|Publication number||US5176762 A|
|Application number||US 06/948,390|
|Publication date||Jan 5, 1993|
|Filing date||Dec 23, 1986|
|Priority date||Jan 2, 1986|
|Publication number||06948390, 948390, US 5176762 A, US 5176762A, US-A-5176762, US5176762 A, US5176762A|
|Inventors||Douglas M. Berczik|
|Original Assignee||United Technologies Corporation|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (12), Non-Patent Citations (8), Referenced by (39), Classifications (9), Legal Events (4)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This invention relates to high strength titanium alloys and particularly to nonburning beta titanium alloys containing substantial amounts of vanadium and chromium.
Pure titanium exists in the alpha crystalline form at room temperature but transforms to the beta crystalline form at temperatures greater than 1621° F. Various alloying elements increase the stability of the beta phase at lower temperatures. Certain known titanium alloys contain sufficient amounts of the beta phase stabilizers so that they are largely beta phase under most temperature conditions and are referred to as beta titanium alloys. However this class of such alloys are not 100% beta phase but include some amounts of the alpha phase which acts as a strengthening phase but which disappears with increasing temperature, leading to a pronounced in strength at elevated temperatures. The subject of these prior "beta" titanium alloys is discussed in "The Beta Titanium Alloys" by F. H. Froes et al, Journal of Metals 1985 pp. 28-37. I know of no commercial titanium alloys which are true 100% beta phase alloys under all conditions of temperature.
Titanium alloys posses an ideal combination of strength and low density for many aerospace applications including gas turbine engines and particularly gas turbine engine compressor blades, vanes and related hardware. However, titanium is a highly reactive metal and can undergo sustained combustion under conditions encountered in gas turbine engine compressors. In such compressors ambient air is compressed to pressures on the order of 850° F. at pressures which may be on the order of 400 psi and can flow at 450 feet per second as it passes through the compressor. Under these conditions commercial titanium alloys will burn uncontrollably if ignited. Ignition can occur by friction arising from the ingestion of foreign objects or as a result of mechanical failure which causes contact between moving and stationary titanium blade objects. Friction between titanium components is particularly troublesome. Such combustion is a great concern to gas turbine engine designers who have gone to great lengths to guard against rubbing between titanium components. However, it has to date been inherent physical characteristic of the titanium alloys used and an unavoidable potential consequence of using titanium in turbine compressor sections.
The assignee of the present invention has long standing expertise in the field of gas turbine engine technology and has devised a test for titanium alloy combustibility which comprises preparing a sample of 0.070 in sheet having a knife edge and placing this knife edge sample in an air stream flowing at 450 feet per second at a pressure of 400 psi and a temperature 850° F. and attempting to ignite the sample using a 200 watt CO2 laser which impinges directly on the knife edge of the sample within the flowing gas stream. These test conditions are typical of those encountered in operating conditions in turbine engines. This test will be used hereinafter to define whether or not an alloy is burnable.
British Patent No. 1,175,683 to Imperial Metal Industries describes a titanium alloy which can contain 25-40% vanadium, 5-15% chromium up 10% aluminum balance titanium. Of 16 specific alloy compositions discussed in the patent only one contains more than 10% chromium and there is no appreciation shown in the patent for the effect of chromium on burnability of titanium alloys. U.S. Pat. No. 3,644,153 describes abrasion resistant materials formed by nitriding titanium alloy substrates. The substrate alloy may contain substantial amounts of vanadium and chromium. There is no disclosure in the patent of any mechanical properties in the substrate material per se nor of any nonburning properties in the substrate nor indeed of any substrate utility aside from as a material to be nitrided. U.S. Pat. No. 3,673,038 deals with a braze material for joining graphite and refractory materials. The braze material can consist of 10-45% vanadium, 5-20% chromium. Chromium is disclosed as providing flowability of the brazed material but no discussion presented concerning burnability.
