Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.

Patents

  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS5145749 A
Publication typeGrant
Application numberUS 07/362,507
Publication dateSep 8, 1992
Filing dateJun 7, 1989
Priority dateJun 8, 1988
Fee statusLapsed
Publication number07362507, 362507, US 5145749 A, US 5145749A, US-A-5145749, US5145749 A, US5145749A
InventorsMichael K. Matthew
Original AssigneeJames River Graphics Limited
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Coating composition and coated paper
US 5145749 A
Abstract
Erasable coatings for xerography paper comprise a pigment such as calcium carbonate in a binder such as an aqueous emulsion of an acrylic polymer. The erasability of the coating is improved by replacing at least 15 wt % of the binder with a polyalkane or (preferably) polyalkene wax, such as an aqueous emulsion of a polyolefin.
Images(4)
Previous page
Next page
Claims(12)
What I claim is:
1. Electrophotographic paper comprising a coating composition adhered to a substrate, said coating composition being erasable by local breakage of adhesion of said coating composition to said substrate, said coating composition comprising a synthetic polymeric elastomeric binder and a wax, said synthetic polymeric elastomeric binder being selected from the group consisting of an aqueous emulsion of an acrylic polymer and polymethylmethacrylate and wherein said wax is selected from the group consisting of polyalkane and polyalkene waxes and is present in an amount of at least 15 wt % of the elastomeric binder, said coating composition being adapted to receive an image at the top free surface thereof and resist penetration through the coating, of substances which define said images.
2. The paper as claimed in claim 1, wherein the wax is a polyolefin wax.
3. The paper as claimed in claim 1, wherein the wax is an aqueous polyolefin emulsion.
4. The paper as claimed in claim 1, wherein the wax is a polyolefin emulsion which is present in the composition in an amount of at least 10 wt % of the composition.
5. The paper as claimed in claim 4, wherein the amount of polyolefin emulsion is about 15 wt % of the composition.
6. The paper as claimed in claim 4, wherein the particulate constituent is present in an amount of from about 46 to about 50 wt % of the composition.
7. The paper as claimed in claim 1, wherein the coating composition contains a particulate constituent selected from the group consisting of calcium carbonate powder and particulate silica, with a particle size in a range from about 4.5 μm to about 5 μm.
8. The paper as claimed in claim 7, wherein the particulate constituent is present in an amount of 10-50 wt %.
9. The paper as claimed in claim 1, wherein the binder is present in an amount of 25-90 wt %.
10. Electrophotographic paper, which comprises:
a paper support, and
a coating adhered to said paper support, said coating being erasable by local breakage of adhesion of said coating to said paper support, said coating comprising about 25-90 wt % of a synthetic polymeric elastomeric binder and a wax, said synthetic polymeric elastomeric binder being selected from the group consisting of an aqueous emulsion of an acrylic polymer and polymethylmethacrylate, and wherein said wax is selected from the group consisting of polyalkane and polyalkene waxes which is present to an extent of at least 15 wt % of the elastomeric binder, said coating composition being adapted to receive an image at the top free surface thereof and resist penetration through the coating, of substances which define said images.
11. The paper as claimed in claim 10, further comprising about 10-50 wt % of a particulate constituent.
12. In xerography paper comprising a support and a coating containing a synthetic polymeric elastomeric binder thereon, said coating being adapted to receive an image at the top free surface thereof and resist penetration through the coating of substances which define said image, the improvement comprising incorporating into said coating a polyalkane or polyalkene wax in an amount at least 15 wt % of said elastomeric binder material, said coating incorporating said wax being adhered to said support, said coating being erasable by local breakage of adhesion of said coating to said support.
Description
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

1. Field of the Invention

This invention relates to coating compositions and, more particularly but not exclusively, concerns erasable coatings for xerography paper.

2. Description of the Prior Art

Erasure of a part of a xerography image from a paper carrier can be achieved by arranging for the adherence of the image to the carrier to be sufficiently weak that the part of it can be erased from the carrier. Alternatively, such erasure can be achieved if the carrier bears a coating to which the image adheres, and the coating can itself be selectively erased from the carrier substrate below. The present invention provides erasure of this latter type.

