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Publication numberUS5352094 A
Publication typeGrant
Application numberUS 07/821,643
Publication dateOct 4, 1994
Filing dateJan 16, 1992
Priority dateJan 16, 1992
Fee statusLapsed
Publication number07821643, 821643, US 5352094 A, US 5352094A, US-A-5352094, US5352094 A, US5352094A
InventorsJohnson Peng
Original AssigneeDuracraft Corporation
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Grill assembly for portable fan
US 5352094 A
Abstract
An environmental conditioning apparatus including a control unit for conditioning a surrounding environment; a housing retaining the conditioning unit and comprising a flange defining an opening, the flange having inner and outer flange edge portions separated by oppositely directed front and rear flange surface portions; and a grill covering the opening and comprising a rim juxtaposed to the flange, the rim having inner and outer rim edge portions separated by oppositely directed front and rear rim surface portions and the rear rim surface portion facing the front flange surface portion. Also included are a plurality of fastening elements securing the rim to the flange; each of the elements being U-shaped and having an inner leg portion extending over the inner rim and flange edge portions, an outer leg portion extending over the outer rim and flange edge portions, a web portion joining the inner and outer leg portions and engaging either the front rim surface portion or the rear flange surface portion, and a latch portion terminating one of the leg portions and engaging the other front rim surface portion or rear flange surface portion not engaged by the web portion. The invention also includes a bias exerting a separating force between each of the fastening elements and either the flange or the rim.
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Claims(27)
What is claimed is:
1. Environmental conditioning apparatus comprising:
conditioning means for conditioning a surrounding environment;
housing means retaining said conditioning means and comprising a flange means defining an opening, said flange means having inner and outer flange edge portions separated by oppositely directed front and rear flange surface portions;
grill means covering said opening and comprising a rim means juxtaposed to said flange means, said rim means having inner and outer rim edge portions separated by oppositely directed front and rear rim surface portions and said rear rim surface portion facing said front flange surface portion;
a plurality of fastening elements securing said rim means to said flange means; each of said elements being U-shaped and having an inner leg portion extending over said inner rim and flange edge portions, an outer leg portion extending over said outer rim and flange edge portions, a web portion joining said inner and outer leg portions and engaging one of said front rim surface portion or said rear flange surface portion, and a latch portion terminating one of said inner or outer leg portions and engaging the other said front rim surface portion or rear flange surface portion not engaged by said web portion; and
bias means exerting a separating force between each of said fastening elements and one of said flange means or said rim means.
2. An apparatus according to claim 1 wherein said bias means is adapted to provide said separating force in a sense that produces a compression force between said latch portion and said other front rim surface portion or rear flange surface portion not engaged by said web portion.
3. An apparatus according to claim 2 wherein said bias means comprises on each said fastening element a resilient arm portion engaging said one flange or rim means.
4. An apparatus according to claim 3 wherein said latch portion terminates said outer leg portion and projects transversely therefrom toward said inner leg portion.
5. An apparatus according to claim 4 wherein said outer leg portion is resilient and the spacing between said latch portion and said inner leg portion is less than the width of said other said front rim surface portion or rear flange surface portion so as to require flexing of said outer leg portion during movement of said latch portion by said rim or flange means defining said other surface portion.
6. An apparatus according to claim 5 wherein said other surface portion is said rear flange surface portion.
7. An apparatus according to claim 5 wherein said latch portion comprises a hook having a cam surface tapered inwardly toward said inner leg portion and downwardly toward said web portion.
8. An apparatus according to claim 3 wherein said other surface portion is said rear flange surface portion; and said grill-means comprises a plurality of spaced apart ribs having interconnected inner ends and outer ends joined to said rim means, each of said elements comprises a retainer portion projecting from said web portion and defining a pair of spaced apart sockets, one disposed to receive one of said ribs and another disposed to receive another rib directly adjacent to said one rib.
9. An apparatus according to claim 8 wherein said resilient arm portion partially forms at least one of said sockets.
10. An apparatus according to claim 9 wherein said resilient arm portion comprises an extended portion projecting transversely to said web portion in a direction toward said latch portion.
11. An apparatus according to claim 10 wherein said bias means comprises a pair of said resilient arm portions, each partially forming a different one of said sockets.
12. An apparatus according to claim 11 wherein each of said resilient arm portions extend substantially parallel to and spaced from said web portion.
13. An apparatus according to claim 12 wherein said sockets define entrances adapted to press fittedly receive said ribs.
14. An apparatus according to claim 3 wherein said other surface portion is said front rim surface portion; and said housing means further comprises a plurality of spaced apart spokes having interconnected inner ends and outer ends joined to said flange means, each of said elements comprises a retainer portion projecting from said web portion and defining a pair of spaced apart sockets, one disposed to receive one of said spokes and another disposed to receive another spoke directly adjacent to said one spoke.