A new class of true beta titanium alloys is disclosed based on ternary compositions of titanium-vanadium-chromium which occur in the titanium-vanadium-chromium phase diagram bounded by the points Ti-22V-13Cr, Ti-22V-36Cr, and Ti-40V-13Cr, other more preferred compositions are also defined (all percent figures herein are weight percent unless otherwise noted). The invention alloys have creep strength which are greater than those exhibited by the strongest commerical alloys (i.e. Ti-6-2-4-2) at elevated temperatures and are nonburning under conditions typical of those encountered in gas turbine engine compressor applications. A variety of quaternary (and higher) alloying elements may be added to the basic composition to modify the alloy properties.
The foregoing, and other features and advantages of the present invention, will become more apparent from the following description and accompanying drawings.
FIG. 1 is a 600° F. ternary diagram of the titanium, vanadium, chromium system.
FIG. 2 is an 1100° F. ternary diagram of the Ti-V-Cr system.
FIG. 3 is an 2000° F. ternary diagram of the Ti-V-Cr system.
FIG. 4 shows the 0.1% creep behavior of an invention alloy (Ti-35% V-15 Cr-0.15%C).
FIG. 5 shows tensile data as a function of temperature for an alloy according to the invention (Ti-35% V-15% Cr).
The alloys of the present invention are based on the titanium-vanadium-chromium system and comprises the region bounded by points A, B, and C as shown in FIG. 1 which is a 600° F. phase diagram. FIG. 2 shows the same compositional triangle on the same ternary diagram at 1100° F. which also shows the approximate location of the boundary between the beta and beta plus gamma phases, where gamma is TiCr2, and shows a dotted line which is the approximate location of a melting point trough. The shaded portion of the triangle in FIG. 1 (the portion bounded by points D, E and F) is the preferred composition for the present invention. FIG. 3 is the same ternary diagram at 2000° F.
The location of the beta-beta plus gamma phase boundary is not precisely known. Nor is the exact position of the melting point trough known and of course the position of these compositional boundaries will change if other alloying elements are added. For this reason a broad alternate description of the preferred invention composition is that it is a beta phase titanium alloy essentially free from the alpha phase and TiCr2, (although minor amounts of these phases in nondeleterious quantity of about 3% may be tolerated), containing more than 10% chromium (e.g., 13-36), more than about 20% vanadium (e.g., 22-40%) and more than about 40% titanium (e.g., balance) located on the titanium rich side of the low melting point trough and on the vanadium rich side of the beta-beta plus gamma phase boundary. The reason for limiting the preferred composition to that being on one side of the beta-beta plus gamma phase boundary is that the presence of any substantial (e.g., 3% by volume) amount of the gamma (TiCr2) or alpha phase would be detrimental to alloy mechanical properties, especially ductility. It is postulated (and preliminarily confirmed by experiment) that other detrimental phases will form on the other side of the low melting phase trough and for this reason the invention composition is restricted to be on the titanium rich side of that trough. Finally and very importantly, the alloys must to contain more than about 10% chromium (with the amount of chromium present being sufficient to prevent combustion in the previously described test) since about 13% chromium has been found to provide substantially nonburning characteristics in the base alloys, and preferably at 13% chromium is present.
The alloys are strong at elevated temperatures as illustrated in FIG. 4 which is a Larson Miller plot showing the creep behavior of a commercial alloy known as Ti-6-2-4-2 (6% Al, 2% Sn, 4% Zr, 2% Mo, balance Ti) which is the strongest most creep resistant commercially available titanium alloy. The Larson Miller Parameter (LMP) is widely used in presenting creep data and is defined as LMP=Ta (C+Log t)×10-3 where Ta is the absolute temperature, C is a constant which is usually 20 and "t" is time required to undergo particular amount of creep.
Thus for example according to the figure, at constant conditions described by LMP=31, the prior art alloy could withstand 45 ksi while the invention alloy could withstand 65 ksi. At a constant stress of 50 ksi the prior art material would exhibit a LMP of 30.5 which the invention material was strong enough to withstand conditions equivalent to a LMP of 32.4.
