US 531653 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
(No Model-.j 2 sheets-sheet .1.
- 0, SBLDEN'. RAILWAY BRAKE.
No. 531,653. .Patented Jim. 1', 1895..
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Charles Selen/ Jtorney,
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(No Model.) v l A 2 Sheets-Sheet 2.
o. SEHEN. RAILWAY BRAKE.
N0. 531,653. 'Patented Jan. l, '1895.
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' UNITED STATES PATENT @EI-ECE@ oI-IARLES SELDEN, on BALTIMORE, MARYLAND, ASsIGNoR-'fro THOMAS M. KING, oE SAME PLACE, AND THE wESrINeI-IOUSE AIR BRAKE ooM- PANY, on WILMERDING, PENNSYLVANIA.
SPECIFICATION 4forming part of Letters Patent No. 531,653, dated January 1, i ses.
l I Application filed May 1887. Serial No. 238,839. (No model.)
' ling the action of brakes that are operated by the pressure of air, steam or other fluid The invention is designed more especially for application to railway brakes in which air pressure is employed foroperating a piston head mechanically connected with the brake. The object of the invention is to provide a means whereby the power Yof the compressed air or other fluid upon the brakes maybe;
1 regulated,n and whereby 'the engineer `may have control of the pressure and apply the brakes gradually by /reason of the control which he has over the action of a valve orv valves located in immediate proximity to the brake cylinder, and also toprovide a means whereby, when thebrake has been applied tov the full extent ofthe pressure contained within the cylinder and connected passages at the time of the application the pressure may: be still further'augmented by direct pressure from the air supply. Y l
In anapplication for patent filed by me April 2, V188%, Serial No. 90,415, a'v method of.
controlling the action of brakes is shown, and
in other patents issued' to Ine April l2, 1887; Nos. 361,089 and 361,090,1'1 have shown theA desirability of, and the necessity for, devices ofthis character, electrically controlled, inl order to bring-about the most'perfect success and to meet the Various requirements of railroad service. As in the inventions described in those patents,I make use of valves locally applied to the variouscars and under the direct control of the engineer through any suitable agency such for instanceas electricity whose action upon the valves will be practically simultaneous throughout the train and not subject to the laggingwhieh occurs when the operation of all-is dependent upon the opening of a relief cock on the locomotive connected to a pipe leading through the train.
By my present invention I accomplish the following results:
First. Should the electrical energy fail, by v reason of breakage of the connections, or failure of the electrical power, be it supplied by primary battery, accumulators or a dynamo, there would still'remain a way in 4which the brakes could be operated partially,although y with not so 'much success as when the electrical portion of the apparatus is in proper working order.
Second. The power can be applied at the same instant upon every car within the train and the releasement of that power is as nearly instantaneous as possible.
Third. The power to be appliedl is so completely Withinthe control of the `person applying'it that the force may be graduated as circumstances may require.' Y
Fourth. The brakes .having been applied with such power as may have been stored Within the cylinders, if desirablethat power may be ylargely increasedpibydirect pressure'.
Fifth. The arrangement-of t e apparatus is such that should the trainfbeco, e separated the brakes will be automatically; apphed by the power within the various cylinders;
Sixth. The apparatus mayibe used as a direct pressure brake.
In the drawings I inderwith its accompanying accessories. Its air supply and means for governing the same, so far as its action on the cylinder is concerned, are located within the engine cab, but
kit is obvious that the same arrangement, so Afar as the cylinder and accessories are concerned, may be duplicated as many times as it may be desirable, depending upon the number of cars it is desired to control. l p
I am aware that there are in existence automatic air brakes. I am also aware that there are in existence direct pressure air brakes.
In the rst class named there are* many times when the brakes do not apply promptly,
and when they have been applied they do not release promptly, rendering it necessary for the cylinders to be emptied by sending some person or persons from car to car to open the vent cocks of the reservoirs by hand, thus causing delay, and this class of brake does not, as a usual thing, admit of increasing the pressure while the brakes are still applied, beyond the pressure contained in the reservoir on the car at the instant of application.
In the second class of brakes I am aware that the pressure may be regulated by the amount of air which is passed to the piston head from the engine or compressor but should any portion of the train for any reason become detached, that portion which has become separated will continue to move with great momentum as the power to apply the brake ceases from the time that the detached portion becomes separated from the other portion of the train.
The aim of my invention is to avoid the objections incident to the above `systems while at the same time securing the advantages of 2o both.