15. An apparatus according to claim 14 wherein said resilient arm portion partially forms at least one of said sockets.
16. An apparatus according to claim 15 wherein said resilient arm portion comprises an extended portion projecting transversely to said web portion in a direction toward said latch portion.
17. An apparatus according to claim 16 wherein said bias means comprises a pair of said resilient arm portions, each partially forming a different one of said sockets.
18. An apparatus according to claim 17 wherein each of said resilient arm portions extend substantially parallel to and spaced from said web portion.
19. An apparatus according to claim 18 wherein said sockets define entrances adapted to press fittedly receive said sockets.
20. Environmental conditioning apparatus comprising:
conditioning means for conditioning a surrounding environment;
housing means retaining said conditioning means and comprising a flange means defining an opening, said flange means having inner and outer flange edge portions separated by oppositely directed front and rear flange surface portions and said housing means further comprises a plurality of spokes having interconnected inner ends and outer ends joined to said flange means, said spokes being spaced apart by a distance d;
grill means covering said opening and comprising a rim means juxtaposed to said flange means, said rim means having inner and outer rim edge portions separated by oppositely directed front and rear rim surface portions and said rear rim surface portion facing said front flange surface portion and said grill means further comprises a plurality of ribs having interconnected inner ends and outer ends joined to said rim means, said ribs being spaced apart by a distance D; and
a plurality of fastening elements securing said rim means to said flange means; each of said elements being U-shaped and having an inner leg portion extending over said inner rim and flange edge portions, an outer leg portion extending over said outer rim and flange edge portions, a web portion joining said inner and outer leg portions and engaging said front rim surface portion, and a latch portion terminating said outer leg portion and engaging said rear flange surface portion, and each said element having a retainer portion projecting from said web portion and defining a pair of spaced apart sockets, one disposed to receive one of said ribs and another disposed to receive another rib directly adjacent to said one rib; and wherein said outer leg portion has a maximum width less than D and said inner leg portion has a maximum width greater than d.
21. An apparatus according to claim 20 wherein said latch portion projects transversely from said outer leg portion toward said inner leg portion.
22. An apparatus according to claim 21 wherein said outer leg portion is resilient and the spacing between said latch portion and said inner leg portion is less than the width of said other said front rim surface portion or rear flange surface portion so as to require flexing of said outer leg portion during movement of said latch portion by said rim or flange means defining said other surface portion.
23. An apparatus according to claim 22 wherein said latch portion comprises a hook having a cam surface tapered inwardly toward said inner leg portion and downwardly toward said web portion.
24. An apparatus according to claim 22 wherein said latch portion comprises a hook having a cam surface tapered inwardly toward said inner leg portion and downwardly toward said web portion.
25. Environmental conditioning apparatus comprising:
conditioning means for conditioning a surrounding environment;
housing means retaining said conditioning means and comprising a flange means defining an opening, said flange means having inner and outer flange edge portions separated by oppositely directed front and rear flange surface portions and said housing means further comprises a plurality of spokes having interconnected inner ends and outer ends joined to said flange means, said spokes being spaced apart by a distance d;
grill means covering said opening and comprising a rim means juxtaposed to said flange means, said rim means having inner and outer rim edge portions separated by oppositely directed front and rear rim surface portions and said rear rim surface portion facing said front flange surface portion and said grill means further comprises a plurality of ribs having interconnected inner ends and outer ends joined to said rim means, said ribs being spaced apart by a distance D; and
a plurality of fastening elements securing said rim means to said flange means; each of said elements being U-shaped and having an inner leg portion extending over said inner rim and flange edge portions, an outer leg portion extending over said outer rim and flange edge portions, a web portion joining said inner and outer leg portions and engaging said rear flange surface portion, and a latch portion terminating said outer leg portion and engaging said front rim surface portion and each said element having a retainer portion projecting from said web portion and defining a pair of spaced apart sockets, one disposed to receive one of said ribs and another disposed to receive another rib directly adjacent to said one rib; and wherein said outer leg portion has a maximum width less than D and said inner leg portion has a maximum width greater than d.
26. An apparatus according to claim 25 wherein said latch portion projects transversely from said outer leg portion toward said inner leg portion.
27. An apparatus according to claim 26 wherein said outer leg portion is resilient and the spacing between said latch portion and said inner leg portion is less than the width of said other said front rim surface portion or rear flange surface portion so as to require flexing of said outer leg portion during movement of said latch portion by said rim or flange means defining said other surface portion.
Description
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

