|Publication number||US5154594 A|
|Application number||US 07/580,314|
|Publication date||Oct 13, 1992|
|Filing date||Sep 10, 1990|
|Priority date||Sep 10, 1990|
|Publication number||07580314, 580314, US 5154594 A, US 5154594A, US-A-5154594, US5154594 A, US5154594A|
|Inventors||Meredith L. Gamlen|
|Original Assignee||Gamlen Meredith L|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (10), Non-Patent Citations (2), Referenced by (36), Classifications (7), Legal Events (10)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
The invention relates to an animal litter and method for making an animal litter.
Pet animals are extremely popular in present day homes, resulting in a need for dealing with animal waste. Such waste must be dealt with in an hygenic manner, and preferably in a manner which will also prevent the spread of odors throughout the household. Present day environmental concerns suggest that such animal waste must be capable of being disposed in an environmentally responsible manner, with a reduced impact upon the environment, and in particular landfill and garbage disposal sites, where the animal waste typically, ultimately are located.
Many attempts have been made in the past to provide improved absorbent compositions which are acceptable for use in animal litters, particularly for domestic pets such as cats. Generally litter compositions available today contain large amounts of clay and/or natural grass compositions. Such compositions containing clays have not been entirely satisfactory and have been deficient in one or more of the characteristics and properties necessary as an effective absorbent, particularly for animal litter applications, where odor suppression or elimination is desirable. Such desired characteristics of animal litter include: high absorptive ability; reduced odor, after the litter has been contacted by animal waste products; lack of toxicity; economy; and compatibility with the environment, both while in the home and after disposal in a landfill site. While prior art animal litters are satisfactory as to absorptive ability, lack of toxicity, and economy, such animal litter products are generally deficient with respect to the foregoing odor and environment compatibility characteristics.
Accordingly, prior to the development of the present invention, there has been no animal litter and method for making an animal litter, which: provides a litter which has high absorptive ability; reduces odor; is not toxic; is economical to manufacture and use; and is environmentally sound and compatible with the environment. Therefore, the art has sought an animal litter and method for making an animal litter which animal litter: has high absorptive ability; reduces odor from the animal waste products; has no toxicity; is economical to manufacture and use; and is environmentally sound and compatible with the environment.
In accordance with the invention, the foregoing advantages have been achieved through the present animal litter and method for making an animal litter. The present invention for an animal litter for absorbing animal waste includes: an absorptive material; and bacteria, whereby the bacteria decomposes the animal waste. A feature the present invention is that a fragrance may be associated with the absorptive material; and the fragrance may be cedar oil applied upon the absorptive material.
An additional feature of the present invention is that the absorptive material has pores and may be selected from the group consisting of clays, diatomateous earth, Fuller's earths, and betonites, that are low in bulk density and have the ability to absorb liquids into their pores. An additional feature of the present invention is that the absorptive material may be Georgia clay. Another feature of the present invention is that the bacteria may be bacillus bacteria, and may further include enzymes which are products of growth of the bacillus bacteria. An additional feature of the present invention is that the enzymes may include protease, amylase, and pacreatin.
In accordance with another aspect of the invention, the foregoing advantages have been achieved through the present method for making an animal litter for absorbing animal waste. The method of the present invention includes the steps of: forming particles of absorptive materials; and combining the particles of absorptive material with bacteria. The present invention may also include the step of associating a fragrance with the absorptive material, and the fragrance may be associated with the absorptive material by applying a liquid fragrance to the absorptive material. A further feature of the present invention is that cedar oil may be utilized as the fragrance, and it may be applied by spraying the cedar oil upon the absorptive material. A further feature of the present invention is that a plurality of cedar needles may be mixed with the absorptive material.
Another feature of the present invention is that the absorptive material which may be utilized has pores and may be selected from the group consisting of clays, diatomateous earths, Fuller's earths, and betonites, that are low in bulk density and have the ability to absorb liquids into their pores. An additional feature of the present invention is that Georgia clay may be utilized as the absorptive material. A further feature of the present invention is that bacillus bacteria may be utilized as the bacteria, and may include enzymes which are products of growth of the bacteria may be added to the absorptive material. The enzymes may include protease, amylase, and pacreatin.
The animal litter and method for making an animal litter of the present invention, when compared with previously proposed prior art animal litters and methods for making animal litters, have the advantages of: having a high absorptive ability; reducing odors associated with the animal waste; lack of toxicity; being economical to manufacture and use; and being environmentally sound, and compatible with the environment, both within the home and landfill sites.