The significance of a LMP of 32.4 verses a LMP of 30.5 are as follows: at a constant stress of 50 ksi at 1000° F. the prior art material would creep 0.1% in 7.8 hours while the invention material would creep 0.1% in 155.5 hours, almost 20 times longer. Alternatively, at 50 ksi the prior art material could withstand about 926° F. for 100 hours (before creeping 0.1%) while the invention material could withstand 1012° F. for the same 100 hours (before creeping 0.1%), a temperature advantage of about 86° F. Thus in creep the invention material is distinctly superior to the standard prior art material.
Conventional high strength titanium alloys, such as Ti-6-2-4-2, have a different crystal structure and exhibit differently shaped creep curves than that of the invention material. Thus the invention material is notably superior in 0.1% and 0.2% creep to Ti-6-2-4-2 but basically equivalent at 0.5%, 1% and in creep rupture. For many gas turbine applications creep must be minimized and the 0.1% and 0.2% values are most significant.
The effect of chromium on the burnability of this class of alloys is shown in Table I. From Table I it seems that chromium in an amount of about 13% is required to produce an alloy which is nonburnable according to the previously setout test which simulates compressor section of the gas turbine engine.
As noted previously, most if not all additional (quaternary) alloying elements will change the position of the beta-beta plus alpha phase boundary, the melting point trough and the exact amount of chromium necessary for nonflammability on the alloy. It is clearly within the scope of the skilled artisan to use metallographic techniques to ascertain whether any alpha phase is present and to use the previously described flammability test to determine whether sufficient chromium is present.
It is comtemplated that up to about 10% by volume of nonbeta, nonalpha, nonTiCr2, nondeleterious phases may be present for purposes related to property improvements.
FIG. 5 shows tensile properties, ultimate tensile strength, and 0.2% yield strength, of the previously described commercial titanium alloy and of the Ti-35% vanadium-15% chromium alloy according to the present invention. The properties of the invention alloy are superior to those of the commercial alloy for most temperatures with the degree of superiority increasing with temperature--this is consistant with the previously described creep results. The reduction in area and elongation for the invention material was somewhat less than those for the commercial alloy.
The properties of the invention material are exceptional but there is every reason to believe that these properties can be further improved by the addition of relatively small amounts of alloying elements. Table II sets out a list of prospective quaternary alloying elements and their proposed range. Evidence exists that cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon and gallium will all aid in increasing the resistance to burning of these alloys. Boron, beryllium, chromium, niobium, rhenium, silicon, tin and bismuth are all believed to have the potential to increase the oxidation resistance of the material. Boron, beryllium, carbon, cobalt, iron, manganese, molybdenum, niobium, nickel, oxygen, silicon, tin, tantalum, vanadium, tungsten, zirconium, gallium and hafnium all have the potential to increase the mechanical properties of the material.
In particular carbon has been demonstrated to improve the post-creep ductilitiy of the alloy without adversely affecting the room temperature tensile ductility.
Tables III, IV, V and VI tabulate available data on tensile properties of various alloys according to the invention and illustrates the effect of some alloying elements on mechanical properties.
The addition of carbon in amounts in excess of about 0.05% results in formation of carbides. Normally carbide phases are quite hard and strong but have little ductility. However in this alloy system the carbides are relatively ductile and do not fracture during forging. Another interesting aspect relating to carbon in the low reactivity of the metal (in molten form) with carbon, in marked contrast to the extensive reactions observed between conventional alloys and carbon. This suggests the potential of melting in graphite crucibles and casting in graphite molds, practices which could revolutionize this titanium industry. In addition, preliminary indications are that this invention alloys can be successfully cast in ceramic shell molds which are widely used in the investment casting of nickel and cobalt superalloys.
When carbon is present, the strong carbide forming alloying elements hafnium etc. can advantageously be added to form controlled composition carbide phases.
