|Publication number||US5214112 A|
|Application number||US 07/578,342|
|Publication date||May 25, 1993|
|Filing date||Sep 6, 1990|
|Priority date||May 25, 1990|
|Also published as||EP0473837A1, EP0473837B1|
|Publication number||07578342, 578342, US 5214112 A, US 5214112A, US-A-5214112, US5214112 A, US5214112A|
|Inventors||Toshihide Shimizu, Susumu Ueno, Ichiro Kaneko, Mikio Watanabe|
|Original Assignee||Shin-Etsu Chemical Co., Ltd.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (5), Referenced by (10), Classifications (9), Legal Events (4)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
1. Field of the Invention
The present invention relates to a method of preventing polymer scale deposition on the inner wall surface and so forth of a polymerization vessel during polymerization of a monomer having an ethylenically double bond.
2. Description of the Prior Art
In processes of preparing polymers by polymerizing a monomer in a polymerization vessel, the problem that polymer deposits on the inner wall surface and so forth in the form of scale, is known.
The deposition of the polymer scale on the inner wall results in disadvantages that the yield of the polymer and the cooling capacity of the polymerization vessel are lowered; that the polymer scale may peel and mix into manufactured polymer, thereby impairing the quality of the manufactured polymer; and that removal of such polymer scale is laborious and hence time-consuming. Further, since the polymer scale contains unreacted monomer and operators may be exposed thereto, which may cause physical disorders in the operators.
Heretofore, as methods for preventing polymer scale deposition on the inner wall surface and so forth of a polymerization vessel, methods in which a suitable substance is coated on the inner wall surface, etc. as a scale preventive agent.
As the suitable substance acting as a scale preventive agent, there has been disclosed, for example, a dye or pigment (Japanese Patent Publication (KOKOKU) Nos. 0835/1975, and 24953/1977), reaction products of a phenolic compound and an aromatic aldehyde (Japanese Pre-examination Patent Publication No. 54317/1980), etc.
However, the prior art polymer scale preventive agents composed of the substances described above include a great number of colored substances as exemplified typically by the dyes and pigments described in Japanese Patent Publication (KOKOKU) No. 30835/1970 or 24953/1977, the aromatic amine compounds described in Japanese Pre-examination Patent Publication (KOKAI) No. 50887/1976, the reaction products of a phenolic compound and an aromatic aldehyde described in Japanese Pre-examination Patent Publication (KOKAI) No. 54317/1980, etc. Where the coating composed of such polymer scale preventive agent is dissolved or peels and then is incorporated into the polymerization system, manufactured polymer may be colored, thereby its quality being lowered.
An object of the present invention is to provide a method and a polymer scale preventive agent which are capable of preventing polymer scale deposition effectively and have no fear of coloring manufactured polymer.
Thus, the present invention provides, as a means of solving said problems, a method of preventing polymer scale deposition during polymerization of a monomer having an ethylenically double bond in a polymerization vessel, comprising the step of carrying out said polymerization in a polymerization vessel of which the inner wall surface has a coating which has been previously formed, comprising:
(A) a water-soluble nitrogen-containing cationic polymeric compound, and
(B) a water-soluble anionic polymeric compound.
The present invention also provides a polymer scale preventive agent for use in polymerization of a monomer having an ethylenically double bond, comprising:
(A) a water-soluble nitrogen-containing cationic polymeric compound, and
(B) a water-soluble anionic polymeric compound.
Most of (A) the water soluble cationic polymeric compound and (B) water soluble anionic polymeric compound per se are generally colorless. In addition, the coating formed dissolves in a polymerization system or peel with difficulty; hence the compounds are hardly mixed into manufactured polymers. Therefore, according to the present invention, coloration of product polymers can be prevented, and high whiteness polymers with an L value of 70 or more can be prepared.