This invention relates generally to a portable fan device and, more particularly, to a portable fan device with an improved demountable protective grill assembly.

Many environmental conditioning devices utilize fan blades to produce air movement. Typically, such devices include protective grills that permit substantially unimpeded air flow while preventing potentially injurious physical contact with the fan blades employed. For ease of manufacturing, shipping and storage, protective grills often are discrete assemblies removably attachable to the operating unit.

Prior detachable grill assemblies have exhibited individually and collectively a variety of disadvantages. For example, certain types of connectors such as preassembled rivoted hinges and closure rings are not easily replaceable after breakage thereby rendering unsafe the units on which they are used. Other devices have protective grills attached with clips that require specially designed tools for removal. Still other securing elements are either costly to manufacture or cumbersome to assemble.

U.S. Pat. No. 5,073,088 discloses an improved attachment system for a removable protective grill. Fastening elements included in the disclosed attachment system alleviate the problems described above. However, under certain conditions, the fastening elements can produce undesirable noise resulting from vibration.

The object of this invention is to provide for a fan device a noise free attachment system for a removable protective grill.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The invention is an environmental conditioning apparatus including a control unit for conditioning a surrounding environment; a housing retaining the conditioning unit and comprising a flange defining an opening, the flange having inner and outer flange edge portions separated by oppositely directed front and rear flange surface portions; and a grill covering the opening and comprising a rim juxtaposed to the flange, the rim having inner and outer rim edge portions separated by oppositely directed front and rear rim surface portions and the rear rim surface portion facing the front flange surface portion. Also included are a plurality of fastening elements securing the rim to the flange; each of the elements being U-shaped and having an inner leg portion extending over the inner rim and flange edge portions, an outer leg portion extending over the outer rim and flange edge portions, a web portion joining the inner and outer leg portions and engaging either the front rim surface portion or the rear flange surface portion, and a latch portion terminating one of the leg portions and engaging the other front rim surface portion or rear flange surface portion not engaged by the web portion. The invention also includes a bias means exerting a separating force between each of the fastening elements and either the flange or the rim. The fastening elements facilitate assembly and disassembly of the grill and the bias means eliminates vibration noise.

According to one feature of the invention, the bias means is adapted to provide the separating force in a sense that produces a compression force between the latch portion and the other of either of the front rim surface portion or the rear flange surface portion not engaged by the web portion. The compression force maintains engagement between the elements and the flange rim assembly to eliminate vibration noise.

According to another feature of the invention, the bias means comprises on each fastening element a resilient arm portion engaging either the flange or rim. Assembly is simplified by forming a biasing arm on each fastening element.

According to a further feature of the invention, the latch portion terminates the outer leg portion and projects transversely therefrom toward the inner leg portion, the outer leg portion is resilient, and the spacing between the latch portion and the inner leg portion is less than the width of the other of either the front rim surface portion or the rear flange surface portion so as to require flexing of the outer leg portion during movement of the latch portion by either the rim or flange defining the other surface portion. Because of this feature the latch portions are accessible externally of the grill so as to facilitate removal of the fastening elements without a requirement for special tools.

According to yet another feature of the invention, the latch portion comprises a hook having a cam surface tapered inwardly toward the inner leg portion and downwardly toward the web portion. The cam surface generates forces required to flex the outer leg portion.

