Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.

Patents

  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS5355969 A
Publication typeGrant
Application numberUS 08/036,540
Publication dateOct 18, 1994
Filing dateMar 22, 1993
Priority dateMar 22, 1993
Fee statusPaid
Publication number036540, 08036540, US 5355969 A, US 5355969A, US-A-5355969, US5355969 A, US5355969A
InventorsJohn W. Hardy, Bill J. Pope, Kevin G. Graham, Robert J. Farr
Original AssigneeU.S. Synthetic Corporation
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Composite polycrystalline cutting element with improved fracture and delamination resistance
US 5355969 A
Abstract
A cutting implement formed from a substrate of carbide, or other hard substance, bonded to a polycrystalline layer which serves as the cutting portion of the implement. The interface between the substrate and polycrystalline layer is defined by surface topography with radially spaced-apart protuberances and depressions forming smooth transitional surfaces.
Images(3)
Previous page
Next page
Claims(15)
What is claimed is:
1. A cutting element comprising:
a substrate having a support surface formed with alternating protuberances and depressions spaced-apart in a radial direction from the center wherein the bottoms of the depressions are concave, and
a polycrystalline material layer having a cutting surface and an opposed mounting surface, the mounting surface having depressions and protuberances complementary to and in contact with the protuberances and depressions of the support surface, said mounting surface being joined to the said support surface.
2. A cutting element as in claim 1 wherein the tops of the protuberances are convex, and having non-planar sidewalls between the protuberances and depressions.
3. A cutting element as in claim 2 wherein the tops of the protuberances are flattened.
4. A cutting element as in claim 3 wherein intersections between the flattened tops of the protuberances and the sidewalls are curved with radii of curvature smaller than the radii of curvature of the original protuberances.
5. A cutting element as in claim 1 wherein the protuberances comprise ridges arcuately formed about the center, and wherein the depressions comprise channels arcuately formed about the center.
6. A cutting element as in claim 4 wherein the ridges and channels are formed concentrically.
7. A cutting element as in claim 4 wherein the ridges and channels spiral outwardly from the center.
8. A cutting element as in claim 1 wherein the protuberances comprise nipples arcuately disposed about the center, and wherein the depressions comprise dimples arcuately disposed about the center.
9. A cutting element as in claim 1 wherein the protuberances comprise nipples concentrically disposed about the center, and wherein the depressions comprise dimples concentrically disposed about the center.
10. A cutting element as in claim 1 wherein the protuberances and depressions are spaced-apart radially by a distance from the apex of any protuberance to the nadir of the nearest depression, the distance being no less than an average sized individual crystal of the polycrystalline layer prior to sintering.
11. A cutting element as in claim 1 wherein the protuberances and depressions are spaced-apart radially by a distance from the apex of any protuberance to the nadir of the nearest depression of no greater than 5 millimeters.
12. A cutting element comprising:
a substrate having a perimeter, a central axis, and a support surface, wherein the support surface is formed with alternating upwardly and downwardly projecting deformities spaced apart at intervals between the central axis and the perimeter;
said upwardly projecting deformities having tops and sides having intersections therebetween which form radii of curvature;
said downwardly projecting deformities having bottoms and sides having intersections therebetween which form radii of curvature; and
a polycrystalline material layer having a cutting surface and an opposed mounting surface, the mounting surface having deformities complementary to and in contact with the deformities of the support surface of the substrate, said mounting surface being joined to the said support surface.
13. A cutting element as in claim 12 wherein the downwardly projecting deformities of the substrate are channels having concave bottoms.
14. A cutting element as in claim 12 wherein each upwardly projecting deformity is adjacent at least one downwardly projecting deformity and a side of the upwardly projecting deformities is continuous with a side of each adjacent downwardly projecting deformity of the substrate, wherein said adjacent sides are curved.
15. A cutting element as in claim 14 wherein the deformities of the substrate are elongate and have concave bottoms.
Description
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

This invention relates generally to wear and impact resistant bodies for use in industrial applications such as subterranean drilling, and cutting or machining of hard substances. More specifically, the invention provides improvements in mounting or bonding layers of superhard material to support substrates. When the superhard material is diamond the resulting bodies are generally known as polycrystalline sintered diamond compacts or PCD's.

In the following disclosure the term polycrystalline material refers to any of the superhard abrasive materials created by subjecting a mass of individual crystals to high pressure and temperature processes or to chemical vapor deposition processes such that intercrystalline bonding occurs. One class of these materials is generally referred to in the art as sintered diamond. Superhard abrasive materials include, but are not limited to, synthetic or natural diamond, cubic boron nitride, and wurtzite boron nitride, as well as combinations thereof.