Also, according to the present invention, polymer scale deposition can be effectively prevented, irrespectively of polymerization conditions such as the kinds of a monomer and a polymerization initiator, polymerization form, the kind of the material constituting the inner wall of polymerization vessels, etc. That is, deposition of polymer scale can be effectively prevented even in emulsion polymerization in which polymer scale deposition has been so far difficult to prevent, in the case where a polymerization vessel made of stainless steel in which polymer scale has been so far liable to deposit is used, or in the case where a polymerization initiator with a strong oxidizing action such as potassium peroxodisulfate and the like is used.
The water-soluble nitrogen-containing cationic polymeric compound of the component (A) of the coating is a polymeric electrolyte which contains a nitrogen atom and is cationic.
The water-soluble nitrogen-containing cationic polymeric compound includes, for example, polyvinylamines, polyethyleneamines, polyethyleneimines, polyacrylamides, N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone/acrylamide copolymers, cyclic polymers of dimethyldiamylammonium chloride, cyclic polymers of dimetyldiethylammonium bromide, cyclic polymers of diallylamine hyirochloride, cyclic copolymers of dimethyldiallylammonium chloride and sulfur dioxide, polyvinylpyridines, polyvinylpyrrolidones, polyvinylcarbazoles, polyvinylimidazolines, polydimethylaminoethyl acrylates, polydimethyamino methacrylates, polydiethylaminoethyl acrylates, polydiethylaminoethyl methacrylates. These can be used singly or in combination of two or more; the combination is selected suitably.
Among the water-soluble nitrogen-containing cationic polymeric compounds, particularly preferred are polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyethyleneimines, polyvinylpyridines, polyvinylcarbazoles, and polyvinylimidazolines with respect to polymer scale preventing effect.
The water-soluble anionic polymeric compound of the component (B) of the coating is a polymeric electrolyte which contains, e.g., at least one group of carboxylic acid group, sulfonic acid group, sulfuric acid group and phosphoric acid group, and exhibits anionic properties.
Specifically, the water-soluble anionic polymeric compound includes, for example, synthetic ones such as sulfomethylated compounds of polyacrylamide, polyacrylic acids, acrylic acid/methacrylic acid copolymers, polymethacrylic acids, acrylamide/vinylsulfonic acid copolymers, polystyrenesulfonic acids, isobutylene/maleic anhydride copolymers, and styrene/maleic anhydride copolymers, and alkali metal salts such as sodium salts and potassium salts or ammonium salts thereof; and natural or semisynthetic ones such as pectin, pectic acid, fucoidin, carragheenin, alginic acid, gum arabi, tragacanth gum, hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfuric acid, heparin, keratosulfuric acid, charonin sulfuric acid, limacoitin sulfuric acid, carboxymethyl starch, carboxymethyl cellulose, cellulose sulfate, cellulose phosphate and cellulose xanthogenate, and alkali metal salts such as sodium salts and potassium salts or ammonium salts of these. These water-soluble anionic polymeric compounds can be used singly or in combination of two or more. The combination is selected suitably.
Among these water-soluble anionic polymeric compounds, particularly preferred are pectin, carragheenin, alginic acid and alkali metal salts thereof with respect to polymer scale preventing effect.
Vinyl chloride polymers obtained by polymerization are required to free from coloration and to have a high whiteness as described above. For example, it is required have a lightness index L in the Hunter's color difference equation described in JIS Z 8730 (1980) of 70 or more. The polymer scale preventive agent used in forming the coating according to the present invention makes it possible to prepare a product polymer with a high whiteness and having an L value of 70 or more.
The coating comprising said component (A) and component (B) can be formed, for example, by applying a coating solution containing these components to the inner wall surface of a polymerization vessel and then drying.
The coating solution can be prepared by dissolving or dispersing the component (A) and the component (B) in a solvent described later.