The invention compositions may be fabricated using conventional titanium metallurgy technology such as Vacuum Arc Remelting and skull melting techniques. The relatively low reactivity of the invention material may permit use of alternative less costly technology.
Although this invention has been shown and described with respect to detailed embodiments thereof, it will be understood by those skilled in the art that various changes in form and detail thereof may be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the claimed invention.
TABLE I______________________________________Burn Test ResultsAlloyTi V Cr Other Result______________________________________Bal 13 11 3 Al BurnsBal 35 15 -- NonburningBal 25 15 -- "Bal 30 15 -- "Bal 25 35 -- "Bal 35 15 0.5 Hf "Bal 35 15 2 Si "Bal 30 15 5 Cb "Bal 35 15 4 Zr "Bal 35 15 2 Mo "Bal 35 15 3 Fe "Bal 35 15 2 Co "Bal 35 15 4 Co "Bal 35 15 6 Co "Bal 35 15 1 Ru "Bal 35 15 3 Ru "Commercial Alloys All BurnTi-6-4, Ti 6-2-4-2,etc.______________________________________
TABLE II______________________________________ Broad Preferred______________________________________B 0-0.6 0.1-0.5Be 0-4.0 0.1-3.0C 0-2.5 0.01-2.0Co 0-7.0 0.5-6.0Cr 0-7.0 0.5-6.0Fe 0-4.0 0.5-3.0Mn 0-7.0 0.5-5.0Mo 0-12 0.5-10.0Nb 0-12 0.5-10.0Ni 0-12 0.5-10.0O 0-0.3 0.08-0.2Re 0-1.5 0.01-1.0Si 0-2.5 0.01-2.0Sn 0-2.5 0.1-2.0Ta 0-1.5 0.1-1.0W 0-2.5 0.5-2.0Zr 0-5.0 0.5-4.0Bi 0-1.5 0.1-1.0Ga 0-2.5 0.1-2.0Hf 0-1.5 0.1-1.0______________________________________
TABLE III______________________________________Room TemperatureTensile Tests .2% PriorAlloys Y.S. UTS % El % RA H.T.______________________________________Ti-35V-15Cr 152.1 167.1 17.0 14.3 1700°/ 4 hr " 132.5 134.9 21.5 24.4 -- " 131.3 131.9 18.5 24.4 --Ti-35V-15Cr-0.15C 125.8 127.7 12.0 23.0 -- " 130.9 134.1 19.0 33.3 -- " 129.9 134.6 17.5 29.8 -- " 128.5 133.6 17.0 34.4 --Ti-35V-15Cr-0.625C 171.4 184.1 5.3 7.6 1400°/ 4 hrTi-30V-15Cr-0.5Hf-0.75C 145.1 167.2 13.5 25.8 1750°/ 4 hrTi-25V-35Cr-5Al 172.8 172.8 1.3 0.5 2050°/ 4 hrTi-6-2-4-2 130.0 150.0 14.0 25.0 --______________________________________
TABLE IV______________________________________800° F. Tensile Tests .2% PriorAlloys Y.S. UTS % El % RA H.T.______________________________________Ti-35V-15Cr 93.6 119.4 15.5 33.5 -- " 94.5 120.4 18.0 33.7 --Ti-35V-15Cr-0.15C 95.3 118.7 6.9 15.2 -- " 94.2 119.8 9.3 18.2 -- " 95.8 122.3 16.5 30.4 --Ti-35V-15Cr-0.625C 141.2 152.5 2.7 5.9 1400°/ 4 hrTi-35V-15Cr-0.436C 140.9 152.4 2.0 2.7 1400°/ 4 hrTi-30V-15Cr-0.627C 121.6 156.3 8.5 14.5 --Ti-35V-15Cr-2Si 145.7 156.1 1.0 1.2 2050°/ 4 hrTi-33.5V-15.5Cr-3.6Cb 119.6 160.1 17.0 32.1 2150°/ 4 hrTi-25V-35Cr-5Al 129.7 159.9 17.0 20.2 1700°/ 4 hrTi-35V-15Cr-2Si 145.2 166.3 2.0 1.6 2050°/ 4 hrTi-35V-15Cr-0.5Hf-0.75C 128.4 166.5 8.7 9.4 -- " 122.5 160.8 9.5 13.4 1750°/ 4 hrTi-6-2-4-2 84.0 108.0 14.0 38.0 --______________________________________