These hard polycrystalline materials have been long recognized for their usefulness in cutting and drilling applications. Nevertheless, a cutting or drilling tool made entirely of polycrystalline materials is neither desirable nor practicable because the superhard polycrystalline material is relatively expensive and has relatively low impact resistance due to the high modulus of elasticity of its individual crystals. It is desirable to laminate polycrystalline materials to more impact resistant substrates.

It has long been known that polycrystalline materials can be bonded to a metallic substrate forming a compact, as shown in U.S. Pat. No. 3,745,623. This is often accomplished by sintering the polycrystalline material directly onto a precemented substrate of tungsten carbide by means of high pressure and temperature. This bonding can be accomplished with the same high pressure and temperature cycles used to create the polycrystalline material from separate crystals. An advantage of high temperature and pressure cycling in which the polycrystalline material is created by sintering and simultaneously bonding to the substrate, is that the catalyst/binder, such as cobalt, from the substrate "sweeps" through the polycrystalline material during the process effectively catalyzing the sintering process.

The substrate is bonded to the polycrystalline material under temperature conditions in excess of about 1,300 C. Because of the differences in the coefficients of thermal expansion of the materials, when the compact cools, the substrate shrinks more than the polycrystalline material layer. This can create stress at the transition layer between the substrate and the polycrystalline material which can reduce the effective strength of the bond. Obviously, if the bond between the polycrystalline material and the substrate fails, the utility of the compact is lost. Such a failure may necessitate re-tooling, and thus added expense, especially in the case of deep-well and off-shore drilling applications.

Stress between the substrate and the polycrystalline material may cause fractures in the polycrystalline material, or delamination from the substrate during cooling, during attachment to a tool, or during use. In-use failures are often brought about by impact forces that release stress in the form of fractures in the compact. Ultimately, fractures lead to fracturing of the polycrystalline material, separation or delamination of the polycrystalline material from the substrate material, as well as fracture of the substrate. All of the failure modes are likely to lead to instability, and, ultimately, complete failure of the compact.

A number of configurations have been proposed to overcome the problems of stress in the compact due to thermal expansion. Some configurations suggest the use of three dimensional surface irregularities. These configurations, however have failed to suggest a way to prevent the concentration of residual stress on the critical points such as the intersections of planes.

Other configurations, particularly the configurations disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,604,106, suggest that pieces of substrate material be mixed with the polycrystalline material near the transition layer prior to high pressure and temperature cycles. This is supposedly done to try to suspend the consequences of a single transitional plane. In this configuration, cobalt mixed with the polycrystalline material prevents cobalt from the substrate from cleanly sweeping impurities out of the polycrystalline material during high pressure and temperature cycles. The remaining impurities cause weak spots that can cause the part to fail.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

It is an object of the invention to provide a composite polycrystalline cutting element including a substrate with improved fracture and delamination resistance.

It is another object of the invention to provide a composite polycrystalline cutting element with increased area at the transition between the substrate and the polycrystalline material, without unduly concentrating stress into critical areas, a benefit to both the polycrystalline material and its substrate.

It is a further object of the invention to provide a composite polycrystalline cutting element which will better accommodate stresses created by differing coefficients of thermal expansion between the substrate and polycrystalline material.

It is also an object of the invention to provide a composite polycrystalline cutting element with relatively uniform directional sheer strength and cutting ability regardless of its orientation in a tool.

Additional objects and advantages of the invention will be set forth in or apparent from the description which follows. The above and other objects of the invention may be realized in a specific illustrative embodiment of a composite polycrystalline cutting element which includes a substrate having a support surface with radially spaced-apart alternating channels and ridges. Also included is a layer of polycrystalline material with a cutting surface and an opposed mounting surface with the mounting surface having channels and ridges which are complementary to and in contact with the channels and ridges of the support surface. The ridges and channels may be formed concentrically, or by an outwardly spiralling single ridge and channel pair.

Alternatively, radially, and circumferentially spaced-apart nipples (or dimples) may be formed in the substrate support surface, with a dimple (or nipple) being formed in the mounting surface of the polycrystalline material layer.

Configurations with surface irregularities potentially have greater sheer strength (the ability to resist lateral forces) when installed in one direction, as opposed to another. For example, if the irregularities run parallel to each other, the sheer strength will be greater when the direction of the irregularities is perpendicular to the direction of travel of the composite, and the sheer strength will be minimal when the direction of the irregularities is parallel to the direction of travel of the composite. Great care must be taken to determine the relative sheer strength, mark it for the installing technician, install the composite in the optimum orientation, and use the tool in the intended direction of travel. These problems are alleviated by arranging surface irregularities as will be described for the present invention.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

The above and other objects of the invention will become apparent from a consideration of the following detailed description presented in connection with the accompanying drawings in which:

FIG. 1 is a perspective, phantom view illustrating an example of a prior art composite polycrystalline cutting element;

FIG. 2 is a perspective partially cutaway view of one embodiment of a composite polycrystalline cutting element made in accordance with the principles of the present invention;

FIG. 3 is a side, cross-sectional view of the composite polycrystalline cutting element of FIG. 2.