In the accompanying drawings:-Figure l, is a general plan of an apparatus embodying my invention, and shows the devices employed upon a single car only. Fig. 2, illustrates a modilication in the arrangement of the circuit controller. Fig. 3, shows a modied arrangement of valves and magnets. Fig. 4, shows a modified arrangement of circuits and magnets. Fig. 5, illustrates a modiiication in which a single magnet is employed for operating two of the valves. Fig. 6, shows a modified arrangement of valve and magnet. Fig. 7, shows one way of arranging the controlling magnets for the brakes.
In the drawings A, represents a cylinder in which is a piston head W, affixed to a piston rod P, which rod in turn is attached to the brakes of a car. This piston rod is governed partially by spring S. It would not be necessary to employ such a spring to release the brake if the electrical energy and connecting circuits Were always in proper conditionrbecause the engineer has within his control,`as will presently appear, a means whereby he can admit of the passage of air into the cylinder in such a way as to force the piston head toward the center and thus release the brake; but in order to provide for contingencies which might arise, the spring is used as shown.
In the following description thatside of the piston upon which the application of pressure from the air or other fluid serves to apply the brakes will be termed the rear of the piston and that side upon which the pressure ot air or other fluid acts so as to release or unset the brakes will be termed the front of the piston.
V, indicates a valve of any suitable construction which is placed in a passage N, as indicated and between the rear of the piston and the pipe R, leading to the reservoir G, which is the source of air, gas or other fluid under pressure. The pipe R, is the usual air brake pipe extending through the train, and the reservoir G, is in the present instance supposed to be the air reservoir upon the locomotive and is supplied with air under pressure by any of the well known means known in the art.
The valve V, is controlled by an electro magnet X, which is in an electric circuit extending preferably to the locomotive where it is connected with a suitable circuit controller which may be actuated or operated for the purpose of governing the position of the valve V. Any form or kind ot' electro magnet known in the art and any form cr kind of circuit controller known to electricians may be ernployed for the purpose of governing the valve.
In the present instance I have shown a form of electro magnet adapted to be worked by diilerences in the strength of the current on the circuit, produced preferably by the operation of a circuit controller which will make and break the circuit.
The electro magnet X, is in the present case arranged so as, when energized, to open the valve V, the latterbeng supported or carried by the armature of the magnet while a spring A4, applied to the armature tends to seat the valve.
The arrangement might be reversed as I have indicated in Fig. (l, but I prefer to employ the device shown in Fig. 1, because thevalvc will be automatically seated if the circuit should become interrupted as by parting of the train while to accomplish the same result with the arrangement shown in Fig. G, it would ordinarily be necessary to employ abattery or other generator of electricity on the car. The magnet and valve are contained in a chamber B, and are suitably mounted therein in any desired mechanical fashion.
D, indicatesa cock in the passage N, which cock is normally turned in position to allow free passage of air or other fluid when the electro magnetic arrangements are employed for controlling the brake.
In a ley-pass around the valve as indicated is a second cock D', which is normally closed but may be turned to allow free passage of air around the valve V, in certain contingencies.
When the valve V, is opened by means ot the electro magnet, air or gas under pressure may be admitted to the cylinder A, so as to till the space. at the rear of the piston W, and to apply the brakes unless there is apressurc at the front of the piston suflicient to hold the piston from movement.
If after the charging of the cylinder the counterpressure at the front of the piston should be relieved and the valve V, should be seated the brakes would obviously be applied by the pressure of the air contained in the cylinder at the rear of the piston and in the air tubes and spaces between the same and the valve.
In a passage T, leading from the front of the piston is a valve V2, controlled by an electro magnet X2, which devices may be of any desired description or arrangement and are electrically connected with a circuit controller on the locomotive. The valve V2,is
herein shown as controlled similarly to Valve IOO V, that is to say a spring A3, applied to the armature carrying valve V2, tends to seat the valve, while the electromagnet X2, pulls on the armature in a direction to open the passage T, which latter connects, as does passage N, with the pipe R, or other source ot` air or gas under pressure. I prefer also to arrange the valve V2, as shown so that the pressure of the air or gas in pi petT, will tend.
to assist the spring orIother pressure in holding .the valve seated when there is a relief of pressure at the front of the piston. A third valve V', is arranged to control an exit from passage T, or from cylinder A,through which air or gas may escape. Valve V', is in a chamber B', havingone or more exits Q', to the outer air, and is controlled by any desired form of electro magnet governed by a circuit controller on the locomotive.