TABLE V__________________________________________________________________________1200° F. Tensile TestsAlloys .2% Y.S. UTS % El % RA Prior H.T.__________________________________________________________________________Ti-35V-15Cr 91.2 103.0 6.5 13.8 -- " 93.7 107.2 6.0 11.2 --Ti-35V-15Cr-0.15C 94.4 106.6 5.4 13.0 -- " 89.8 100.3 20.0 37.1 -- " 99.1 100.4 23.0 36.3 --Ti-35V-15Cr-0.625C 73.7 72.7 <1.0 <1.0 1400°/4 hrTi-35V-15Cr-2Si 125.0 137.7 1.5 4.3 --Ti-33.5V-15.5Cr-2.6Cb 109.2 127.9 13.5 22.3 2150°/4 hrTi-30V-15Cr-0.5Hf-0.75C 97.2 112.7 12.5 18.1 1750°/4 hrTi-6-2-4-2 60.0* 65.0* 38.0* 75.0* --__________________________________________________________________________ *Extrapolated Values
TABLE VI______________________________________1200° F. Tensile Tests PriorAlloys .2% Y.S. UTS % El % RA H.T.______________________________________Ti-35V-15Cr 54.7 55.9 20.0 19.6 --Ti-35V-15Cr-0.15C 48.8 55.9 90.9 90.1 --Ti-6-2-4-2 Data Not Available______________________________________
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US3131059 *||Sep 13, 1961||Apr 28, 1964||Gen Dynamics Corp||Chromium-titanium base alloys resistant to high temperatures|
|US3156590 *||Apr 4, 1960||Nov 10, 1964||Cruciblc Steel Company Of Amer||Age hardened titanium base alloys and production thereof|
|US3444009 *||Jun 17, 1966||May 13, 1969||Imp Metal Ind Kynoch Ltd||Method of heat-treating beta titanium-base alloys|
|US3644153 *||Jan 28, 1970||Feb 22, 1972||Surface Technology Corp||Abrasion-resistant materials and certain alloys therefore|
|US3673038 *||Apr 14, 1970||Jun 27, 1972||Atomic Energy Commission||Method for brazing graphite and other refractory materials|
|US3901743 *||Oct 12, 1973||Aug 26, 1975||United Aircraft Corp||Processing for the high strength alpha-beta titanium alloys|
|US3986868 *||Sep 2, 1969||Oct 19, 1976||Lockheed Missiles Space||Titanium base alloy|
|US4040129 *||Feb 24, 1975||Aug 9, 1977||Institut Dr. Ing. Reinhard Straumann Ag||Surgical implant and alloy for use in making an implant|
|US4197643 *||Mar 14, 1978||Apr 15, 1980||University Of Connecticut||Orthodontic appliance of titanium alloy|
|US4422887 *||Aug 18, 1981||Dec 27, 1983||Imi Kynoch Limited||Heat treatment|
|US4512826 *||Oct 3, 1983||Apr 23, 1985||Northeastern University||Precipitate hardened titanium alloy composition and method of manufacture|
|GB1175683A *||Title not available|
|1||"Direct Brazing of Ceramics, Graphite, and Refractory Metals"; Canonico et al; Oak Ridge National Laboratory Report No. ORNL/TM-5195 (Mar. 1976).|
|2||"Ferrous Metals", Chemical Abstract, vol. 78, 1973, 32885u, p. 191.|
|3||"Nonferrous Metals", Chemical Abstract, vol. 85, 1976, 85:181219b, p. 237.|
|4||*||Direct Brazing of Ceramics, Graphite, and Refractory Metals ; Canonico et al; Oak Ridge National Laboratory Report No. ORNL/TM 5195 (Mar. 1976).|
|5||F. H. Froes and H. B. Bomberger, "The Beta Titanium Alloys", Journal of Metals, pp. 28-37, Jul. 1985.|
|6||*||F. H. Froes and H. B. Bomberger, The Beta Titanium Alloys , Journal of Metals, pp. 28 37, Jul. 1985.|
|7||*||Ferrous Metals , Chemical Abstract, vol. 78, 1973, 32885u, p. 191.|
|8||*||Nonferrous Metals , Chemical Abstract, vol. 85, 1976, 85:181219b, p. 237.|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US5397404 *||Dec 23, 1992||Mar 14, 1995||United Technologies Corporation||Heat treatment to reduce embrittlement of titanium alloys|