Essential requirements of an ideal such erasable coating include:

(i) Ease of erasure i.e. a firm adherence of the coating to the substrate, but which is readily broken by erasing action;

(ii) Firm adherence of the original image to the coating;

(iii) Drafting Receptivity i.e. ready permanent acceptance of ink and pencil impressions on and around the image area which has suffered erasure; and

(iv) Image Breakthrough Resistance i.e. the coating must be unbroken and prevent any of the original image reaching the substrate, for any such penetrating image would not be erased by removal of the overlying coating.

It has already been proposed to provide xerography papers carrying an erasable coating. One example is the 100% rag-based vellum sold by Solvent Coating Corporation under the trade mark PERMALITE. The previously proposed coatings are based on a rubbery polymeric binder material in a solvent or aqueous carrier and may contain dyes or pigments and additives to modify the look and feel of the product paper.

The rubbery polymeric compositions are relatively expensive. It is one object of the present invention to achieve satisfactory standards in the essential requirements listed above, more cheaply than the previously proposed compositions.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

This object is achieved by incorporating, in a coating composition of the type identified above, a proportion of waxy material such as a polyolefin dispersion, preferably polyethylene emulsion because it is readily available and is distinctly cheaper than the rubbery polymeric compounds used in the coatings. We have found that by increasing the amount of polyethylene in the composition we achieve a direct and proportional increase in the ease of erasure of the coating, which thereby offers a simple way of controlling the ease of erasure, as required in any particular use of the paper. By incorporating some of the polyethylene emulsion in the coating composition it becomes possible to use rubbery polymeric compounds which would otherwise bind to the substrate too strongly to be suitable for an erasable coating.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

The description which follows, of Experiments carried out to demonstrate and illustrate the invention, help to clarify the scope of the invention.

EXPERIMENT 1

An erasable coating formulation 1 was made up according to the following composition:

______________________________________Component    Proportion              Nature of     Trade Name ofCode     by weight Component     Component______________________________________A        50%       a binder, which                            PRIMAL AC33              is an aqueous              emulsion of              acrylic polymerB        50%       a pigment, which                            DURCAL 5              is calcium car-              bonate (calcite)              powder______________________________________

PRIMAL AC33 is available from Rohm & Haas (UK) Ltd of Croydon, England and DURCAL 5 from Croxton & Garry Ltd of Dorking, England.

To samples of this formulation 1 were added, respectively, 4%, 6% and 8% of an aqueous dispersion of polyethylene (trade name MYSTOLUBE-S) to produce formulations 2, 3 and 4 respectively. The dispersion is sold by Catomance Ltd of Welwyn Garden City, England, mainly for use in the textile industry.

The four formulations were each applied to one surface of a translucent drawing office paper, at a rate calculated to yield a dry coatweight of the coating of 7 gm-2.

An image, which included areas of solid black, was then copied onto the coated surfaces using a XEROX 2080 plain paper copier.

The erasability of the coating was tested by using a soft rubber eraser to remove a portion of the solid black image. The amount of work needed to remove the image was recorded in Table 1 as follows:

              TABLE 1______________________________________       Amount of  No of Units of WorkFormulation Polyethylene                  to Remove Coating______________________________________1           0          852           4          703           6          604           8          55______________________________________

The results show a direct and proportional increase in erasability as the amount of wax in the coating composition is increased.

EXPERIMENT 2

A wide range of binder/wax combinations were tested, to see which combinations yielded good results, and which not. Erasability was assessed as explained above but in a scale of 1 to 4, with work of 30 units or less being categorised 1--excellent, 31 to 55 categorised 2--good, 56 to 70 as 3 --fair and 71 and above as 4--poor.

The results are given below in Table 2. Individual constituent materials are identified by abbreviations and these are explained in the Key below:

KEY TO TABLE 2

P=PRIMAL AC 33 (see Experiment) also known as RHOPLEX AC-33, which is a copolymer of ethyl acrylate and methyl methacrylate

V34=VINAMUL 3401--a polymethylmethacrylate binder, from Vinamul Ltd., of Carshalton, Surrey, England.

V32=VINAMUL 32623--another polymethylmethacrylate from Vinamul Ltd.

D=DURCAL 5 (see Experiment 1)

G=GASIL 35--a particulate silica matting agent from Crosfield Chemicals of Warrington, England having a particle size of about 4.5 μm.

PG=PARACOL PG--a wax emulsion with cationic emulsifier, from Hercules Ltd., of Reigate, Surrey, England.

M-S=MYSTOLUBE-S (see Experiment 1)

BU=BRADSYN UC40--oxidised polyethylene with cationic emulsifier, from Hickson & Welch Ltd., of Castleford, West Yorkshire, England.