I prefer to arrange the electro magnet so that the valve will be seated to close the vent by the pull of the magnet upon its armature, while a retracting spring A2, shall unseat 'the valve if the flow of current over the circuit in which the magnet is placed cease either by breakageof the electric conductor or by the operation of the -circuit controller or key on the locomotive. i,
Leaving out of consideration for a moment the valve V2, it will be seen that valve V', may be controlled so as to relieve the pressure at the front of the piston due to air or gas under pressure so as to permit the brake to be applied by the air or gas confined under pressure at the rear of the piston when the valveV, is closed as already explained. yIt is obvious also that the opening of the vent which allows escape 'of air from the front of the piston will take place iu case the train parts because any current flowing in the magnet X', will cease, and the spring A2, will unseat the valve V'. A
VIn the/passage T, is a cock D2, which may be turned if desired to close said passage.
The magnets X', X2, may be in the'same or separatecircuits as willbe presently shown. In the diagram Fig. l, they are shown included in the same circuit and the interruption of the circuit which willv cause the vent V', to open will also cause 'the valve V2, to close so that there shall be no waste or escape of air or gas from the pipe R, or other source of air or gas under pressure. E
H, indicates a valve or cock on the locomotive under the control of the engineer or other party, which cock may be turned from the position shown so as to open communication between the pipe R, and the vent Q, thus allowing escape'of air from the pipe R. When turned to produce such result the cock H, serves to cut ott the flow of air or gas from the'reservoir G.
The cockdl, may be used without the electro magnetic devices in a similar way to'a cock of a direct pressure air brake (as will be obvious) if the cocks D, D2, be closed and the cock D', open, the magnet X', being at such'v time cut out of circuit so that valve V', shall4 ropenthe vent for escape of air from the front of the piston.
Circuit controllers suitable for use with the devices described are indicated at K, K'. In Fig. 1, they are shown as mounted on the handie of the cock H, but might be mounted and arranged in any suitable position.
The controller K, has, by means of a spring or other device, a bias which tends to keep the contacts open while the controller K',
tends'to keep its circuit closed. In the cirv cuit of K, from a suitable generator of electricity M, B, is included the electro magnet X, for the valve V, while in the circuit ot controller K', from the same or a separate source ot electricity are included the electro magnets X', X2, for valves V', V2.
The mechanical construction of the circuit controllers may beindetinitely varied. In the present case the one circuit controller K, consists of a spring mounted on an insulating support attached to the handle and adapted to be pressed into contact with a stud also mounted uponbut insulated from said handle. The circuit controllerK', consists of a spring which tends to make contact with a bracket also mounted on the handle. The spring of K', is likewise suitably insulated and the devices are connected into circuit in the manner indicated. f
The electric circuits are carried to the devices on the car through electric conductors insulated and combined in any desired manner as will be well understood by electricians. Electric couplings such as are employed in devices for signaling on trains by the agency of electricity may be used for completing the circuit between the cars and the couplings may, if desired, be arranged as has been heretofore proposed so as to automaticallycomplete or break the circuits in case the electric couplings should be disconnected. These are details that may be indefinitely varied without departing from the principle of my invention.
The circuit controllers K, K', may be4 mounted in any desired position and may be of the ordinary button switch form such as indicated in Fig. 2.
The operation of the apparatus is as follows, assuming for the moment that the spring S, is not employed: Cock H, is i'irst turned so as to bring pipe R, and outlet Q,
cuit controller K, valve V, is opened so that Aany pressure existing behind the piston may `into communication and by means of the cir- 6 o ing within the cylinder A, at the rear of the tion the air is prevented from escaping at vent Q', by properly setting the valve V', by means of its circuit controller. When the brake has been sufficiently released by this means the key K, is again operated and valve V, is thus opened, thus allowing air to enter the cylinderA, at the rear of the piston where it is ready to act whenever the escape of air from the opposite side of the piston is permitted by means of valve V', and the valve V, is at such time in position to confine the air behind the piston. So long as it is not desirable to apply the brakes the pressure at the two sides of the piston is obviously substantially the saine, and hence the piston does not move. During this time it is desirable to keep the valve V, open, though this is not necessary especially if a spring S, should be used to counteract any slight decrease ot pressure behind the piston due to leakage.
Should it be desirable to apply the brakes, the valve V, if not already closed, is made to close by the operation of circuit controller K, and controller K', is operated so as to cause or permit valve V', to open (and also preferably, especially if the cock ll, be not turned to cut off passage of air from G to R, to cause valve V2, to shut). In this operation the shutting of valve V, and the opening of valve V', are obviously assisted by the pressure of air at the two ends of the cylinder. The brake is now applied bythe pressure of air confined in the rear end of the cylinder A, andthe passages or chambers between the same and the valve V. The escape of air might be also assisted (if valve V2, should be dispensed with or combined with means whereby it could be opened at the same time with V) by turning cock ll, to admit of direct communication between pipe R, and opening Q.