FIG. 4 is a perspective partially cutaway view of another embodiment of a composite polycrystalline cutting element made in accordance with the principles of the present invention;

FIG. 5 is a perspective partially cutaway view of yet a another embodiment of a composite polycrystalline cutting element made in accordance with the principles of the present invention; and

FIG. 6 is a perspective partially cutaway view of an additional embodiment of a composite polycrystalline cutting element made in accordance with the principles of the present invention.

FIG. 7 is a side, cross-sectional view of yet a further embodiment of a composite polycrystalline cutting element made in accordance with the principles of the present invention.

FIG. 8 is a side, cross-sectional view of still a further embodiment of a composite polycrystalline cutting element made in accordance with the principles of the present invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

Turning now to the drawings, FIG. 1 illustrates a prior art composite polycrystalline cutting element which is made up of a carbide substrate 10 supporting a layer of polycrystalline material 12. See, for example, U.S. Pat. No. 3,745,623. The substrate 10 is bonded to the layer of polycrystalline material 12 at the interface 14. The bond at the interface 14 between the substrate 10, and the polycrystalline layer 12, is formed during high pressure and temperature cycles. After heating and during cooling of such compacts, the substrate 10 shrinks more than the polycrystalline layer 12 because of differences in the respective coefficients of thermal expansion. This creates tremendous stress at the interface 14, which may lead to fracturing of the polycrystalline layer 12, separation or delamination of the polycrystalline layer 12 from the substrate 10, as well as fracture of the substrate.

Referring to FIGS. 2 and 3, there is shown one illustrative embodiment of a composite polycrystalline cutting element made in accordance with the principles of the present invention. The cutting element is comprised of a substrate 20 on which is disposed a polycrystalline material layer 22. The substrate 20 in the preferred embodiment is formed of a cemented carbide.

The substrate 20 is of cylindrical shape and comprises a lower surface 30 which is adapted to being attached to a tool by means of brazing, mechanical interface, or other techniques well known in the art, and a support surface 32 which is formed with radially spaced-apart, alternating channels 26 and ridges 28. The polycrystalline material layer 22 includes a cutting surface 34, and an opposed mounting surface 36. The mounting surface 36 is formed with alternating channels 38 and ridges 40 (FIG. 3) which are complementary with the channels 26 ridges 28 of the support surface 32 of the substrate 20.

A transition area 24 between the substrate 20 and the polycrystalline material layer 22 is defined by the alternating channels 26 and ridges 28 (FIG. 3). The width of the transition area 24 is defined by the depth of the channels 26, and the height of the ridges 28.

The composite may be manufactured, in the preferred embodiment, by fabricating a cemented carbide substrate 20 in a generally cylindrical shape. The channels 26 and ridges 28 are formed in the support surface 32 by any suitable cutting, grinding, stamping, or etching process. A sufficient mass of polycrystalline material is then placed on the substrate 20. The mass of polycrystalline material must be sufficient to fill the channels 26 and cover the ridges 28 during and after the fabricating process. The substrate 20 is then placed in a press. The polycrystalline material and the substrate 20 are subjected to pressures and temperatures sufficient to effect intercrystalline bonding in the polycrystalline material, and create a solid polycrystalline material layer 22. The pressures and temperatures must also be sufficient to formulate channels 38 and ridges 40 on the mounting surface 36 of the polycrystalline material layer 22, which are complementary to and in contact with the ridges 28 and channels 26 of the substrate 20. Pressures, temperatures, and apparatus for bonding a substrate with a polycrystalline material are known in the prior art and are described in, for example, U.S. Pat. Nos. 3,745,623; 3,767,371; and, 3,913,280.

Chemical vapor deposition may also be used to deposit the polycrystalline material on the substrate 20. This is accomplished by coating the particles of the individual diamond crystals with various metals such as tungsten, tantalum, niobium, or molybdenum, and the like by chemical vapor techniques using fluidized bed procedure. See U.S. Pat. Nos. 3,871,840 and 3,841,852. Chemical vapor deposition techniques are also known in the art which utilize plasma assisted or heated filament methods.

During high pressure and temperature cycles, the crystals of the polycrystalline material come closer and closer together. Ideally, all space between the crystals would be eliminated to form a uniform and solid crystal mass. One limitation on the ideal is that bridging may occur between crystals in a line between the pressure source and the substrate 20. Surface deformities can amplify this problem by reducing the distance of compaction between the highest point on the deformities and the pressure source. The effect of bridging in the present preferred embodiment is reduced if the distance between the ridges 28 is greater than the average width of the individual crystals so that the crystals can be compacted into the channels 26.