The total concentration of the component (A) and the component (B) is not particularly limited, as long as a desired coating weight, i.e., total weight of the component (A) and component (B) per a unit area, described later is obtained. It may be normally from about 0.005 to 20% by weight, preferably from about 0.01 to 10% by weight. In the coating formed, the component (B) is normally contained in an amount of from 0.1 to 1,000 parts by weight, preferably from 1 to 600 parts by weight, per 100 parts by weight of the component (A). Also, in the coating solution, the components (A) and (B) may normally contained in the same amounts as above. If the content of the component (B) is too large or too small relatively to the component (A), the scale preventing effect due to the combined use of the component (A) and the component (B) may not be achieved.
The solvent used for preparation of the coating solution include, for example, water; alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol, 2-butanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, 2-methyl-2-propanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-methyl-2-butanol, and 2-pentanol; ketones such as acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, and methyl isobutyl ketone; esters such as methyl formate, ethyl formate, methyl acetate, and methyl acetoacetate; ethers such as 4-methyl dioxolan, and ethylene glycol diethyl ether; furans; and aprotic solvents such as dimethylformamide, dimethyl sulfoxide, and acetonitrile. These solvents are appropriately used singly or as a mixed solvent of two or more.
Moreover, to the polymer scale preventive agent of the present invention, for example, a cationic, nonionic or anionic surfactant and the like can be added as long as it does not impair the polymer scale preventing action intended by the present invention. An inorganic compound is also optionally added, if necessary, in such an amount not as to impair the polymer scale preventing action.
The inorganic compound which may be added to the polymer scale preventive agent of the present invention includes, for example, silicic acids and silicates such as orthosilicic acid, metasilicic acid, mesosilicic acid, mesotrisilicic acid, mesotetrasilicic acid, sodium metasilicate, sodium orthosilicate, sodium disilicate, sodium tetrasilicate, and water glass; metallic compounds such as oxygen acid salts, acetates, nitrates, hydroxides or halides of a metal selected from the group consisting of alkali earth metal elements such as calcium, zinc family elements such as zinc, aluminum family elements such as aluminum, and platinum family elements such as platinum; and inorganic colloids such as ferric hydroxide colloid, colloid of silicic acid, colloid of barium sulfate, and colloid of aluminum hydroxide. These inorganic colloids can be prepared, for example, by mechanical crushing, irradiation with ultrasonic wave, electrical dispersion or chemical methods.
The coating solution thus prepared can be applied to any portions where polymer scale may deposit, so as to form the coating at the portions, irrespectively of the material of the portions; thereby deposition of polymer scale can be prevented at the portions.
Formation of the coating on the inner wall surface of a polymerization vessel using the coating solution above, is conducted by first applying the coating solution to the inner wall surface of the polymerization vessel, then drying the applied coating solution sufficiently, for example, at a temperature in the range of from room temperature to 100° C., if necessary, followed by washing with water. The coating thus formed on the inner wall surface prevents polymer scale from depositing on the inner wall surface during polymerization.
The method of applying the coating solution is not particularly limited, and includes, for example, the brush coating, spray coating, the method of filing the polymerization vessel with the coating solution followed by withdrawal thereof, and automatic coating methods as disclosed in Japanese Pre-examination Patent Publication (KOKAI) Nos. 61001/1982 and 36288/1980, and Japanese Pre-examination Patent Publication (KOHYO) Nos. 501116/1981 and 501117/1981, and Japanese Pre-examination Publication (KOKAI) Nos. 11303/1984, etc.
The method of drying wet coated surfaces provided by application of the coating solution, is not limited, either. Following methods can be used. That is, a method in which, after the solution is applied, hot air with an suitable elevated temperature is blown to the coated surface, and a method in which the inner wall surface of a polymerization vessel and the surfaces of other parts to be coated are previously heated to from 30° to 80° C., and the coating solution is directly applied to the heated inner wall surfaces, etc. After dried, the coated surfaces are washed with water if necessary.