Should the engineer desire to increase the force with which the brakes are applied beyond that due to the pressure of the air confined at the rear of the piston while the valve V, is closed, he has it in his power to do so and to operate the brake as an ordinary direct pressure brake by simply actuating the circuit controller so as to open the valve V, thus opening the passage for air direct from chamber or reservoir G, with any pressure that may exist or be produced therein.
If before the first application of the brakes by the engineer as before described or during the time when the valve V, is opened for the purpose of increasing the pressure behind the piston, the electrical circuits should become destroyed by parting of the train the valve V, will immediately close thus retainpiston all of the power that had been placed there.
If the train should part before any application of the brakes the interruption of the circuit of X, and the closing of valve V, as
just stated would be attended by the opening of valve V', owing'to the interruption of l the circuit for X', by the breakage of the conductorincluding the same so that the pressure at the front of the piston would only be that of the spring S, (if such spring be used) and the brake would be applied by the pressure of the air confined at the `rear of the piston.
As before stated, the magnets may be connected into circuit in any desired way. Where a number of cars are employed the magnets may be arranged in series with one another or may be arranged in multiple are connections as indicated in Fig. 7, after the manner well known to electricians.
In case through breakage upon any one car of the magnets or their immediate connections or through derangement of the mechanically controlled valves the apparatus should become inoperative as an electrically controlled brake it is only necessary to turn the cocks D, D', D2, of that car so as to cut out the cylinder upon it leaving the apparatus upon the remaining cars tobe controlled and operated in the manner already explained.
Fig. 3, illustrates a modification in which the valves V', V2, are controlled by circuit closers K, K', as in Fig. 1; the action of the springs and magnets upon the valves being simply reversed. Valve V', is arranged so as to be closed by the action of a spring and to be opened by the pull of the magnet While valve V2, requires the action of the magnet in order that it may be closed and is opened by the operation of a retracting spring or other de- Vice when it requires to be opened. Thus it will be seen that the circuit of magnets X, l, in this modification will need to be normally open circuits to leave the valves in their normal-positions as shown, instead of being normally closed circuits as in the construction shown in Fig. l. This modification simply requiresthat the key governing valve V', should be closed instead of open in order to apply the brakes and that the key governing Valve V2, should be opened in order that the passage may be opened for the purpose of releasing the brake through pressure on the front of the piston.
I have herenbefore described the magnets IIO for valves V', V2, as arranged in the same electrical circuit and controlled by the same key but they might be arranged in separate or independent circuits separately or independently controlled by keys K2, K3, ot' any desired form as indicated in Fig. t.
Where it is desired to operate the valves V', V2, simultaneously they may be actuated by the same magnet instead of by separate magnets as indicated in Fig. 5, where the two valves are connected to the same armature and are arranged Within a chamber B5, containing the operating magnet. The chamber is connected on the one hand with the front of the piston and on the other with the source of air or gas under pressure and the valves actuated by the magnet are arranged as shown to control a vent from said chamber communicating with the outer air and an inlet opening through which the air or gas under press- V be destroyed or the electrical energy should fail the apparatus maybe used as a direct pressure air brakev apparatus by simply closing cocks D, D2, and opening the cock D'. In this case the spring S, serves to take offthe brakes when the valve I-I, is' turned to relieve the pressure in pipe R, and when the valve is turned to open the passage from the reservoir G, to pipe R, the brakes are applied bythe direct pressure of air at the rear of the piston.
In order to facilitate4 the releasing of the brake, the magnet chamber B, may be made large enough to admit of another'magnet being placed Within it, controlling a valve to an eXitsimiliar to Q', or another chamber containing a magnet controlling an exit valve may be placed in connection with the cylinder A, to perform this office. This is not shown in the,drawings nor mentioned in the claims for the reason that the bleeding of the drumat each car is cbvered by patent issued to me (No. 361,089) bearing date of April .12, les?.
A car fitted with a brake apparatus such as I have described may be included inv a train fitted with any well known form of automatic air brake apparatus employing an auxiliary reservoir without interfering with the operation of either kind of brake. This may be done by closing the cocks D, D', and D2, and using the cylinder A, as the regular piston cylinder for the automatic air brake, suitable connection from said cylinder being made to the ordinary reservoir, which is indicated in' dotted lines at Gr', Fig. 1, as connected in the usual manner by valved pipes with pipe R, and said piston cylinder, the usual triple valve being used as at T, V.