During high pressure and temperature cycles, cobalt from the substrate diffuses through the polycrystalline material. The presence of the binder metal facilitates intercrystalline bonding, and clears impurities from the polycrystalline material.

As the composite cools, the differences in the coefficients of thermal expansion of the various materials, creates stress between the substrate 20 and the polycrystalline material layer 22. In the present invention, this stress is distributed over a larger interface surface area (between the substrate and polycrystalline layer) than in prior art with a planar interface or transition area. The present invention avoids critical concentrations of stress in the transition area 24 (FIG. 3), by eliminating the presence of convergent planes in the transition area which form either a line, or even a single point, of convergence. Any surface irregularities will concentrate stress which would normally, in a configuration such as that in the FIG. 1, be spread across a plane. For example if the substrate has a ridge with a planar surface which is parallel to the rest of the substrate surface, and sidewalls of the ridge which were perpendicular to the top of the ridge, stress would be concentrated at the intersections of the sidewalls and the ridge. Even worse, if the substrate has pyramidal surface irregularities, both impact induced and thermally induced stress concentrates at the peaks of the pyramids.

It will also be appreciated that a graduated transition area 24 as in the present invention, distributes thermally induced stress more effectively in a third dimension than does a transition area that exists in a single plane.

In the embodiment of the present invention described above, there are an infinite number of lines of symmetry extending through the center of the support surface 32 of the substrate 20. This is significant because thermal expansion projects radially outward from, and contracts inward to, an axis at the center of the support surface 32 of the substrate 20. Because the number of lines of symmetry are infinite, stress cannot concentrate between points on adjacent radii, but are distributed circumferentially and evenly.

The maximum height of the ridges 28 reduces the minimum depth of the polycrystalline layer 22. The apex of the ridges 28 may also serve as point of stress concentration for stresses created by impact resulting from working a tool containing the compact. For this reason, it may be desirable to increase the minimum depth of the polycrystalline layer in the present embodiment by flattening the tops of the ridges 28. It may also be desirable to flatten the tops of the ridges to eliminate lines of convergence of the curved sides or apices on the ridges 28. To avoid points of stress concentration between the planes created by flattening the tops of the ridges 28, and the sidewalls between the ridges 28 and the channels 26, the intersection between the two should be rounded. Doing so will naturally create radii of curvature of the rounded corners which are smaller than the radii of curvature of the previously flattened ridges 28.

Referring to FIG. 4, there is shown another illustrative embodiment of a composite polycrystalline cutting element made in accordance with the principles of the present invention, wherein the channels 44 and ridges 46 of the support surface 42, are arranged in a spiral which radiates outwardly from a central axis. This embodiment has the advantage of minimizing any areas of stress concentration between points on adjacent radii, thereby maximizing symmetry between points on adjacent radii.

Referring to FIG. 5, there is shown yet another illustrative embodiment of a composite polycrystalline cutting element made in accordance with the principles of the present invention, wherein the channels 54 and ridges 56 of the support surface 52, are arranged in a segmented arcuate manner about the central axis.

Referring to FIG. 6, there is shown an additional illustrative embodiment of a composite polycrystalline cutting element made in accordance with the principles of the present invention, with convex spherical protuberances or nipples 66 projecting from the support surface 62. The protuberances or nipples 66 are arranged so that they exist on each of a several radially spaced-apart circumferential loci. The protuberances or nipples 66 of the support surface 62 correspond to concave spherical depressions or dimples in the mounting surface 68 of the polycrystalline layer 64, which depressions or dimples correspond to, and are in intimate contact with the protuberances or nipples 66 of the support surface 62.

Referring to FIG. 7, there is shown yet a further illustrative embodiment of a composite polycrystalline cutting element made in accordance with the principles of the present invention, with concave channels 84 in the support surface 82 of the substrate 80. The sidewalls 86 between the channels and ridges 88 are formed with a continuous curve. The tops of the ridges 88 are flattened.

The maximum height of the ridges 88 defines the minimum depth of the polycrystalline layer 90. The apex of continuously curved ridges may also serve as point of stress concentration for stresses created by impact resulting from working a tool containing the compact. For this reason, it may be desirable to increase the minimum depth of the polycrystalline layer in the present embodiment by flattening the tops of the ridges 88. It may also be desirable to flatten the tops of the ridges to eliminate lines of convergence of the curved sides or apices of curved ridges.

Referring to FIG. 8, there is shown still a further illustrative embodiment of a composite polycrystalline cutting element made in accordance with the principles of the present invention, with flattened tops of ridges 98, curved sidewalls and concave bottoms of the channels, 94. The lines of convergence (92 of FIG. 7) of the planes created by the flattened tops of the ridges 98 and the sidewalls 96, are rounded 100 with a radius of less than the radius of the un-flattened ridge top (28 of FIG. 3). This eliminates the relatively harsh transition (90 of FIG. 7) created by flattening the tops of the ridges to increase the minimum depth of the polycrystalline layer and or eliminate an apex on the ridge.