While the invention will be described in connection with the preferred embodiment, it will be understood that it is not intended to limit the invention to that embodiment. On the contrary, it is intended to cover all alternatives, modifications, and equivalents as may be included within the spirit and scope of the invention as defined by the appended claims.
The animal litter of the present invention includes an absorptive material and bacteria, whereby the bacteria decomposes the animal waste, upon the animal waste contacting the bacteria which has been mixed with the absorptive material. The absorptive material preferably has pores that has the ability to absorb liquids, as from the animal waste, into the pores. The absorptive material may be selected from the group consisting of clays, diatomateous earths, Fuller's earths, and betonites, all of which are low in bulk density, and have the requisite ability to absorb liquids into their pores. Such materials usually contain more than one component, but most often have a high percentage of kaolinite, or attapulgite, or montmorillonite, or sepiolite, or diatomite. Generally such a material that has any of the above components as the major component is very likely to have lesser amounts of one or all of the other components. Any of the other known clay minerals, e.g. kaolinite and illite are commonly present in non-clay materials and/or silicious materials that cannot be classified as diatomateous earths may be present.
Another absorptive material which may be utilized in the animal litter in the present invention is Georgia clay. Georgia clay is a naturally-occurring clay material consisting predominantly of the clay mineral kaolinite, a crystalline hydrated aluminum silicate of the formula Al2 O3 --2SiO2 --2H2 O. This clay mineral is rarely found pure, but is the main constituent of kaolin whose composition is about 40% alumina, about 55% silica, plus impurities and water. Kaolin is also known as china clay; white bole; argilla; porcelain clay; white clay; and is a white-burning clay which, due to its great purity, has a high fusion point and is the most refractory of all clays.
All of the foregoing absorptive materials are generally mined, dried and/or calcined, crushed, and screened, and formed into particles, or pellets, in a conventional manner, to be a conventional size suitable for use as animal litter, as is known in the art. Alternatively, particles, or pellets, of natural grass compositions, or combinations of the foregoing clay, or claylike materials, in combination with natural grass compositions, may be utilized as the absorptive material for the animal litter of the present invention.
Bacteria is associated with the absorptive material as by mixing it with, or spraying it upon, the absorptive material. The bacteria, upon coming in contact with the animal waste materials, will decompose the animal waste, and break it down into simpler products upon decomposition occurring. The decomposition products may include water, carbon dioxide, methane gas, or simple nutrients such as nitrates, phosphates, or sulfates. Such decomposition products are much more environmentally sound and compatible with the home environment, wherein the animal litter of the present invention is first utilized, as well as within a landfill site where the animal litter and waste products will ultimately be located.
Preferably, the bacteria utilized in combination with the absorptive material is a bacillus bacteria, although any other bacteria having the requisite characteristics of being non-toxic, capable of decomposing animal waste products, and compatible with the environment, both in the home and in a landfill site, may be utilized. The bacteria may further include enzymes which are products of growth of the bacillus bacteria, and such enzymes may include protease, amylase and pacreatin. The bacteria, and related enzymes may be combined with the absorptive material, in either a liquid or solid form. The bacteria may be sprayed upon the absorbent material, in the case of a liquid form of bacteria; or mixed with the absorptive material, in the case of a solid form of bacteria and related enzymes.
One form of bacteria useful in the present invention, is a product sold under the name "BIO-ENZYMES", manufactured by Chlorine & Chemical Supply Company, of Pearland, Texas. Such product contains various strains of bacillus bacteria; wheat bran from which the bacteria was produced; protease, amylase and other enzymes that are products of growth of the bacillus bacteria; the enzyme pacreatin; and other components such as corn sugar (dextrose), monopotassium phosphate, and magnesium sulfate. The bacillus bacteria used in this product are naturally occurring microorganisms that have been classified by the American Type Culture Collection as Class 1 agents made up of agents of no recognized hazard under ordinary conditions of handling. This product is manufactured as a dry powder.
As an example, animal litter in accordance with the present invention, can be made by combining 10 pounds of absorptive material, such as Georgia clay, with 2 tablespoons of bacteria in a solid form, such as the "BIO-ENZYME" product previously described, the bacteria being sprinkled upon and mixed with the absorptive material. If desired, a quantity of cedar needles may be included in the animal litter, approximately 6 tablespoons of cedar needles being used in the foregoing example. Similarly, a fragrance may be associated with the animal litter, and the fragrance may be cedar oil, in liquid form, being applied to the absorptive material, as by spraying it upon the absorptive material. In the example previously described, approximately 2 fluid ounces of cedar oil may be utilized. The cedar needles, in addition to supplying a natural fragrance, is believed to make the animal litter more natural looking to animals, particularly cats, and is believed to attract the animals to the litter. The cedar oil serves as a fragrance which helps control odors emanating from the animal waste, until the animal waste has been decomposed by the bacteria. It should be readily apparent to one of ordinary skill in the art that any other suitable, conventional fragrances can be utilized in lieu of the cedar oil. Additionally, other natural products, other than cedar needles, could be utilized in the animal litter, such as pine needles, crushed pine cones, or aromatic leaves from any suitable bush or tree.