While I have described some forms of magnets, circuit controllers,&c., I'Wish to be understood that I do not limit myself to specific forms inasmuch as my invention consists in the general combination and arrangements described and not in the specific forms of Valves, cocks, magnets, circuit controllers, da 3.
What I claim as my invention isl. T-hecombination with the brake cylinder and connections therefor to the brake system, of a valve on the car in the passage between the source of pressure and the rear of thefpiston, al magnet controlling said valve, a controlling circuit for such magnet, a second valve independent of the first and having an independent controlling magnehjand an escape passage or opening from the space at the opposite side of the piston controlledv by said second .valve, as and for the purpose described.
2. The combination with the brake cylinder, of avalve in the passage between the source of pressure and the rear of the piston, a controlling magnet for said valve, a valve controlling the escape of duid from the front of the piston, a third valve independent of the first placed in the passage between the source ofy pressure and the front of thepiston, and a magnet for controlling said third valve, as and for the purpose described.
.3. The combination with a brake cylinder and a train pipe having a connection to the side of the piston upon which the-pressure of air acts'so as to release or unseat the brakes, of a valve in said connection and normally open, a second valve normally closed and controllinga vent or exhaust on the same side of the piston, anda magnet or magnets for opening the latter valve and atthe same time closing the first named valve, as and for the purpose described.
4. The combination wit-h the brake operating piston, of a valve on the car between the source of' air or other fluid under pressure and that side of the piston upon which the pressure .of air acts so as to release or unseat the brakes, an-independent connection between a source of air or other fluid under pressure and the space at the opposite side of the piston, and a magnet for controlling the valve so as to permit ingress of Huid to hold the brakes off or to cut off the access of fluid when the brake isV to be applied by the pressure at the opposite side of the piston.
5. The combination with the air brake cyl- Ainder A, of avalve on the car under the con-Y trol of the engineer and controlling a passage connecting with the space at one side of ther piston, an independent connection fromy a' IIO IZO
said valve being exposed to pressure tending ,y
to seat and close it and thus preventing the vpassage of air to thecylinder to release the brakes, and an electro-magnet for unseating said valve, as and for the purpose described.
7. The combination with the air brake cylinder, of a passage leading to the engine from that end of the. same in whichk pressure operates to take off the brake, a valve governing said passage ou the car, a magnet for op-` erating said valve, and a controlled electric circuit leading from the car to the engine, as and for the purpose described.
8. The combination with an air brake operating cylinder having direct pressure con nection to the supply pipe,ot a magnetically coutrolled valve in said connection, and a by-pass around said Valve.
9. The combination with the brake cylinder containing operating piston, of independent passages from front and rear of the piston respectively to a pressure supply pipe, spring S, for throwing the brakes off when both ends of the cylinder are connected to the pipe, and a magnetically controlled valvergoverning communication between the space at one end of the pistou and the outer atmosphere, as and for the purpose described.
10. The combination with the brake cylinder and connections from the piston of such cylinder to the brake mechanism, of a valve in the passage between the rear of the piston and a pipe leading to the engine, a spring tending to close said valve, a magnet for opening the same, a second valve in a passage between the front of the piston and the outside air, a spring tending to close said valve, and an electro magnet for opening the same, as and for the purpose described.
11. The combinationwith an air brake cylinder and connections from the same to the brake mechanism, of two electro magnetically controlled valves, one in a passage leading to the rear of the piston and the other in a passage leading from the front thereof to the ontside air.
12. The combination with the b 1alte cylinder, of two valves governing respectively the communication between thecylinderspace in which pressure acts on the brake piston to unseat the brake andthe source of pressure, and communication between the same space and the external atmosphere, an electro-magnet operating on the valve which coutrolsthe latter connection and normally tending to hold the same closed, and an electro-magnet operating on the first named valve or that which governs communication with the source of pressure, and normally tending to hold the same open, as and for the purpose described.
13. The combination with the train pipe and the brake cylinder, oi' a branch pipe connecting an end of the cylinder with the train pipe, a magnetically controlled valve in said branch pipe, a second branch pipe connecting to the opposite end of the cylinder and also containing a magnetically controlled valve, and a magnetically controlled valve govcrning communication between one end of the cylinder and the atmosphere.
Signed at Baltimore, in the State of Maryland, this ltlth day of May, A. D. 1887.
MURRAY IIApsoN, WILLIAM l BERRY.