It is to be understood that the above-described arrangements are only illustrative of an application of the present invention. Numerous modifications and alternative arrangements may be devised by those skilled in the art without departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention and the appended claims are intended to cover such modifications and arrangements.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4592433 *Oct 4, 1984Jun 3, 1986Strata Bit CorporationCutting blank with diamond strips in grooves
US4604106 *Apr 29, 1985Aug 5, 1986Smith International Inc.Composite polycrystalline diamond compact
US4716975 *Feb 3, 1987Jan 5, 1988Strata Bit CorporationCutting element having a stud and cutting disk bonded thereto
US4784023 *Dec 5, 1985Nov 15, 1988Diamant Boart-Stratabit (Usa) Inc.Cutting element having composite formed of cemented carbide substrate and diamond layer and method of making same
US5007207 *Dec 13, 1988Apr 16, 1991Cornelius PhaalAbrasive product
US5011509 *Aug 7, 1989Apr 30, 1991Frushour Robert HPolycrystalline diamond layer bonded to substrate
US5011515 *Aug 7, 1989Apr 30, 1991Frushour Robert HComposite polycrystalline diamond compact with improved impact resistance
US5032147 *Feb 8, 1988Jul 16, 1991Frushour Robert HHeat resistance
US5049164 *Jan 5, 1990Sep 17, 1991Norton CompanyMultilayer coated abrasive element for bonding to a backing
US5120327 *Mar 5, 1991Jun 9, 1992Diamant-Boart Stratabit (Usa) Inc.Cutting composite formed of cemented carbide substrate and diamond layer
USRE32380 *Nov 10, 1981Mar 24, 1987General Electric CompanyDiamond tools for machining
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US5421425 *Jul 1, 1994Jun 6, 1995Camco Drilling Group LimitedCutting elements for rotary drill bits
US5492188 *Jun 17, 1994Feb 20, 1996Baker Hughes IncorporatedFor use in an earth drilling bit
US5564511 *May 15, 1995Oct 15, 1996Frushour; Robert H.Composite polycrystalline compact with improved fracture and delamination resistance
US5605198 *Apr 28, 1995Feb 25, 1997Baker Hughes IncorporatedStress related placement of engineered superabrasive cutting elements on rotary drag bits
US5611649 *Jun 16, 1995Mar 18, 1997Camco Drilling Group LimitedElements faced with superhard material
US5617928 *Jun 16, 1995Apr 8, 1997Camco Drilling Group LimitedElements faced with superhard material
US5645617 *Sep 6, 1995Jul 8, 1997Frushour; Robert H.Composite polycrystalline diamond compact with improved impact and thermal stability
US5669271 *Dec 8, 1995Sep 23, 1997Camco Drilling Group Limited Of HycalogElements faced with superhard material
US5706906 *Feb 15, 1996Jan 13, 1998Baker Hughes IncorporatedSuperabrasive cutting element with enhanced durability and increased wear life, and apparatus so equipped
US5709907 *Oct 10, 1996Jan 20, 1998Kennametal Inc.Method of making coated cutting tools
US5711702 *Aug 27, 1996Jan 27, 1998Tempo Technology CorporationCurve cutter with non-planar interface
US5722803 *Jul 14, 1995Mar 3, 1998Kennametal Inc.Cutting tool and method of making the cutting tool
US5758733 *Apr 17, 1996Jun 2, 1998Baker Hughes IncorporatedEarth-boring bit with super-hard cutting elements
US5787022 *Nov 1, 1996Jul 28, 1998Baker Hughes IncorporatedStress related placement of engineered superabrasive cutting elements on rotary drag bits
US5816347 *Jun 7, 1996Oct 6, 1998Dennis Tool CompanyPDC clad drill bit insert
US5862873 *Mar 15, 1996Jan 26, 1999Camco Drilling Group LimitedElements faced with superhard material
US5871060 *Feb 20, 1997Feb 16, 1999Jensen; Kenneth M.Attachment geometry for non-planar drill inserts
US5875862 *Jul 14, 1997Mar 2, 1999U.S. Synthetic CorporationPolycrystalline diamond cutter with integral carbide/diamond transition layer
US5881830 *Feb 14, 1997Mar 16, 1999Baker Hughes IncorporatedSuperabrasive drill bit cutting element with buttress-supported planar chamfer
US5906246 *Sep 4, 1996May 25, 1999Smith International, Inc.PDC cutter element having improved substrate configuration
US5924501 *Feb 15, 1996Jul 20, 1999Baker Hughes IncorporatedPredominantly diamond cutting structures for earth boring
US5928071 *Sep 2, 1997Jul 27, 1999Tempo Technology CorporationAbrasive cutting element with increased performance