It is to be understood that the invention is not limited to the exact details of construction, operation, exact materials or embodiments described, as obvious modifications and equivalents will be apparent to one skilled in the art; for example, anti-dusting agents may be included with the animal litter. Accordingly, the invention is therefore to be limited only by the scope of the appended claims.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US3636927 *||Jun 18, 1970||Jan 25, 1972||Scm Corp||Animal litter and process|
|US3892846 *||Sep 12, 1972||Jul 1, 1975||Allied Chem||Animal litter resistant to ammonia odor formation|
|US3941090 *||Oct 10, 1974||Mar 2, 1976||The Clorox Company||Cedar-based animal litter|
|US4465019 *||Sep 2, 1983||Aug 14, 1984||Green Mountain Products||Method for deodorizing animal waste and preparing pet litter|
|US4607594 *||Jan 11, 1985||Aug 26, 1986||Raetec Industries, Inc.||Animal litter|
|US4704989 *||Dec 30, 1985||Nov 10, 1987||John Rosenfeld||Cat box litter and process for producing same|
|US4844010 *||Oct 2, 1987||Jul 4, 1989||Personal Pet Products Partnershhip||Absorbent composition, method of making and using same|
|EP0039522A2 *||Feb 6, 1981||Nov 11, 1981||Cornelis Jacobus Maria Kok||Process for the preparation of a liquid-absorbing and shock-absorbing material|
|EP0076447A1 *||Sep 27, 1982||Apr 13, 1983||BASF Aktiengesellschaft||Additive for a bedding in animal sheds|
|SU1091889A1 *||Title not available|
|1||Material Safety Data Sheet, "Bio-Enzymes" Mar. 20, 1989.|
|2||*||Material Safety Data Sheet, Bio Enzymes Mar. 20, 1989.|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US5320066 *||Dec 8, 1992||Jun 14, 1994||Gunter Lori E||Pest repellant pet bedding of white cedar shavings treated with white cedar oil|
|US5542374 *||Nov 1, 1994||Aug 6, 1996||Mfm Industries, Inc.||Animal litter of clay and western red cedar|
|US5634431 *||Oct 16, 1995||Jun 3, 1997||Malireddy S. Reddy||Odor inhibiting pet litter|
|US5814346 *||Jun 6, 1996||Sep 29, 1998||Progetto Emme S.R.L.||Compound for treating animal excrement|
|US5821112 *||Oct 4, 1996||Oct 13, 1998||Botto; Willism S.||Biological odor metabolizing compositions and methods of use|
|US5945333 *||Aug 26, 1997||Aug 31, 1999||Ag Tech Products, Inc.||Biological poultry litter treatment composition and its use|
|US6017525 *||Mar 30, 1998||Jan 25, 2000||Logan; Walter T.||Poultry house litter treatment|
|US6287550 *||Dec 17, 1997||Sep 11, 2001||The Procter & Gamble Company||Animal care system and litter with reduced malodor impression|
|US6974691||Jul 25, 2003||Dec 13, 2005||Life Science Tgo, S.R.L.||Surface treatment with dormant bacteria and adhering agent to control odor|
|US7314748||Nov 30, 2000||Jan 1, 2008||Life Science Tgo, S.R.L.||Odor control agent|
|US7357946||Jul 15, 2003||Apr 15, 2008||Adamoli Jr James R||Uses for cellulose-containing aggregates|
|US8418652 *||Sep 17, 2010||Apr 16, 2013||Mfm Industries, Inc.||Animal litter and associated methods|
|US8734768||May 9, 2011||May 27, 2014||Grain Processing Corporation||Animal litter, process for preparing animal litter, and method for removal of animal waste|
|US8950360||Feb 20, 2013||Feb 10, 2015||Kent Pet Group, Inc.||Odor-absorbing materials and processes for their preparation and use|
|US9232765||Feb 20, 2013||Jan 12, 2016||Kent Pet Group, Inc.||Animal litter, process for preparing animal litter and method of removal of animal waste|
|US9232767||Feb 20, 2013||Jan 12, 2016||Kent Pet Group, Inc.||Animal litter, process for preparing animal litter and method of removal of animal waste|
|US9288964||Feb 20, 2013||Mar 22, 2016||Kent Pet Group, Inc.||Animal litter, process for preparing animal litter and method of removal of animal waste|
