney 8 and vessel 9 in vertical section, and outhe opposite side of the drawings I have ,shown th'e chimney 10 and the converting-ves- V sel 11 in elevation. The general arrangement of theseveral parts may also be soon in'pla'n on Sheet 6, Fig. 1. A portion of the floor of the converting-house is sunk below the gencral level. Thesunk part, which forms the casting-pit, is represented at 12, and the upper or ge'neral'fioor-level at 13. A further portion, 14, is also sunk to an intermediate depth, free access to which is given by the steps .15 and 16. Thiscurved space 14 extends partlyar'ound the casting-pit, and is for the purpose of allow mg the workmen free access to the niolds'at the time 'of casting the ingots, the molds'being arranged in a semicircle in the casting-pit and near-to the curved wall which bounds the castlug-pit on thesidc where the sunk space 14 is formed. The chimn'eysare built'onopen'arches .17, the piers of which are shown in plan at 'Zon/Shcct-C. 1 Above the arch an-iron plate, 18, forms a. sort ot'sheli', on which the splashes of slag thrown from the vessel are received,
there being an arched opening into the chiman n ,ney at 19 with. a projecting hood, 20, the better to collect the flame and healed gases-from the ;vcssel..and cause them to ascend't'he chimncy, which contractsjn' wid' t-h by a-,-series of repairs of one vesselor setting' or renewal of tnyeres'-mny be going. on in one-vessel while the othervessel is in operation, org-both vessels may be worked at one time andtheir re.- .spective charges of metal be poured into one ladle, and thence transferred" to. a. single mold when large masses are required. In my Pat-- entjNo. 49,055 I have described. certain advantages due. to this arrangement of indie and ladle-crane. The ladle being held in a fixed position relatively to the crane-arm will not have a swinging or spinning-motion, but is at the same time capable of tipping. It will be obvious that these advantages may be realized in an equal or greater degree when a ladle and crane thus arranged are-comhinedwith twoor more'convcrtingwessels.
The vessel 9 is shown in the position necessary to ati'ord free access. toJthe tnycre-box, the workman standing for that purpose beneath the open arches 17 of the chimney. Metal is sn ppliedto'thesc vessels through open ings 23, agntter'beingtemporarily placed inconvey the fluid iron from the melting furnaces,
which I prefer to place 'onthe opposite side of the wall of the converting-house, and at such a height above the" geueral" floor-level as will admit of the metal flowing from the furnaces direct. intov the mouth of the vessel. The doorway and steps-,shown' at 24 serve to comm'unicate between the convertingdionsc and the fur; pace-room adjoining. i It will be seen that the converting-vessels are mounted on -axes resting at one end on a. standard supported by the bcd-platesjlof h 'draul'ic apparatus, and at the opposite ends are supportedon standards 25, bolted tirmly down to'th'e foundations. The citsfihgfil'fllle occupies a position midwayb'etween the-two con-. vertingessels,the center of it being larlher from the melting-house wall than the con vertin gvessels. When .thecon verting-vessel requires to be rcclinetl ;.the upper part of thevest sel should be removed, and-after the old lining of stony matter'is broken out ofthe iron shell the new material is to;-be rannncdinaml the two pa'rtsagain carefully. put together, and soas to avoid the displacement of nnyportion of .herence until it has been tired. -To,cfl'ect this separation of the vessel and its after union the vessel should be inverted or turned month downward. Below its center and. beneath the. iloor oi the casting-pit l iix. a.small vertical hydraulic cylinder and ram. the upper part oi' the ram being provided with a forked piece so made as to embrace the movable part of the vesseland retain i't'in its properposition. 3y this means one part of the vessel may be low cred down vertically beneath theother por-' 'tion, which is still retained ijrposition by restingo'u its axes. After the vessel is relined it may be steadily raised into its former position, and be there united by bolts to the other part.
'QL'LEhQQli B the upper-part of this small bydraulic ram is shown in vertical section.