US5950747 *Jul 23, 1998Sep 14, 1999Baker Hughes IncorporatedStress related placement on engineered superabrasive cutting elements on rotary drag bits
US5957228 *Sep 2, 1997Sep 28, 1999Smith International, Inc.Cutting element with a non-planar, non-linear interface
US5967249 *Feb 3, 1997Oct 19, 1999Baker Hughes IncorporatedSuperabrasive cutters with structure aligned to loading and method of drilling
US5971087 *May 20, 1998Oct 26, 1999Baker Hughes IncorporatedReduced residual tensile stress superabrasive cutters for earth boring and drill bits so equipped
US5979579 *Jul 11, 1997Nov 9, 1999U.S. Synthetic CorporationPolycrystalline diamond cutter with enhanced durability
US6000483 *Jan 12, 1998Dec 14, 1999Baker Hughes IncorporatedSuperabrasive cutting element with enhanced durability and increased wear life, and apparatus so equipped
US6009963 *Jan 14, 1997Jan 4, 2000Baker Hughes IncorporatedSuperabrasive cutting element with enhanced stiffness, thermal conductivity and cutting efficiency
US6021859 *Mar 22, 1999Feb 8, 2000Baker Hughes IncorporatedStress related placement of engineered superabrasive cutting elements on rotary drag bits
US6029760 *Mar 17, 1998Feb 29, 2000Hall; David R.Superhard cutting element utilizing tough reinforcement posts
US6041875 *Dec 5, 1997Mar 28, 2000Smith International, Inc.Non-planar interfaces for cutting elements
US6068071 *Feb 20, 1997May 30, 2000U.S. Synthetic CorporationCutter with polycrystalline diamond layer and conic section profile
US6068072 *Feb 9, 1998May 30, 2000Diamond Products International, Inc.Cutting element
US6082223 *Sep 30, 1998Jul 4, 2000Baker Hughes IncorporatedPredominantly diamond cutting structures for earth boring
US6098730 *May 7, 1998Aug 8, 2000Baker Hughes IncorporatedEarth-boring bit with super-hard cutting elements
US6102143 *May 4, 1998Aug 15, 2000General Electric CompanyShaped polycrystalline cutter elements
US6145607 *Nov 2, 1998Nov 14, 2000Camco International (Uk) LimitedPreform cutting elements for rotary drag-type drill bits
US6148937 *Aug 6, 1997Nov 21, 2000Smith International, Inc.PDC cutter element having improved substrate configuration
US6148938 *Oct 20, 1998Nov 21, 2000Dresser Industries, Inc.Wear resistant cutter insert structure and method
US6149695 *Mar 8, 1999Nov 21, 2000Adia; Moosa MahomedAbrasive body
US6187068Oct 6, 1998Feb 13, 2001Phoenix Crystal CorporationComposite polycrystalline diamond compact with discrete particle size areas
US6196341Oct 25, 1999Mar 6, 2001Baker Hughes IncorporatedReduced residual tensile stress superabrasive cutters for earth boring and drill bits so equipped
US6196910Aug 10, 1998Mar 6, 2001General Electric CompanyPolycrystalline diamond compact cutter with improved cutting by preventing chip build up
US6202771Sep 23, 1997Mar 20, 2001Baker Hughes IncorporatedCutting element with controlled superabrasive contact area, drill bits so equipped
US6220375Jan 13, 1999Apr 24, 2001Baker Hughes IncorporatedPolycrystalline diamond cutters having modified residual stresses
US6227319Jul 1, 1999May 8, 2001Baker Hughes IncorporatedSuperabrasive cutting elements and drill bit so equipped
US6244365Jul 6, 1999Jun 12, 2001Smith International, Inc.Unplanar non-axisymmetric inserts
US6302225 *Apr 21, 1999Oct 16, 2001Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd.Polycrystal diamond tool
US6325165 *May 17, 2000Dec 4, 2001Smith International, Inc.Cutting element with improved polycrystalline material toughness
US6342301 *Jul 28, 1999Jan 29, 2002Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd.Diamond sintered compact and a process for the production of the same
US6374932Apr 6, 2000Apr 23, 2002William J. BradyHeat management drilling system and method
US6412580Jun 25, 1998Jul 2, 2002Baker Hughes IncorporatedSuperabrasive cutter with arcuate table-to-substrate interfaces
US6446740Sep 28, 2001Sep 10, 2002Smith International, Inc.Cutting element with improved polycrystalline material toughness and method for making same
US6488106Feb 5, 2001Dec 3, 2002Varel International, Inc.Superabrasive cutting element
US6510910Feb 9, 2001Jan 28, 2003Smith International, Inc.Unplanar non-axisymmetric inserts
US6513608Feb 9, 2001Feb 4, 2003Smith International, Inc.Cutting elements with interface having multiple abutting depressions