|US5580669 *||Oct 20, 1995||Dec 3, 1996||United Technologies Corporation||Oxidation resistant coating for titanium alloys|
|US5613849 *||Jan 25, 1995||Mar 25, 1997||Injex Corporation||Dental care material and manufacturing method|
|US5768332 *||Mar 27, 1997||Jun 16, 1998||Siemens Power Corporation||Nuclear fuel rod for pressurized water reactor|
|US5772798 *||Mar 25, 1997||Jun 30, 1998||Siemens Power Corporation||High strength zirconium alloys containing bismuth|
|US5773099 *||Apr 25, 1996||Jun 30, 1998||Injex Corporation||Dental care material and manufacturing method|
|US5787142 *||Apr 29, 1997||Jul 28, 1998||Siemens Power Corporation||Pressurized water reactor nuclear fuel assembly|
|US5790623 *||Mar 25, 1997||Aug 4, 1998||Siemens Power Corporation||Composite cladding for nuclear fuel rods|
|US6319339 *||Apr 3, 1998||Nov 20, 2001||Framatome Anp Inc.||High strength zirconium alloys containing bismuth|
|US6385230||Mar 14, 2001||May 7, 2002||Floswerve Manage Company||Homogeneous electrode of a reactive metal alloy for vacuum arc remelting and a method for making the same from a plurality of induction melted charges|
|US6634413||Jun 7, 2002||Oct 21, 2003||Santoku America, Inc.||Centrifugal casting of nickel base superalloys in isotropic graphite molds under vacuum|
|US6705385||May 22, 2002||Mar 16, 2004||Santoku America, Inc.||Castings of metallic alloys with improved surface quality, structural integrity and mechanical properties fabricated in anisotropic pyrolytic graphite molds under vacuum|
|US6755239||May 23, 2003||Jun 29, 2004||Santoku America, Inc.||Centrifugal casting of titanium alloys with improved surface quality, structural integrity and mechanical properties in isotropic graphite molds under vacuum|
|US6757963||Jan 23, 2002||Jul 6, 2004||Mcgraw-Edison Company||Method of joining components using a silver-based composition|
|US6776214||Oct 1, 2003||Aug 17, 2004||Santoku America, Inc.||Centrifugal casting of titanium alloys with improved surface quality, structural integrity and mechanical properties in isotropic graphite molds under vacuum|
|US6799626||May 14, 2002||Oct 5, 2004||Santoku America, Inc.||Castings of metallic alloys with improved surface quality, structural integrity and mechanical properties fabricated in finegrained isotropic graphite molds under vacuum|
|US6799627||May 30, 2003||Oct 5, 2004||Santoku America, Inc.||Castings of metallic alloys with improved surface quality, structural integrity and mechanical properties fabricated in titanium carbide coated graphite molds under vacuum|
|US6986381||Jul 23, 2003||Jan 17, 2006||Santoku America, Inc.||Castings of metallic alloys with improved surface quality, structural integrity and mechanical properties fabricated in refractory metals and refractory metal carbides coated graphite molds under vacuum|
|US8168117 *||Nov 9, 2006||May 1, 2012||United Technologies Corporation||Method to improve stability of burn-resistant titanium alloy|
|US8349249 *||Feb 19, 2008||Jan 8, 2013||Heraeus Precious Metals Gmbh & Co. Kg||Metal alloy for medical devices and implants|