According to still another feature of the invention, the grill comprises a plurality of spaced apart ribs having interconnected inner ends and outer ends joined to the rim and each of the fastening elements comprises a retainer portion projecting from the web portion and defining a pair of spaced apart sockets, one disposed to receive one of the ribs and another disposed to receive another rib directly adjacent to the one rib. The socketed retainer portion insures stable retention of the fastening elements on the ribbed grill.

According to additional features of the invention, the resilient arm portion partially forms at least one of the sockets and includes an extended portion projecting transversely to the web portion in a direction toward the latch portion. This arrangement provides the desired functions in an efficient, compact configuration.

According to further features of the invention, the sockets define entrances adapted to press fittedly receive the ribs, and the spacing between the directly adjacent ribs increases in a direction from the inner ends to the outer ends. These structural features simplify assembly of the fastening elements and insure against inadvertent dislodgement thereof.

According to yet another feature of the invention, the outer leg portion has a maximum width less than the spacing between either the ribs or the spokes and the inner leg portion has a maximum width greater than the spacing therebetween. The outer leg portion width facilitates mounting of the fastening element while the inner leg portion width facilitates demounting thereof.

DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

These and other objects and features of the invention will become more apparent upon a perusal of the following description taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings wherein:

FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a fan device according to the invention;

FIG. 2 is a perspective view of a clip element used in the device shown in FIG. 1;

FIG. 3 is a perspective view illustrating one step in the assembly of the clip element shown in FIG. 2;

FIG. 4 is a perspective view illustrating another step in the assembly of the clip element shown in FIG. 2;

FIG. 5 is a perspective view illustrating the clip element of FIG. 2 in fully assembled position;

FIG. 6 is a cross-sectional view taken along lines 6--6 of FIG. 5;

FIG. 7 is a cross-sectional view similar to that shown in FIG. 6 but of another invention embodiment;

FIG. 8 is a perspective view of another clip element;

FIG. 9 is a plan view of the clip shown in FIG. 8;

FIG. 10 is a side view of the clip shown in FIG. 8; and

FIG. 11 is a perspective view illustrating the clip of FIGS. 8-10 in a fully assembled position.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

A portable fan 11 can be used as an environmental conditioner by circulating air within a surrounding environment. Included in the fan 11 is a housing assembly 12 that includes a cage 13 that defines an opening 14. A fan blade 15 is disposed within the cage 13 and is accessible through the opening 14. Closing the opening 14 is a removable grill 16 formed by a plurality of radially oriented ribs 17. The grill 16 is removably attached to the cage 13 by a plurality of circumferentially distributed fastening clips 18 as described hereinafter.

As shown in FIG. 2 the clip 18 is a U-shaped clip element having parallel, spaced apart inner and outer leg portions 21, 22 connected at their ends by a web portion 23. Terminating an opposite end of the outer leg portion 22 is a latch portion 24 projecting transversely toward the inner leg portion 21 so as to form an engagement surface 25. A cam surface portion 26 of the latch portion 24 tapers inwardly from the outer leg portion 22 toward the inner leg portion 21 and downwardly toward the web portion 23. Extending outwardly from the web portion 23 is a retainer portion 27 that forms on each side of the inner leg portion 21 a socket 28 having an entrance opening 29. Each socket 28 is formed between an edge of the web portion 23 and a resilient arm portion 30 extending parallel to and spaced from the web portion 23. Formed on an outer end 31 of each arm is an extended tab portion 32 projecting transversely to the web portion 23 and in a direction toward the latch portion 24. Preferably, the clip 18 is a discrete unit integrally molded with a plastic material providing resiliency for the outer leg portion 22 and the arm portions 30.

Prior to attachment of the grill 16 over the opening 14 in the cage 13, the clips 18 are first assembled on the grill 16 as illustrated in FIGS. 3 and 4. Each of the clips 18 is attached to outer portions 35 of a directly adjacent pair of the ribs 17. As shown in FIG. 3, the outer rib portions 35 are connected to and extend substantially perpendicular to a circular rim 36 having a planar rim front surface 37 and a planar rim rear surface 38 that extends between an inner rim edge 41 and an outer rim edge 42. Opposite ends of the outer portions 35 join inner rib portions 43 that extend radially inwardly from the rim 36.