Said coating solution is preferably applied to not only the inner wall surface of a polymerization vessel but also other parts with which the monomer comes into contact during polymerization to form the coating on such parts. For example, it is preferred to apply the coating solution to a stirring shaft, stirring blades, condensers, headers, search coil, bolts, nuts, etc. to form the coating thereon. Particularly, on stirring blades, stirring shaft and baffles, the coating should be formed by application of the coating solution. The formation of the coating on these parts by application of the coating solution can be performed in the same manner as in the formation of the coating on the inner wall surface.
More preferably, for formation of the coating, said coating solution is applied to portions with which monomer does not come into contact during polymerization but on which polymer scale may deposit, for example, portions of recovery system for unreacted monomer with which unreacted monomer comes into contact, such as inner surfaces, etc. of equipment and pipes of the recovery system. Specifically, such portions include the inner surfaces of monomer distillation columns, condensers, monomer stock tanks and valves. Formation of the coating on such portions also may be performed in the same manner as the formation of the coating on the inner wall surface of a polymerization vessel of a polymerization vessel.
Where the coating is formed as described above on the portion with which monomer comes into contact during polymerization and other portions where polymer scale may deposit, deposition of polymer scale is prevented on these portions.
The coating formed as described above has normally a coating weight, i.e., a total weight of the component (A) and the component (B) per a unit area, of 0.001 g/m2 or more, preferably from 0.05 to 2 g/m2, after dried.
The coating operation described above may be conducted every 1 to ten-odd batches of polymerization. The formed coating has good durability and retains the scale-preventing action; therefore the coating operation is not necessarily performed every batch of polymerization. Consequently, productivity in production of polymer is improved.
Furthermore, said coating solution used for the coating operation can be used not only for the coating operation on the inner wall surface, etc. of a polymerization vessel, but also for addition in a small amount to polymerization medium. Such addition of the coating solution enhances the polymer scale preventing effect. The amount of the coating solution added to the polymerization medium normally may range from 5 to 1,000 ppm based on the whole weight of the monomer charged.
After the formation of the coating on the inner wall surface of a polymerization vessel, other parts with which monomer may come into contact, etc. by coating operation, polymerization is carried out in accordance with conventional procedures. That is, a monomer having an ethylenically double bond, a polymerization initiator, and optionally a polymerization medium such as water, etc., a suspending agent, a solid dispersing agent, a dispersing agent such as nonionic or anionic surfactants are charged into the polymerization vessel, followed by carrying out polymerization according to conventional methods.
The monomer having an ethylenically double bond to which the method of this invention can be applied may include, for example, vinyl halides such as vinyl chloride; vinyl esters such as vinyl acetate and vinyl propionate; acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, and esters or salts of these; maleic acid, fumaric acid, and esters or anhydrides thereof; and diene monomers such as butadiene, chloroprene and isoprene; as well as styrene, acrylonitrile, halogenated vinylidenes, and vinyl ethers.
There are no particular limitations on the form of polymerization to which the method of this invention can be applied. The present invention is effective in any forms of polymerization such as suspension polymerization, emulsion polymerization, solution polymerization, bulk polymerization, and gas phase polymerization. Particularly, the present method is more suitable to polymerizations in an aqueous medium such as suspension or emulsion polymerization.
In the following, general polymerization conditions are described on each form of polymerization.