|US8403980||Mar 4, 2010||Mar 26, 2013||Heraeus Materials Technology Gmbh & Co. Kg||Metal alloy for medical devices and implants|
|US8512486 *||Apr 3, 2007||Aug 20, 2013||Daido Tokushuko Kabushiki Kaisha||Beta-type titanium alloy and product thereof|
|US20040060685 *||Oct 1, 2003||Apr 1, 2004||Ranjan Ray||Centrifugal casting of titanium alloys with improved surface quality, structural integrity and mechanical properties in isotropic graphite molds under vacuum|
|US20040099356 *||Jun 27, 2003||May 27, 2004||Wu Ming H.||Method for manufacturing superelastic beta titanium articles and the articles derived therefrom|
|US20040158309 *||Apr 8, 2003||Aug 12, 2004||W. C. Heraeus Gmbh & Co. Kg||Metal alloy for medical devices and implants|
|US20040168751 *||Jan 8, 2004||Sep 2, 2004||Wu Ming H.||Beta titanium compositions and methods of manufacture thereof|
|US20040241037 *||Jun 16, 2004||Dec 2, 2004||Wu Ming H.||Beta titanium compositions and methods of manufacture thereof|
|US20040261912 *||Jan 8, 2004||Dec 30, 2004||Wu Ming H.||Method for manufacturing superelastic beta titanium articles and the articles derived therefrom|
|US20060021680 *||May 31, 2005||Feb 2, 2006||Li Yue G||Beta titanium alloy|
|US20070227628 *||Apr 3, 2007||Oct 4, 2007||Daido Tokushuko Kabushiki Kaisha||Beta-type titanium alloy and product thereof|
|US20070276488 *||May 16, 2007||Nov 29, 2007||Jurgen Wachter||Medical implant or device|
|US20080112836 *||Nov 9, 2006||May 15, 2008||United Technologies Corporation||Method to improve stability of burn-resistant titanium alloy|
|US20080312740 *||Feb 19, 2008||Dec 18, 2008||Jurgen Wachter||Metal alloy for medical devices and implants|
|US20100047076 *||Jan 8, 2009||Feb 25, 2010||Li Yue G||Beta titanium alloy|
|US20100222866 *||Mar 4, 2010||Sep 2, 2010||Jurgen Wachter||Metal alloy for medical devices and implants|
|DE3720111C2 *||Jun 16, 1987||Aug 8, 2002||United Technologies Corp||Hochfeste, nichtbrennende beta-Titanlegierung|
|EP1002882A1 *||Oct 20, 1999||May 24, 2000||Rolls-Royce Limited||A beta titanium alloy|
|WO2002095080A2 *||May 22, 2002||Nov 28, 2002||Santoku America, Inc.||Castings of metallic alloys fabricated in anisotropic pyrolytic graphite molds under vacuum|
|WO2002095080A3 *||May 22, 2002||Apr 17, 2003||Ranjan Ray||Castings of metallic alloys fabricated in anisotropic pyrolytic graphite molds under vacuum|
|U.S. Classification||148/407, 420/583, 420/588, 148/442, 420/421, 148/421|
|Jan 29, 1986||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: UNITED TECHNOLOGIES CORPORATION, HARTFORD, CONNECT
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST.;ASSIGNOR:BERCZIK, DOUGLAS M.;REEL/FRAME:004778/0982
Effective date: 19861215
Owner name: UNITED TECHNOLOGIES CORPORATION, A CORP. OF DE,CON
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:BERCZIK, DOUGLAS M.;REEL/FRAME:004778/0982
Effective date: 19861215
|Jun 18, 1996||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4
|Jun 20, 2000||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 8
|Jun 29, 2004||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 12