During assembly of a clip element 18, a pair of directly adjacent outer rib portions 35 are press fitted through the entrance openings 29 into the sockets 28 (FIG. 3). The element 18 then is slid into the position shown in FIG. 4 with the inner leg portion 21 and outer leg portion 22 straddling the rim 36 and the web portion 23 engaging the front rim surface 37. During this positioning of the clip element 18, the outer cam surface 26 on the latch portion 24 engages the outer rim edge 42 and flexes the resilient outer leg portion 22 outwardly to provide the necessary clearance for the latch portion 24 which is spaced from the inner leg portion 21 by a distance less than the width of the rim 36.

After positioning the clip elements 18 in the manner described above, the grill 16 is attached to the cage 13 with the circular rim 36 juxtaposed to a conforming circular flange 45 that is attached to ends of radially directed spokes 46. The flange 45 includes a planar rear flange surface 47 and a planar front flange surface 48 that extend between an inner flange edge 51 and an outer flange edge 52. Assembly is accomplished by forcing the clip elements 18 over the flange 15 into the positions wherein the inner leg portion 21 engages the inner rim edge 41 and the inner flange edge 51, the outer leg portion 212 engages the outer rim edge 42 and the outer flange edge 52, and the engagement surface 25 on the latch portion 24 engages the rear flange surface 47 (FIG. 6). During this assembly operation, the outer leg portion 22 is again flexed outwardly by engagement between the cam surface 26 of the latch portion 24 and the outer flange edge 52 of the flange 45 which also has a width greater than the spacing between the latch portion 24 and the inner leg portion 21. In addition, each of the tab portions 32 engage the front rim surface 37 to exert a separating force between its fastening element 18 and the rim 36. The separating force is applied in a sense that produces a compression force between the engagement surface 25 of the latch portion 24 and the rear flange surface 47. That compression force maintains snug engagement between the elements 18 and the rim 36 and the flange 45 to prevent vibration noise.

Disassembly of the grill 16 from the cage 13 is accomplished in the following manner. The outer leg portion 22 of each element 18 first is flexed outwardly to move the latch portion 24 outside the flange 45. This operation is readily accomplished in that the latch portions 24 are located outside the cage 13 so as to be readily accessible. The clip element 18 then is moved inwardly on the outer rib portions 35 into the position shown in FIG. 3 and out of engagement with the flange 45. This completely detaches the rim 36 from the flange 47 and allows separation of the grill 16 from the cage 13. Excessive movement of the clip element 18 on the ribs 17 is prevented by an outwardly decreasing spacing between the outer rib portions 35. As shown in FIG. 4, the spacing closely adjacent to the rim 36 is such as to closely accommodate the spacing between the sockets 28. However, a spacing a given distance from the rim 36 is less than the spacing between the sockets 28 and thereby limits movement of the clip element 18.

FIG. 7 illustrates another embodiment 55 of the invention in which the positions of the clip elements 18 are reversed. In the embodiment 55, the clip elements first are assembled on the flange 45 and then pressed over the rim 36. Thus, the web portion 23 engages the rear flange surface 47 rather than the front rim surface 37 and the engagement surface 25 of the latch portion 24 engages the front rim surface 37 rather than the rear flange surface 47. Also, the tab portions 32 on the resilient arms 30 engage the rear surface 47 of the flange 45 rather than the front surface 37 of the rim 36. In other ways the clips elements 18 function in the manner described above to secure the grill 16 to the cage 13.

FIGS. 8-10 illustrate another U-shaped clip element 58 having parallel, spaced apart inner and outer leg portions 61, 62 connected at their ends by a web portion 63. Terminating an opposite end of the outer leg portion 62 is a latch portion 64 projecting transversely toward the inner leg portion 61 so as to form an engagement surface 65. A cam surface portion 66 of the latch portion 64 tapers inwardly from the outer leg portion 62 toward the inner leg portion 61 and downwardly toward the web portion 63. Extending outwardly from the web portion 63 is a retainer portion 67 that forms on each side of the inner leg portion 61 a socket 68 having an entrance opening 69. Each socket 68 is formed between an edge of the web portion 63 and a resilient arm portion 70 extending parallel to and spaced from the web portion 63. Formed on an outer end of each arm is an extended semispherical tab portion 72 projecting transversely to the web portion 63 and in a direction toward the latch portion 64. Preferably, the clip 58 is a discrete unit integrally molded with a plastic material providing resiliency for the outer leg portion 62 and the arm portions 70. As shown in FIG. 8 the inner leg portion has a lower portion 75 with a width W and a narrower upper portion 76 projecting centrally therefrom. The width W of the lower portion is greater than the spacing d between the spokes 46 (FIG. 11). Also, the outer leg portion 62 has a uniform width w that is less than the spacing D between the outer rib portions 35.