In the case of suspension or emulsion polymerization, first, water and a dispersing agent are charged into a polymerization vessel, and thereafter a polymerization initiator is charged. Subsequently, the inside of the polymerization vessel is evacuated to a pressure of from 0.1 to 760 mmHg, and a monomer is then charged (whereupon the pressure inside the polymerization vessel usually becomes from 0.5 to 30 kgf/cm2.G). Thereafter, polymerization is carried out at a temperature of from 30° to 150° C. During the polymerization, one or more of water, a dispersing agent and a polymerization initiator may be added, if necessary. Reaction temperature during the polymerization is different depending on the kind of monomer to be polymerized. For example, in the case of polymerizing vinyl chloride, polymerization is carried out at 30° to 80° C.; in the case of polymerizing styrene, polymerization is carried out at 50° to 150° C. The polymerization may be judged to be completed when the pressure inside the polymerization vessel falls to from 0 to 7 kgf/cm2.G or when cooling water which passes through a jacket provided around the polymerization vessel indicates almost the same temperature at the inlet where it is charged and at the outlet where it is discharged (i.e., when exothermic heat due to polymerization reaction becomes zero). The water, dispersing agent and polymerization initiator to be charged for polymerization are used in amounts of 20 to 500 parts by weight, 0.01 to 30 parts by weight, and 0.01 to 5 parts by weight, respectively, per 100 parts by weight of the monomer.
In the case of solution polymerization, an organic solvent such as toluene, xylene and pyridine is used as the polymerization medium in place of water. The dispersing agent is optionally used. The other conditions are generally the same as those described for suspension and emulsion polymerizations.
In the case of bulk polymerization, after the inside of a polymerization vessel is evacuated to a pressure of from about 0.01 mmHg to about 760 mmHg, a monomer and a polymerization initiator are charged into the polymerization vessel, and then polymerization is carried out at a temperature of from -10° C. to 250° C. Specific methods of the bulk polymerization includes, for example, liquid bulk polymerization and gas phase polymerization for vinyl chloride.
Application of the method of preventing polymer scale deposition of the present invention to polymerization, makes it possible to prevent polymer scale from depositing regardless of materials constituting the inner wall, etc. of a polymerization vessel. For example, this method can prevent deposition of polymer scale even in the case polymerization is carried out in a polymerization vessel made of a steel including stainless steel or lined with glass.
Any additive materials that have been conventionally added in a polymerization system can be used without any limitation. More specifically, the method of this invention can effectively prevent polymers from depositing, even in polymerization systems containing the following additives: for example, polymerization catalysts such as t-butyl peroxyneodecanoate, bis(2-ethylhexyl) peroxydicarbonate, 3,5,5-trimethylhexanoyl peroxide, α-cumyl peroxyneodecanoate, cumene hydroperoxide, cyclohexanone peroxide, t-butyl peroxypivalate, bis(2-ethylhexyl) peroxydicarbonate, benzoyl peroxide, lauroyl peroxide, 2,4-dichlorobenzoyl peroxide, diisopropyl peroxydicarbonate, α,α'-azobisisobutyronitrile, α,α'-azobis-2,4-dimethylvaleronitrile, potassium peroxodisulfate, ammonium peroxodisulfate, p-menthane hydroperoxide; suspension agents comprised of natural or synthetic polymeric compounds such as partially saponified polyvinyl alcohols, polyacrylic acids, vinyl acetate/maleic anhydride copolymer, cellulose derivatives such as hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose, and gelatin; solid dispersing agents such as calcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite; nonionic emulsifying agents such as sorbitan monolaurate, sorbitan trioleate and polyoxyethylene alkyl ether; anionic emulsifying agents such as sodium lauryl sulfate, sodium alkylbenzenesulfonates such as sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate and sodium dioctylsulfosuccinate; fillers such as calcium carbonate and titanium oxide; stabilizers such as tribasic lead sulfate, calcium stearate, dibutyltin dilaurate and dioctyltin mercaptide; lubricants such as rice wax, stearic acid and cetyl alcohol; plasticizers such as DOP and DBP; chain transfer agents such as mercaptans such as t-dodecyl mercaptan, and trichloroethylene; and pH adjusters.
The present invention is now described in detail by way of working examples and comparative examples. In each of the tables below, Experiment Nos. marked with * indicate comparative examples, and the other Experiment Nos., working examples of the present invention.
Polymerization was carried out in the following manner using a polymerization vessel with an inner capacity of 1,000 liters and having a stirrer.