E=EMREL-2--oxidised polyethylene with non-ionic emulsifier, from Hickson & Welch Ltd.

BP=BRADSYN PC12--polyethylene with tallow amide, from Hickson & Welch Ltd.

P-E=POLY-EM40--an oxidised polyethylene emulsion, from Rohm & Haas Co., Croydon, Surrey, England.

M-F=MYSTOLUBE FH--a polyethylene wax of amphoteric nature, from Catomance Ltd.

M-K=MYSTOLUBE KSE--an emulsion of synthetic ester waxes, from Catomance Ltd.

M-C=MYSTOLUBE CW--a cationic paraffin wax emulsion, from Catomance Ltd.

L54=LAKELAND N540/20--an ethylene/acrylate copolymer from Lakeland Laboratories, Manchester, England.

L37=LAKELAND N371/30--another such ethylene/acrylate copolymer.

L39=LAKELAND N393/20--an oxidised polyethylene emulsion from Lakeland Laboratories.

L26=LAKELAND N261/35--an ethylene/acrylic acid copolymer from Lakeland Laboratories.

                                  TABLE 2__________________________________________________________________________SPECIMEN  BINDER    PIGMENT   WAXNO     Identity       Amount            Identity                 Amount                      Identity                           Amount                                ERASABILITY__________________________________________________________________________1      P    90   --   --   PG   10   32      P    80   G    10   PG   10   33      P    40   D    50   M-S  10   24      P    35   D    50   M-S  15   15      P    30   D    50   M-S  20   16      P    25   D    50   M-S  25   17      P    40   D    50   BU   10   38      P    40   D    50   E    10   39      P    40   D    50   BP   10   210     P    35   D    50   P-E  15   111     P    35   D    50   M-F  15   212     P    35   D    50   M-K  15   313     P    35   D    50   M-C  15   114     P    35   D    50   L54  15   315     P    35   D    50   L37  15   316     P    35   D    50   L39  15   217     P    35   D    50   L26  15   318     V34  35   D    50   M-S  15   119     V32  35   D    50   M-S  15   2__________________________________________________________________________

The specimens with only fair erasability (category 3) are Nos. 1, 2, 7, 8, 12, 14, 15, and 17. Nos. 1, 2, 7 and 8 had low content of wax relative to binder, and Nos. 12, 14, 15 and 17 contained waxes which are esters or acrylates rather than alkanes or alkenes.

It is postulated that, in the dry coating, the wax is present as discrete beads within a continuous matrix of the polymeric carrier.

Production compositions are likely to include small quantities of additional constituents such as dispersants and defoamers.