, 26 is the cylinder,whi-ch fits accnrately'to the raw or plunger 27 for a snfllcientdistance to cause the mm to rise and full steadily. A hydraulic le'uther keeps-a watertight joint in the'usuai manner, and the pipe 2Sis connected to a reservoir of water under pressure or to I force-pumps,- so that by means of a cock the ram may be raised andlowered when required. A forked piece for the upper part of the vessel to rest on, and shown by dots, is made to fit into. a socket'(shown at. 29) in the-head of the ram, the forked piece being removed when not required for lowering the top of the vessel.
in thcconversiotuol' crude iron into steel or malleable iron by forcing air therein it has been found that some kinds or qualities of iron fare converted much more rapidly than others. This is especially t-becase with some of the' purer kinds of charcoal pig-iron. It. hasalso been-found thntsome irons thus rapidly convetted-acquire a higher temperature it blown into by horizontal tuyercs, because by this means there can, if desired, be employed a larger orifice and less pressure of air than has been generally employed when blowing vertically upward. into the metal. This arrangement also enablesthe air to'be blown in atyarious points,'which is advantageous. Now, in order to obtain the high temperature: producible under such circumstances and to retain the advantages derivable from the axial mo- 'tion ot' the vessel, I prefer to construct a. vessel mounted on trunnions and provided with a line of tnyeres either extending horizontally around, or nearly around, the lower part of the vessel, the part where the tuyeresare sitnated being .ol'a somewhat less diameter than the-cylindrical body of the vessel. I also make the vessel of less height in proportion to its diameter than the movable vessel's hitherto contructed, while the back part: of it is curved outward, so as to contain the metal when it is turned up and prevent too great a pressure over the orifices of those tnycres which are sit uated at or near the back part of the vessel. The form-and construction of this modification ofthe convertingwessel is represented on Sheet A of thcdrawings hereunto annexed, where Fig. 2 is an elevation; Fig. 3a vertical sectionon the line A B of Fig. 4, and Fig. 4 a horizontal cross-section on the line 0 D of Fig.
5-. The position into which the vessel is turned when receiving its charge of melted iron is also shown at Fig. 5 on the same sheet. Thisiorm oteonverting-vessel is, by preference. con-- structed oi plate-iron having a trunnion-band, f, passing around its largest circumference and secured by rivets or bolts to the vessel. It has also one solid trunnion and one hollow trunnion for the passage oi" the blast, as in other converting-vessels now in use.
The upper portion of the vessel (1 is bolted to the trunnion-bum], and may be removed when the vessel requires relinin but; the
a) lower part, 9*, oi the vessel 18 riveted or otherwise firmly secured to the trunnion-band,'and has a channel, It, extending'aronnd it. This channel is provided with a. number of openings both on its internal und external circumference. It is through these openings that the .tnyeres i are inserted. The outer openings are secured by plates k, screwed on over them, the lining of the vessel and the setting of the tnyeres being eflectcd in a similar manner tn thosenow in use. Apipe, 'm, from the hollow trunnion will allow the air to pass down on the outside of the vessel and enter. the hollow annular channel It and supply the tuyeres, which may have one or any other number of holes in them, as atfpresent. practiced. l'have before shown how two charges ot'metal simultaneously converted may be -poured into one castingladle.
It will be obvious that the converting-vessel may-,it' desired, he fixed instead ofbeing movable, as I have described it, and still be pro vidod with the line of tuyeres mentioned. The extra weight of metal to be dealt with in such cases renders some modification of the casting crane and ladle desirable; and, in order thatrthe general construction and modeof operating with this improved form of crane may be fully understood, I have shown the same in elevation on Sheet B and in plan-on Sheet 0 of the drawings hereunto annexed. Most of this apparatus works in the manner set forth in my Letters Patent No. but for convenience 1 will here repeat a part of the description of it lberein contained.