In each experiment, first, a component (A) and a component (B) were dissolved in a solvent so that the total concentration thereof might become the value given in Table 1, to prepare a coating solution. The coating solution was applied to the inner wall and other parts with which a monomer comes into contact during polymerization, including the stirring shaft and stirring blades, followed by drying under heating at 60° C. for 15 min. to form a coating, which was then washed with water.
However, Experiment Nos. 101 to 103 are comparative examples in which no coating solution was applied, or a coating solution containing either a component (A) or a component (B) was applied; Experiment No.109 is another comparative example in which the coating solution used in experiment No. 105 was not applied but was added to the polymerization medium; Experiment No. 114 is a comparative example in which a coating solution containing Sudan B, Nigrosine and Na2 SiO3 (weight ratio: 100/100/100) in methanol (which is one used in Experiment No. 33 described in Japanese Patent Publication (KOKOKU) No. 24953/1977), was used.
The kind of the (A) water-soluble nitrogen-containing cationic polymeric compound and (B) water soluble anionic polymeric compound used, the total concentration of (A)+(B) and the weight ratio of (A)/(B) in the coating solution, and the solvent used in each experiment are given in Table 1.
Subsequently, in the polymerization vessel in which a coating had been formed by the coating operation above, were charged 400 kg of water, 200 kg of vinyl chloride, 250 g of partially saponified polyvinyl alcohol, 25 g of hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose and 75 g of bis(2-ethylhexyl) peroxydicarbonate. In addition, in Experiment Nos. 109-111, the coating solution was added to the polymerization medium as given in Table 1. Then, polymerization was carried out at 57° C. with stirring for 6 hours. After the completion of the polymerization, the amount of polymer scale depositing on the inner wall of the polymerization vessel (Amount of polymer scale deposition) was measured. Further, the whiteness of the polymer obtained in each Experiment was measured according to the following method.
A hundred parts by weight of a polymer, one part by weight of a dibutyl tin laurate stabilizing agent TS-101 (tradename, product of Akishima Chemical Co.) and 0.5 part by weight of a cd complex-type liquid stabilizing agent C-100J (tradename, product of Katsuta Kako Co.), and 50 parts by weight of a plasticizer DOP were kneaded at 160° C. for 5 min. with a twin roll mill, and then formed into a sheet 1 mm thick. Subsequently, this sheet was placed in a mold measuring 4 cm×4 cm×1.5 cm (thickness), and molded under heating at 160° C. and under the pressure of 65 to 70 kgf/cm2 to prepare a test specimen. This test specimen was measured for lightness L in the Hunter's color difference equation described in JIS Z 8730 (1980). Whiteness was evaluated to become higher with increase in L value.
The L value was determined as follows.
The stimulus value Y of XYZ color system was determined according to the photoelectric tristimulus colorimetry using the standard light C, a photoelectric colorimeter (Color measuring color difference meter Model Z-1001DP, product of Nippon Denshoku Kogyo K. K.) in accordance with JIS Z 8722. As the geometric condition for illumination and receiving of light, the condition (d) defined in section 4.3.1 of JIS Z 8722 was adopted. Next, L was calculated based on the equation: L=10Y1/2 described in JIS Z 8730(1980).
The results are given in Table 1.