US6521174Nov 21, 2000Feb 18, 2003Baker Hughes IncorporatedSelectively thinning the carbide substrate subsequent to a high-temperature, high-pressure sinter and anneal
US6527069Sep 26, 2000Mar 4, 2003Baker Hughes IncorporatedSuperabrasive cutter having optimized table thickness and arcuate table-to-substrate interfaces
US6571891Jun 27, 2000Jun 3, 2003Baker Hughes IncorporatedWeb cutter
US6739417Feb 11, 2003May 25, 2004Baker Hughes IncorporatedSuperabrasive cutters and drill bits so equipped
US6772848Apr 25, 2002Aug 10, 2004Baker Hughes IncorporatedSuperabrasive cutters with arcuate table-to-substrate interfaces and drill bits so equipped
US6872356Nov 15, 2002Mar 29, 2005Baker Hughes IncorporatedSelectively varying material constituents of carbide substrate by subjecting cutter to annealing process during sintering, by subjecting formed cutter to post-process stress relief anneal, or a combination of those means
US6962218Jun 3, 2003Nov 8, 2005Smith International, Inc.Cutting elements with improved cutting element interface design and bits incorporating the same
US7070635Sep 24, 2004Jul 4, 2006Diamond Innovations, Inc.composite composed of matrix of coarse diamond interspersed with large agglomerated particles of ultra fine diamond; agglomerated particles produce sharp cutting edges that are protected from impact forces by overall uniform matrix of coarse diamond crystals; highly resistant to spalling and fracture
US7243745 *Jul 28, 2004Jul 17, 2007Baker Hughes IncorporatedCutting elements and rotary drill bits including same
US7287610Sep 29, 2004Oct 30, 2007Smith International, Inc.Cutting elements and bits incorporating the same
US7493972 *Aug 9, 2006Feb 24, 2009Us Synthetic CorporationSuperabrasive compact with selected interface and rotary drill bit including same
US7506698Aug 29, 2006Mar 24, 2009Smith International, Inc.Cutting elements and bits incorporating the same
US7517588Sep 14, 2004Apr 14, 2009Frushour Robert HHigh abrasion resistant polycrystalline diamond composite
US7595110Sep 14, 2004Sep 29, 2009Frushour Robert HPolycrystalline diamond composite
US7665898Oct 21, 2008Feb 23, 2010Diamicron, Inc.Bearings, races and components thereof having diamond and other superhard surfaces
US7700195 *Jun 7, 2002Apr 20, 2010Fundacao De Amparo A Pesquisa Do Estado De Sao PauloCutting tool and process for the formation thereof
US7717199Sep 20, 2007May 18, 2010Smith International, Inc.Cutting elements and bits incorporating the same
US7757790Feb 10, 2009Jul 20, 2010Us Synthetic CorporationSuperabrasive compact with selected interface and rotary drill bit including same
US7866418Oct 3, 2008Jan 11, 2011Us Synthetic CorporationRotary drill bit including polycrystalline diamond cutting elements
US8020645Aug 18, 2010Sep 20, 2011Us Synthetic CorporationMethod of fabricating polycrystalline diamond and a polycrystalline diamond compact
US8066087May 8, 2007Nov 29, 2011Smith International, Inc.Thermally stable ultra-hard material compact constructions
US8158258Jul 29, 2010Apr 17, 2012Us Synthetic CorporationPolycrystalline diamond
US8197936Sep 23, 2008Jun 12, 2012Smith International, Inc.Cutting structures
US8297382Jan 21, 2010Oct 30, 2012Us Synthetic CorporationPolycrystalline diamond compacts, method of fabricating same, and various applications
US8309050Jan 12, 2009Nov 13, 2012Smith International, Inc.Polycrystalline diamond materials having improved abrasion resistance, thermal stability and impact resistance
US8328891 *Jul 17, 2009Dec 11, 2012Smith International, Inc.Methods of forming thermally stable polycrystalline diamond cutters
US8353371Nov 25, 2009Jan 15, 2013Us Synthetic CorporationPolycrystalline diamond compact including a substrate having a raised interfacial surface bonded to a leached polycrystalline diamond table, and applications therefor
US8377157May 24, 2011Feb 19, 2013Us Synthetic CorporationSuperabrasive articles and methods for removing interstitial materials from superabrasive materials
US8449991Apr 10, 2009May 28, 2013Dimicron, Inc.Use of SN and pore size control to improve biocompatibility in polycrystalline diamond compacts
