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Publication numberUS536512 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMar 26, 1895
Filing dateOct 15, 1894
Publication numberUS 536512 A, US 536512A, US-A-536512, US536512 A, US536512A
InventorsHerbert Crossley
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
US 536512 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

(No Model.) 4 Sheets-Sheet 1. H. CROSSLEY 8v T. BIRNBAUM. MECHANICAL TOY Patnted Mar. 26, 1895.

(No Model.) i 4 Sheets-Sheet 2. 4 H. GROSSLEY 8v T. BIRNBAUM. MECHANICAL TOY.

No. 536,512. Patented Mar. 26, 1895.

(No Model.) 4 sheets-sheen 3. H. CROSSLBY 8a 'I'. BIRNBAUM. MECHANICAL TOY.

No. 536,512. Y Patented Maur'.A 26, 1895.

. jira/25036? @715.97% am?? y X9' Headonz'z ZJWZ.

(No M oael.) 4 4 sheets-sheet 4.. H. GROSSLBY 8v T. BIRNBAUM.

MECHANICAL TOY. f No. 536,512. Patented Mar'. 26, 1895,.




SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 536,512, dated March 26, 1895. Appucauon flied center 15,1894. senti No. 526,001. (No model.)

Bri-tain, have invented new and useful Im-l provements in Mechanical Toys, of which the following is a specification.

extended or unfolded positions.

This invention has reference to certain constructions of parts of mechanical toys especially adapted for toys made Wholly or mainly of india rubber so as to enhance the pleasure and amusement aorded by their exhibition by enlarging the range'of imitativeness and life like appearancel in their performances Without so increasing their cost as to preclude their general sale.

Our improved toys can be varied considerably as to the outward form-whether they are made to resemble an animal, a bird, a reptile or any other animate or inanimate-moving object-and although in explaining the construction and operation of out` improved toys we have selected as an illustration a frog, We do not by any means intend thereby to limit the range of application of the 'invention.

The material which We have found most convenientlyto lend itself to our purpose is india rubber but other suitable elastic material can be employed alone or in combination therewith.

Where it is merely desired to protract and retract the limbs or parts of the animal or toy the body and parts are formed either in one main hollow construction, or in separately inflatable chambers, and by pressure of duid passed thereinto as hereinafter described the normally exetl, cramped, folded or retracted positions of the limbs, parts or like connections, are altered to mo're or less protracted, The rate or rapidity of such expansion can also be readily adjusted, controlled and adapted to imitate the habits of the object portrayed.

In the bod or partsof the toy maybe spaces or chambers which. in the case of a toy designed to be causedeto dive are normally accessible tov the liquid`in-wh`ich the toy is to to the limbs or parts of 'the natant toy may be given by means of the pump or Huid pressure, the access of pressure distending the limbs or parts, by the enlargement or distending of the joints and the Withdrawal of the pressure allowing them to retract, the manipulation of the pressure affording means of imitating the characteristic movements. The pump, or distender being cap'able of concealment in the hand, or about the person, or under the foot of the operator and the pipes of communication being capable of being made very small and inconspicuous, an element of 'reality is given to the movements of the elastic distensible toy not before attainable by such simple-means.

So far as we are aware pneumatic inflation` in toys has only been utilized to distend an elastic body as in the case of a balloon, or equivalent bladder like body, or by causing the distention of a bellows or similar mechanism to give motion by concealed means to levers or arms acting in conjunction with springs to cause relative movements to the body and limbs of mechanical toys, but We make no claim to any such constructions as on the contrary we have found that levers andsprings are liable to get outof order and detract from the naturalness of the construction imitated.

Weighting of some of the parts of the toys may be adopted but separately considered this forms no part of our invention.

The separate chambers may be separately inflated by separate passages to which pressure from the pump, or forcer, is conveyed by tubing or one chamber may be in duid connection with the tube conveying the fluid pressure and another chamber say an inflatable bag' for the diving regulation may only receive its access of air or tlufid ywhen a certain amount of pressure is reached sufficient IOO to overcome the resistance offered by the valve controlling the passage waybetween these chambers, and stops applied to the fluid pressure tubes may afford means of selecting those to be operated.

In the annexed drawings Figure 1, is aplan view, partly in section, of a toy frog embodying our invention. Fig. 2 represents the body portion of the toy partly iu section and with the interior bladder or distention chamber partly broken away and shown in its inflated condition. Fig.' 3 shows one of the hind legs separately, looking toward the joints on the outside. Figs. 4 and 5 show sections taken relatively at right angles to each other to show the method of forming the joints by building up superposed thicknesses of rubber sheet and cutting or removing portions of' the inner tube at places wherein the molding the joints or expansible vessels are to be formed. Fig. 6 isapartly sectionalplan illustratinga modiflcation in the arrangement of chambers in the body portion of the toy. Figs.7and8are sectional views of the modified form of toy body, at right angles to Fig. 6. Fig. 9 is a cross-section of leg at 1--1 of Fig. 6. Fig. 10 is a plan of the lower end. of leg, and Fig. 1l a cross-section of the same at 2-2, Fig. 10. Fig. l2 is a sectional view of a toy frog showing modifications in the means for eecting inflation, the iullating device being provided with a plurality of tubes. Fig. 13 is a sectional view of a bi-tubular intlating device. Fig. let is a section of one half of a toy frog with limbs in normally flexed position. Fig. 15 is an exterior view of the other half of the toy frog with limbs extended.