TABLE 1__________________________________________________________________________Coating solution Amount*1 Amount of (A) + (B) total Weight added to PolymerExp. (B) Acrylic concentration ratio Solvent medium scale LNo. (A) Polyvinyl alcohol acid polymer (wt. %) (A)/(B) (weight ratio) (ppm) (g/m2) value__________________________________________________________________________ 101* -- -- -- -- -- -- 1300 73 102* Polyvinylpyrrolidone -- 0.5 100/0 Water/Methylalcohol -- 1200 72.5 (90/10) 103* -- Pectin 0.5 0/100 Water/Methylalcohol -- 1150 72.5 (90/10)104 Polyvinylpyrrolidone Pectin 0.5 100/300 Water/Methylalcohol -- 10 72 (90/10)105 Polyethyleneimine Carrageenan 0.2 100/10 Water/Memethyl-1- -- 13 73 propanol (90/10)106 Polyvinylpyridine Sodium alginate 0.2 100/10 Water -- 12 73107 Polyvinylcarbazile Sodium alginate 0.2 100/50 Water -- 11 72.5108 Polyvinylimidazoline Sodium alginate 0.2 100/200 Water -- 8 72 109* -- -- -- -- -- 100 1000 72110 Polyvinylpyrrolidone Pectin 0.5 100/300 Water/Methylalcohol 100 1 72.5 (90/10)111 Polyvinylpyrrolidone Pectin 0.5 100/300 Water/Methylalcohol 50 3 72.5 (90/10)112 Polyvinylpyrrolidone Carrageenan 0.1 100/400 Water/Methylalcohol -- 11 73 (90/10)113 Polyvinylpyridine Carrageenan 0.1 100/400 Water/Methylalcohol -- 7 73 (90/10) 114* Coating solution of Exp. No. 33 described in Japanese --tent 10 65 Publication (KOUKOKU) No. 24953/1977__________________________________________________________________________ Remarks *1: Coating solution of Exp. No. 105 was added.
In each experiment, the coating procedure of Example 1 was repeated for a stainless steel polymerization vessel with a capacity of 20 liters and equipped with a stirrer, except for using the coating solution of which the (A) water-soluble nitrogen-containing cationic polymeric compound and (B) water-soluble anionic polymeric compound, the total concentration of (A)+(B), the weight ratio of (A)/(B), and the solvent used are as shown in Table 2. However, Experiment Nos. 201-203 are comparative examples in which no coating solution was coated, or a coating solution containing either a component (A) or a component (B) was used.
Subsequently, in the polymerization vessel thus coating-treated, were charged 9 kg of water, 225 g of sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate, 12 g of t-dodecyl mercaptan, and 13 g of potassium peroxodisulfate. After the inner atmosphere was replaced with a nitrogen gas, 1.3 kg of styrene and 3.8 kg of butadiene were charged, followed by polymerization at 50° C. for 20 hours. After completion of the polymerization, the amount of polymer scale depositing on the inner wall of the polymerization vessel was measured. The results are given in Table 2.
TABLE 2__________________________________________________________________________Coating solution Amount of (A) + (B) total polymer concentration Weight ratio Solvent scaleExp. No. (A) Polyvinyl alcohol (B) Acrylic acid polymer (wt. %) (A)/(B) (weight ratio) (g/m2)__________________________________________________________________________ 201* -- -- -- -- -- 400 202* Polyvinylpyridine -- 0.5 100/0 Water/Methylalcohol 370 (90/10) 203* -- Carrageenan 0.5 0/100 Water/Methylalcohol 380 (90/10)204 Polyvinylpyridine Carrageenan 0.5 100/400 Water/Methylalcohol 17 (90/10)205 Polyvinylpyrrolidone Pectin 0.1 100/200 Water/Memethyl-1- 16 propanol (90/10)206 Polyethyleneimine Sodium alginate 0.1 100/500 Water 18__________________________________________________________________________
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|U.S. Classification||526/62, 526/74, 526/344, 526/202, 526/201, 526/341|
|Feb 23, 1993||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: SHIN-ETSU CHEMICAL CO., LTD., JAPAN
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST.;ASSIGNORS:SHIMIZU, TOSHIHIDE;UENO, SUSUMU;KANEKO, ICHIRO;AND OTHERS;REEL/FRAME:006443/0731
Effective date: 19900827
|Dec 31, 1996||REMI||Maintenance fee reminder mailed|
|May 25, 1997||LAPS||Lapse for failure to pay maintenance fees|
|Aug 5, 1997||FP||Expired due to failure to pay maintenance fee|
Effective date: 19970528