The great weight of the double charge of metal is also thrown on one arm of the hydraulic crane. I prefer to neutralize by placin g on the other arm of the crane a counterbalance-weight, inovableon four flanged whwls, which run on the side cheeks ot the crane'arm, the wheels receiving motion by means of a handle and worm-wheel, the latter being fixed on the axle 40 of one of the pairs of wheels 41 and 42, whereby the weight 43 maybe moved so as to balance the varying quantity of metal contained int-heladle. The head of the crane, which carries the ladle 44 and counter-weight 43, is suspended on a. ball-joint formed on the top of the ram 46, to which ram a spur-wheel, 4.7,is keyed. Apinion,4 ,gearinginthis wheel also carries on its axis n beveled wheel, 50, through which motion is communicated from a. horizontal shaft, 51, which passes through bearings in the side cheeks, 52, of the crane sums arm, and is provided with handles on each end, by turning which a slow and steady motion of the head of the crane takes place. Thecasting-ladle 44 is supported on trunnions formed thereon, and restsiu bearin gs formed near the ends of the crane-arm, the axis of the ladle beingat right angles to the cheeks 52 of the crane. The motion of the ladle on its trun'nions is ctfected by a worm and wheel, 54, to which motion is communicated by a shaft and handles. This shaft 55 works in bearings formed in the crane-arm, and a pair of beveled wheels, 56, serve to communicate its motion to the worm which moves the ladle. The valve or stopper used for running out the fluid metal is placed on the side of the ladle farthest from the center of the crane, as seen at 57. .The desired motion upward and downward of the crane is effected by the. admission or discharge of water under pressure to the cylinder 58, by which means the rain or plunger which supports the head of the crane is put in. motion and the height of the ladle adjusted to suit the height of the molds. The motion of the ladle on its axis afl'ords lacilit-y for the discharge therefrom of fuel put there to dry it, also the slags or other matters left after it has been used. It
also allows the ladle to be inverted over a fire whenthat mode of heating is preferred. The
cylinder in which the ram of the crane works,
I prefer to make in two parts, the lower one being cast with aclosed bottom and the upper one open at both ends, and having ribs projecting inward which tit close to the ram, the spaces between these ribs giving ingress and egress to the water by which the ram is put in motion, and thus enabling-the water-pipe to be connected to its upper end.
In some cases'I form on the exterior of the casting-ladle, and'near to or below the bottom of it, a small chamber, bowl, or receptacle lined with loam,-and also provided with a valve or stopper with a suitable handle forworkin g the same. This valve is fitted to anorifice or nozzle-formed in the lowest part of the-receptacle,
.and is for thepurppse of regula'ting'the supply I of metal to the molds-,tl e molten metal in the ladle being supplied to this receptacle by a- ,valve or stopper similar to those now in use,
. so that thereceptacle may be kept full up to a certainjlev el during'the casting operation, the use of this-receptacle being to lessen the press! ure'of the fluid over the escape-orifice into the 'mold, and by that means cause the col-umn'ot' fluid to enter the mold with a velocity lessened in proportion, as the head of the. metal inthe receptacle is less in perpendicular height than the head of metal in the castingrlad'le. 'A vertical section'ot' this form 'of-casting-ladle is shown at l ig. 6 and inplan' at Fig.7, Sheet A, of the. drawings annexed.
The whole oi the vessel may Deconstructed of plate-iron, and be lined with loam or other suitable slow conductor of heat, the orifices through which the metal flows being by preferenceformed in small pieces of well-burned ml in tire-clay, retained in theiriflaees by'the loam or other lining.
The valve/rod Y may be made of iron, and
defended witlra' coating of loam, as practiced with the valve rods gencrallyemployed in such trol and that the workman who directs the process may readily eflect all such movements of the apparatus without loss of time, it is preferable that the several valves by which these movement are efi'ected,as well as the airval ves,'should be arrangednear to each other and in such a-position that the workman may observe from that place the-operations that are going on and in order that the arrangement of these valves may be fully understood- I have shown the same in elevation at Fig. 4, in plan at Fig. 5, and in end elevation atFig. 6 on Sheet D of the drawings annexed, where Fig. 7 is also a plan of the index plate of the valves and Figs. 8, 9, and 10 details on a larger scale. vIt is desirable to place these valves near'toeach other, andfor this purpose I form a long, rectangular trunk or box,- A,
into the central compartment of which, the air from the blast-engine is conducted by a pipe, B. Onthe upper side of the box I fix a pair of double-beat balance-valves, I G, with, suitable lever-handles D passing through slots E in the table F, before which the workman places him selt'. These valves admit air insuch quantities as are found desirable to each of thevessels. A
pressure-gage maybe fitted on the table, showing the pressure of the air and indicating to the workman the .efi'ect he is PIOLlllOlllg .by each movement of the air-valves on each side of the trunk or box A. The passages G and l [are formed, one to receive-water under pressurcfrom the force-pumps by the pipe G" and the'seog'md one to receive the waste -or back water and return it by the pipe H to the cistern thatsupplicsthe pumps. Mounted over.