Referring, first, to Fig. l, the letter a designates the skin or casing of the toy frog, which may be composed of india rubber or other suitable elastic material.

b is the body of the frog containing the air vessel c. This body chamber b has passages h for inlet and exit of Water when the frog is in that medium.

d is an air passage which is continued down the hind legs; and by the tube c is in communication with the chamber c, such communication being controlled by a valve at c2. e is a tube leading from this passage d to a suitable air forcing means (as an air injector rubber ball see f in Fig. 6).

In the modified construction shown in Fig.

` 6, the body b is divided into two chambers by theinclined elastic partition b2 shown more clearly by the twocross sections Figs. 7 and 8, d being an air receptacle capable of dilation and g being water space contractible by the dilation of the partition b2.

In the tube e we prefer to insert a short length of rigid and heavier tubing, so as to aid in the sinking of the said tube below and free of the frog body and generally to facilitate correct operation.

Taking as an example the foregoing illustrations of a practical embodiment of the invention in a frog which is to be made at will to crawl, spring, swim, or dive, the operator holds the distending device or inflater or deflater f and by the tube e effects inflation and deflation of' an invisible bladder or vessel c within the body b so that specific gravity of the toy maybe made lessor greater than that ofthe Water, (or being so desired the body may distend also) and the toy be caused to swim or sink. Gradual deflation may be provided forby a pin hole in the vessel c. At the same time the inflating fluid may pass to vessels which when inflated or deflated .control the connected limbs, or parts, suitable valvular stops operated by the performer enabling selection of the parts operated to be effected.

By forming the limbs or parts 7L with spaces or chambers h suitably located therein with a normal tendency to keep a contracted form, as when a frog has his limbs tucked up ready for a jump (as shown by the left hind leg in Figs. l and (i) and providing fluid passages connected either through the body bladder or directly to the distender f held by the performer, a slow crawling progression or a sudden jump or swimming or diving action can with a little practice be readily obtained, by the adjustment of the force of distention.

According to a modification illustrated in Figs. 12 and 13 the distenderf may be provided with duplicate tubes or a set ot' tubes connecting it to the toy, the selected tubes being put into or kept out of use by valves acted on by the performers lingers. In this instance the hind legs are operated in the manner already described while the front legs t', which are formed with collapsible recesses fi', are in communication with the distender f by a separate tube e', here shown a? connected by a branch tube c2 for supply o air.

Stop pieces or valvesf f are provided adjacent to the junction of the tubes e e with the distenderf by which the performer may IOO close one or other tube thereby regulating the supply of air to the selected limb or limbs. By such means varied movements may be given to a selected limb or limbs and they may be operated as desired.

In using the examples already described as a diving toy, the body b by suitable inlets 1)' becomes more or less filled with water which the inflation of the vessel d or bladder c within more or less displaces allowing the toy to rise or fall therein While the impulses to the limbs produce motion; or in some cases the inlet and exit b see Figs. 7 and 8 may be at about the point 3 so that emission of water thereabout may aid progression in the water in which the toy is swimming.

In Figs. le and 15 is showna modified construction in which the inflation and deflation of the whole body and limbs of the toy is effected from one tube connected at e'.

The body or main bladder may be fed by a separate tube,or by means of a suitably con- IIO device connected with the body portion of Y the toy by a tube or tubes, whereby thebody and limbs may be caused to move in a natural manner, substantially as described.

2. A mechanical toy having a body portion inclosing an inflatable chamber and provided with hollow normally flexed limbs inl communication with said chamber and adapted to be inflated and thereby caused to assume extended positions, substantially as described.

3. A mechanical toy composed of a body portion having hollow normally flexed limbs adapted to be extended by inflation and provided with hollow joints that constitute expansible vessels or chambers in said limbs, substantially as described.

In testimony whereof we, the said HERBERT GRossLEY and THEODORE BIRNBAUM, have hereunto set our hands this 27th day of September, 1894.


Witnesses to Herbert Crossleys signature:

T. F. BARNES, v W. J. NoRWooD, Both of 17 Gracechurch Si., London, E. O.

Witnesses to Theodore Birnbaums signature:


Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2544178 *Dec 11, 1947Mar 6, 1951Pfahler Lloyd LFrog fish lure
US2583660 *Nov 30, 1950Jan 29, 1952Mark MooreLiquid lure ejecting device useful in fishing
US2738611 *May 3, 1954Mar 20, 1956Miller Milo CFishing lures
US2796605 *Mar 4, 1955Jun 18, 1957Ashley Irie RArtificial fish bait
US4583957 *Mar 8, 1984Apr 22, 1986Levy Henry APneumatically-operated robotic toy
US4606328 *Jun 16, 1983Aug 19, 1986Thoman Evelyn BMethod and apparatus for treating breathing irregularities
US5205774 *Jul 10, 1991Apr 27, 1993Fox Valley Systems, Inc.Animation method and device
US5335436 *Jan 27, 1993Aug 9, 1994Mca Recreation Services, Inc.Animal prop using air bags
US5474485 *Jun 21, 1994Dec 12, 1995Smrt; Thomas J.Animation method and device
US6322417 *Feb 4, 2000Nov 27, 2001Mattel Inc.Air-driven hopping toy
US20110146858 *Dec 18, 2009Jun 23, 2011Parks Jeffrey BProtective cover for goggles
WO1991012863A1 *Feb 20, 1991Sep 5, 1991Fox Valley Systems, Inc.Animation method and device
Cooperative ClassificationA63H13/00