The clip element 58 is assembled and disassembled in the same manner as described above for the clip element 18. However, during demounting of the clip elements 58, the wider lower portions 75 of the inner leg portions 61 provide a desirable function. As shown in FIG. 11, the spacing d between the spokes 46 is less than the maximum width W of the inner leg portions 61. Thus, during disassembly, the inner leg portions engage the spokes 46 to prevent rotation of the clips 58 on the flange 45 and rim 36 thereby facilitating flexing of the latch portions 64 into release positions.

Obviously, many modifications and variations of the present invention are possible in light of the above teachings. It is to be understood, therefore, that the invention can be practiced otherwise than as specifically described.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3963382 *Jan 31, 1975Jun 15, 1976Noel Thomas PattonPortable air circulating fan
US4566660 *Jan 20, 1983Jan 28, 1986National Molding CorporationCradle clip
US4840334 *Feb 17, 1988Jun 20, 1989Nifco, Inc.Fastener for fastening elongate object
US4966482 *Nov 3, 1989Oct 30, 1990Kitagawa Industries Company, Ltd.Substrate support of integral construction
US5039040 *Jun 12, 1990Aug 13, 1991Itw De FranceSnap-fastener
US5046223 *Nov 16, 1989Sep 10, 1991Trw United Carr Gmbh & Co.Holding element of plastic
US5073088 *Jan 25, 1991Dec 17, 1991Duracraft CorporationGrill assembly for portable fan
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US5795133 *Dec 9, 1996Aug 18, 1998Emerson Electric Co.Hinged fan guard with snap fit
US6283709Nov 2, 1998Sep 4, 2001Emerson Electric Co.Variable position fan assembly
US6364618Feb 3, 2000Apr 2, 2002Lakewood Engineering & Mfg. Co.Fan body assembly
US6682251 *Nov 9, 2000Jan 27, 2004Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.System for snapping a periferal device to a circumferential edge of a pedestal
US7530783Oct 28, 2005May 12, 2009Vornado Air Circulation Systems, Inc.Grill mounting and retaining assembly
US8821129 *Dec 17, 2010Sep 2, 2014Ebm-Papst Mulfingen Gmbh & Co. KgFan unit for filter fans
US20110150632 *Dec 17, 2010Jun 23, 2011Thomas HeliFan Unit for Filter Fans
US20110274558 *Jan 6, 2011Nov 10, 2011Kathryn ChaseModular windmill
CN100441884CJun 9, 2004Dec 10, 2008亨特风扇公司Fan grill assembly
Classifications
U.S. Classification416/247.00R, 403/338, 24/453
International ClassificationF04D29/70
Cooperative ClassificationF04D29/703, Y10T24/42, Y10T403/648
European ClassificationF04D29/70C2
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Oct 28, 1992ASAssignment
Owner name: DURACRAFT CORPORATION, MASSACHUSETTS
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST.;ASSIGNOR:PENG, JOHNSON;REEL/FRAME:006389/0574
Effective date: 19921016
Dec 11, 1997ASAssignment
Owner name: HONEYWELL CONSUMER PRODUCTS, INC., MASSACHUSETTS
Free format text: CHANGE OF NAME;ASSIGNOR:DURACRAFT CORPORATION;REEL/FRAME:008854/0440
Effective date: 19961121
Aug 12, 1998REMIMaintenance fee reminder mailed
Oct 4, 1998LAPSLapse for failure to pay maintenance fees
Dec 15, 1998FPExpired due to failure to pay maintenance fee
Effective date: 19981004
Feb 27, 2006ASAssignment
Owner name: BANK OF AMERICA, N.A., AS AGENT, MASSACHUSETTS
Free format text: SECURITY AGREEMENT;ASSIGNORS:KAZ, INC.;KAZ USA, INC.;KAZ CANADA, INC.;REEL/FRAME:017215/0696
Effective date: 20060131