these passages and communicating with them are a pair of t'our-waycocks, I and J, which are'turned by spur-gearing K. 1 Two vertical shafts, L, rising above the table F, are provided with small fly-wheels M M and handles, so as to allow the workman to operate readily on the cooks whenever any movement of the-vessel on its axisis to bemade. A three-way coclr ,1 l, is similarly mounted with spur-gearing O and handles, P, for the purpose of controlling the motions of the hydraulic crane and enabling the workman to raise the large ladle-with facility above the level of the'molds, into which the fluid malleable iron, or steel is who passed.
In operating with these valves the workman stands on the plate Q, which is raised a few feet abovethegeneral floor-level of the build ing, the table F being at a convenient height,
s I means so es to enable him to have full control over I the several handles before him.
The lever-handles 1) are made with an an- 'gular projection at their lower ends, which onter slots termed in the spindles of the balancevalves 0. This leverahandle is shown more clearly at Fig. 8. The vertical section, Fig. 10,-and cross-section, Fig. 9, show the internal form of the v'alye-box O and the-manner in which the valves R balance each other, and thus admit of their easy movements by the lever-handle. Two small cocks, S S, are also mounted on the trunk A, and are made to communicate with the pressure and escape pas.-
. sages G and H. These cocks have a square formed on their keys, in order to move them when required. They are made to-communicate with the small hydraulic cylinders employed'to raise and lower the upper part of the converting-vessel when a new lining is required. p
The blast-pipe T and water-pipes V communicating with the several cocks are carried onderground to the difi'erent apparatus for which they are required, and thus allow one workman to have the movements of the vessels and crane as well as the supply of air-under his control. 7 4
Having described the-manner in which the several parts of my invention may be carried into practical operation, I desire it to be under- .stood that I do not confine myself to the precise. details hereiubefore described; but
What I claim, and desire to secure by Lettors Patent, is-- 1. In the manufacture of malleable iron and, steel when forcing currents of atmospheric air through the fluid metal, the combined arrangement,'substantially as herein described, whereby the steam employed for forcing such air is generated by means of the heat escaping from the reverberatory furnaces that'are employed in melting the iron to be so converted.-
2. The opening and closing of the passage conducting air into a converting-vessel by means of the rotary motion of such vessel acting through suitable mechanism on a valve situated in said air-passages.
3. In combination withaconverting-vessel,
several separate tuyereboxes constructcdand operating substantially as described.
'from shall be projected in opposite directions,
and as to be also capable of being placed, when desired, in such positions as to discharge their contents into the same ladle.
' 7. Combining with two or more convertingves'sels aladle so arranged and operated, either by means of a crane orin any other convenient manner, that the contents of said vessel may be discharged into it and at the same time so that the ladle shall be capable of swinging or turning on its point or points of suspension while being moved, substantially as described. 8. Combiningaconvertiug-vessel with achim ncy constructed with an open" space beneath it, substantially as described, for the .purpose of giving access to such converting ves'scl.
9. A converting-vessel provided 1th aline of tnyeres placed through the sides ofjt he ves sel, substantially as and for the purp'oscs sct forth.
10. The employment of ladlcs "formed, with a second chamber or receptacle attached there;
to for regulating the supply of: inctal molds, substantially as'des'cribd:
11. Gombiningthe valvcsand cocksby'wliiclr the apparatusis set in operation,v so that the Y" workman may conveniently move thcni fron'i a given place, aubstantiallyin the manner de- HENRY enssnnna.
Witnesses A. L. HOLL'EY,
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