US8461832May 21, 2010Jun 11, 2013Us Synthetic CorporationMethod of characterizing a polycrystalline diamond element by at least one magnetic measurement
US8603181Apr 8, 2010Dec 10, 2013Dimicron, IncUse of Ti and Nb cemented in TiC in prosthetic joints
US8616306Sep 20, 2012Dec 31, 2013Us Synthetic CorporationPolycrystalline diamond compacts, method of fabricating same, and various applications
US8663359Jun 25, 2010Mar 4, 2014Dimicron, Inc.Thick sintered polycrystalline diamond and sintered jewelry
US8684112Apr 22, 2011Apr 1, 2014Baker Hughes IncorporatedCutting elements for earth-boring tools, earth-boring tools including such cutting elements and related methods
US8689913Dec 13, 2012Apr 8, 2014Us Synthetic CorporationPolycrystalline diamond compact including a substrate having a raised interfacial surface bonded to a leached polycrystalline diamond table, and applications therefor
US8727046Apr 15, 2011May 20, 2014Us Synthetic CorporationPolycrystalline diamond compacts including at least one transition layer and methods for stress management in polycrsystalline diamond compacts
US8741005Jan 7, 2013Jun 3, 2014Us Synthetic CorporationSuperabrasive articles and methods for removing interstitial materials from superabrasive materials
US8753413 *Nov 9, 2011Jun 17, 2014Us Synthetic CorporationPolycrystalline diamond compacts and applications therefor
US8764864Jun 14, 2013Jul 1, 2014Us Synthetic CorporationPolycrystalline diamond compact including a polycrystalline diamond table having copper-containing material therein and applications therefor
US8766628Mar 8, 2013Jul 1, 2014Us Synthetic CorporationMethods of characterizing a component of a polycrystalline diamond compact by at least one magnetic measurement
US8778040Aug 27, 2009Jul 15, 2014Us Synthetic CorporationSuperabrasive elements, methods of manufacturing, and drill bits including same
US20090313908 *Jul 17, 2009Dec 24, 2009Smith International, Inc.Methods of forming thermally stable polycrystalline diamond cutters
US20120018223 *Jul 22, 2011Jan 26, 2012National Oilwell DHT, L.P.Polycrystalline diamond cutting element and method of using same
EP0733777A2 *Mar 21, 1996Sep 25, 1996Camco Drilling Group LimitedCutting insert for rotary drag drill bit
EP0786300A1 *Jan 21, 1997Jul 30, 1997General Electric CompanyComposite polycrystalline diamond
EP0852283A2 *Dec 23, 1997Jul 8, 1998General Electric CompanyPolycrystalline diamond cutting element with diamond ridge pattern
EP0860515A1 *Feb 19, 1998Aug 26, 1998De Beers Industrial Diamond Division (Proprietary) LimitedDiamond-coated body
EP0890705A2Jul 9, 1998Jan 13, 1999Baker Hughes IncorporatedDrill bit with cutting elements having a nanocrystalline diamond cutting surface
EP0902159A2Sep 2, 1998Mar 17, 1999Tempo Technology CorporationCutting element with a non-planar, non-linear interface
EP0941791A2 *Mar 8, 1999Sep 15, 1999De Beers Industrial Diamond Division (Pty) LimitedAbrasive body
EP0979699A1 *Aug 3, 1999Feb 16, 2000General Electric CompanyPolycrystalline diamond compact insert with improved cutting by preventing chip build up
EP0989282A2 *Sep 8, 1999Mar 29, 2000Camco International (UK) LimitedImprovements in preform cutting elements for rotary drag-type drill bits
EP1937868A2 *Oct 18, 2006Jul 2, 2008Endres Machining Innovations LLCSystem for improving the wearability of a surface and related method
WO1997003777A1 *May 8, 1996Feb 6, 1997Kennametal IncCutting tool
WO1997004209A1 *Jul 3, 1996Feb 6, 1997Us Synthetic CorpPolycrystalline diamond cutter with integral carbide/diamond transition layer
Classifications
U.S. Classification175/432, 76/108.2
International ClassificationB23B27/14, E21B10/573, B23P15/28, E21B10/56
Cooperative ClassificationB23B2222/28, B23B2226/125, E21B10/5735, B23B2226/315, B23B27/146, B23P15/28
European ClassificationE21B10/573B, B23P15/28, B23B27/14B4B
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Mar 22, 2006FPAYFee payment
Year of fee payment: 12
Mar 28, 2002FPAYFee payment
Year of fee payment: 8
Feb 13, 1998FPAYFee payment
Year of fee payment: 4
Mar 22, 1993ASAssignment
Owner name: US SYNTHETIC CORPORATION, UTAH
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST.;ASSIGNORS:HARDY, JOHN W.;POPE, BILL J.;GRAHAM, KEVIN G.;AND OTHERS;REEL/FRAME:006502/0335
Effective date: 19930317