The invention has primary application to translucent drawing office papers to which xerographic images are to be applied, but is applicable to other papers and images formed by techniques other than by xerography, for example, manual drafting, diazo processes and thermal imaging.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4092449 *Apr 16, 1976May 30, 1978Bernstein Donald JAlteration-sensitive imprinted article
US4267092 *Jun 21, 1979May 12, 1981Polycell Products LimitedFiller composition comprising a filler and an aqueous binder resin emulsion comprising a quick drying polymer emulsion and a flexible polymer emulsion
US4517228 *Dec 23, 1983May 14, 1985Reliance Universal, Inc.Pigmented prepress coatings for composition board
US4551499 *Aug 8, 1984Nov 5, 1985International Standard Electric CorporationPolymeric dielectrics
US4636258 *Aug 20, 1985Jan 13, 1987Seiko Epson Kabushiki KaishaInk for thermal transfer printing
US4792515 *Jan 8, 1987Dec 20, 1988Andrews Paper & Chemical Co., Inc.Erasable diazotype material
US4849316 *Dec 13, 1988Jul 18, 1989Mitsui Toatsu Chemicals, IncorporatedHeat fixing electrophotographic toner containing olefin wax
JPS4911850A * Title not available
JPS5854096A * Title not available
SU598921A1 * Title not available
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US5302439 *Mar 19, 1993Apr 12, 1994Xerox CorporationRecording sheets
US5330823 *Mar 19, 1993Jul 19, 1994Xerox CorporationTransparent recording sheets
US5429294 *Jun 9, 1994Jul 4, 1995Timbarco Corp.Recyclable plastic coated containers
US5451458 *Feb 15, 1994Sep 19, 1995Xerox CorporationRecording sheets
US5451466 *Feb 15, 1994Sep 19, 1995Xerox CorporationRecording sheets
US5531863 *Feb 9, 1995Jul 2, 1996Timbarco, Corp. C/O Belfint, Lyons & SchumanMethod of recycling plastic coated containers
US5663022 *May 22, 1995Sep 2, 1997Xerox CorporationRecording sheets
US5663029 *Jan 24, 1996Sep 2, 1997Xerox CorporationElectrostatic imaging process
US5663030 *Jan 24, 1996Sep 2, 1997Xerox CorporationElectrostatic imaging process
US5846637 *May 7, 1997Dec 8, 1998Xerox CorporationCoated xerographic photographic paper
US5928765 *Apr 6, 1995Jul 27, 1999Xerox CorporationRecording sheets
US6210816Mar 26, 1999Apr 3, 2001Xerox CorporationTranslucent xerographic recording substrates
US6544709Oct 19, 2001Apr 8, 2003Arkwright, Inc.Glossy electrophotographic media comprising an opaque coated substrate
US6592984Dec 15, 1995Jul 15, 2003Fuji Xerox Co., Ltd.Electrophotographic transfer paper
US6833168 *Jun 14, 2002Dec 21, 2004Xerox CorporationElectrostatographic recording paper
US20140030485 *Jul 27, 2012Jan 30, 2014John L. StoffelRenewable print media
EP0718700A2 *Dec 19, 1995Jun 26, 1996Fuji Xerox Co., Ltd.Electrophotographic transfer paper
EP0718700A3 *Dec 19, 1995May 28, 1997Fuji Xerox Co LtdElectrophotographic transfer paper
WO1998004960A1 *Nov 26, 1996Feb 5, 1998Minnesota Mining And Maufacturing CompanyMethod of providing images on an image receptor medium
WO2012105944A1 *Jan 31, 2011Aug 9, 2012Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P.Electrophotographic recording media
Classifications
U.S. Classification428/511, 524/488, 524/493, 524/487, 524/425, 524/847, 524/492, 428/507, 524/489, 428/486, 428/916
International ClassificationD21H19/56, G03G7/00, D21H19/58
Cooperative ClassificationY10T428/3188, Y10T428/31895, Y10T428/31808, Y10S428/916, G03G7/00, G03G7/0006, D21H19/58, G03G7/004, D21H19/56
European ClassificationG03G7/00, D21H19/58, G03G7/00B, G03G7/00B4B4, D21H19/56
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Jul 7, 1989ASAssignment
Owner name: JAMES RIVER GRAPHICS LIMITED, ENGLAND
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST.;ASSIGNOR:MATTHEW, MICHAEL K.;REEL/FRAME:005152/0023
Effective date: 19890531
Apr 15, 1991ASAssignment
Owner name: JAMES RIVER PAPER COMPANY, INC. A VA. CORP.
Free format text: MERGER;ASSIGNORS:RIEGEL PRODUCTS CORPORATION, A CORP. OF DELAWARE;JAMES RIVER U.S. HOLDINGS, INC., A DE CORP.;REEL/FRAME:005717/0053
Effective date: 19890518
Owner name: JAMES RIVER U.S. HOLDINGS, INC. (DELAWARE)
Free format text: MERGER;ASSIGNORS:JAMES RIVER - BERLIN/GORHAM, INC. (DELAWARE);JAMES RIVER - KVP, INC. (DELAWARE);JAMES RIVER - MASSACHUSETTS, INC. (DELAWARE);AND OTHERS;REEL/FRAME:005717/0023
Effective date: 19850422
Jul 12, 1991ASAssignment
Owner name: GRAPHICS TECHNOLOGY INTERNATIONAL INC., A CORPORAT
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST.;ASSIGNOR:JAMES RIVER PAPER COMPANY, INC., A CORPORATION OF VA;REEL/FRAME:005805/0089
Effective date: 19910430
Jan 5, 1994ASAssignment
Owner name: REXHAM GRAPHICS INC., MASSACHUSETTS
Free format text: CHANGE OF NAME;ASSIGNOR:GRAPHICS TECHNOLOGY INTERNATIONAL, INC.;REEL/FRAME:006823/0517
Effective date: 19930628
Apr 16, 1996REMIMaintenance fee reminder mailed
Sep 8, 1996LAPSLapse for failure to pay maintenance fees
Nov 19, 1996FPExpired due to failure to pay maintenance fee
Effective date: 19960911