|US20040033901 *||Jul 15, 2003||Feb 19, 2004||Adamoli James R.||Uses for cellulose-containing aggregates|
|US20040136946 *||Jul 25, 2003||Jul 15, 2004||Fredenburgh Jeffrey Kent||Odor control agent|
|US20060201444 *||Mar 11, 2005||Sep 14, 2006||Coss Donna J||Horse arena composition and method|
|US20060270977 *||May 25, 2006||Nov 30, 2006||Conor Medsystems, Inc.||Rapid exchange balloon catheter with reinforced shaft|
|US20070082815 *||Feb 3, 2005||Apr 12, 2007||Anund Pihstrom||Grease and oil absorbent|
|US20090232760 *||Mar 14, 2008||Sep 17, 2009||Mcarthur Ross||Horse Bedding Product and Method|
|US20100147225 *||Jan 10, 2008||Jun 17, 2010||Mars Icorporated||Animal litter and process for preparing the same|
|US20120128620 *||Nov 23, 2011||May 24, 2012||Larry Douglas Mohr||Animal litter|
|US20120252954 *||Oct 25, 2010||Oct 4, 2012||Nora Systems Gmbh||Method for producing a two-dimensional rubber covering and two-dimensional rubber covering|
|US20150208606 *||Aug 27, 2013||Jul 30, 2015||The All Natural Pet Litter Company Pty Ltd||Odour controller|
|CN104429988A *||Dec 1, 2014||Mar 25, 2015||芜湖悠派卫生用品有限公司||Cat litter for thoroughly decomposing feces and preparing method thereof|
|EP0654215A1 *||Nov 18, 1994||May 24, 1995||Philippe Lamerant||Biodegradable animal litter with flax or hemp or their mixtures|
|EP0808564A1 *||May 16, 1997||Nov 26, 1997||Giovanni Pedemonte||Horse-bedding|
|EP0885557B2 †||Jun 19, 1998||Nov 17, 2010||Tolsa S.A.||Composition which is absorbent and inhibitive of the formation of bad smells in animal litter, method for the preparation thereof and use in hygienic litter for cats|
|EP0970603A1 *||Jul 5, 1999||Jan 12, 2000||Bio Stim||Litter and drying agents for litter comprising water retaining agents|
|EP2856896A1||Sep 22, 2014||Apr 8, 2015||Life Science TGO, SRL||Impregnated odour control products and methods of making the same|
|WO2001010195A1 *||Aug 10, 2000||Feb 15, 2001||Novozymes A/S||Reduction of malodour in soiled animal litter|
|WO2003064755A2 *||Jan 29, 2003||Aug 7, 2003||Life Science Tgo, Srl||Aqueous odor control composition|
|WO2003064755A3 *||Jan 29, 2003||Dec 18, 2003||Life Science Tgo Srl||Aqueous odor control composition|
|U.S. Classification||119/171, 119/173|
|Cooperative Classification||A01K1/0152, A01K1/0154|
|European Classification||A01K1/015B, A01K1/015B2|
|Sep 21, 1993||CC||Certificate of correction|
|Feb 7, 1994||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: HEART INDUSTRIES, INC., NEW YORK
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:GAMLEN, MEREDITH L.;REEL/FRAME:006865/0119
Effective date: 19940103
|Apr 8, 1996||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4
|Apr 17, 2000||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 8
|Apr 17, 2000||SULP||Surcharge for late payment|
|Jun 22, 2001||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: FABRICUSHON, LTD., CANADA
Free format text: CORRECTIVE ASSIGNMENT TO CORRECT THE ASSIGNEE NAME, PREVIOUSLY RECORDED AT REEL 011590, FRAME 0571;ASSIGNOR:HEART INDUSTRIES, INC.;REEL/FRAME:011923/0834
Effective date: 20010509
|Apr 28, 2004||REMI||Maintenance fee reminder mailed|
|Oct 12, 2004||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 12
|Oct 12, 2004||SULP||Surcharge for late payment|
Year of fee payment: 11
|Jun 13, 2008||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: L2 TECHNOLOGIES, SRL, BARBADOS
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:FABRICUSHION LTD.;REEL/FRAME:021118/0828
Effective date: 20080304
Owner name: LIFE SCIENCES TECHNOLOGY GROUP, INC., BARBADOS
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:L2 TECHNOLOGIES, SRL;REEL/FRAME:021118/0825
Effective date: 20080306