US 540328 A
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(N6 Mode l.)
H. MAXIM. CARTRIDGE AND CHARGE THEREFOR.-
No. 540,328. Patented Julie 4, 1895.
. INVENTOR ATTOR N EYS HUDSON MAXIM, or NEW YORK, N. v.
CARTRIDGE AND CHARQE THEREFO R.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 540,328,
dated June '4, 1895.
Application filed January 31, 1394. Serial madam. (No model.)
To all whom i may concern Be it known that I, HUDSON MAXIM, a citizen of the United States of America, residing in the city, county, and State of "New York, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Cartridges and Charges Therefor, of which the following is a specification.
Th1s invention relates generally to cartridges for small arms or rapid fire guns, and more particularly is directed to the powder charge and the shell and their relations to each other and to the projectile.
My improvements contemplate the use of a powder chargeof an impervious nature, that is to say, impervious to the gases of combustron as distinguished from charges which are a granular in structure though in compressed or cake form, such impervious powder being, for instance, of the character described in my Letters Patent No. 411,127, dated September 17, 1889, which consists of an impervious col-' loid of pyroxyliu made by means of a volatile solvent of the pyroxylin with or without an admixture of nitro-glycerine, constituting an amorphous solid or mass which, while in a plastic condition, is capable of being shaped,
molded-or pressed to any desired form.
In carrying out my invention this impervious powder charge is formed preferably in long cylindrical rods havinga plurality of Iongitudinal perforations extending from end to end of the rod, which rod of the required diameter may be cut into lengths adapted to the' body of the main explosive charge. This ignition' disk is preferably made of the fulminating compound set forth in my pending'appli'cati'on, Serial No. 486,978, filed October 2,
189-3, consisting of an agglutinated mass of a fulminate and an explosive base. The detonation of the cap and combination of the ignition disk communicate aflame to and throughout the said longitudinal *perfora\ tionsof the explosive charge and the combustion of the latter will begin on the interior wallsor surfaces of the perforations, and, on account of the impervious character of the charge as already mentioned, proceeding radially outward from each perforation in what may be termed a gradual manner no by the gases of combustion are evolved in a degree continuously increasing up to a certain limit, and the projectile propelled with an accelerating speed.
The cartridge shell is made slightly tapering exteriorly from the head or base to the forward end of what may be termed its main portion,and from such point forward the shell .is preferably made with an extension of about one-half the thickness which it has at the end forward of said main portion, so that when the base of the projectile is forced into the thin frontend of the shell the latter will be expanded to the same exterior diameter as the forward end of said main portion. Interior-lythe shell is cylindrical, its walls being somewhat thicker at the rear than at the front end, and in it the powder charge in the form of ared or solid body as aforesaid,of uniform cross-section, fits neatly, occupying practically all of the interior space. The shell is 'thus enabled to'act'as an eflicient restraining means to prevent disruption of the explosive rod or, solid under the pressure of the interiorly'generate'd gases. An important advantage of this improvement is that from the sma'lltransversedimension at the powder chamber much higher pressures may be had in the gun without danger of straining such chamber or the mechanism of the gun. The gun will not have to be made so heavy at the base to stand the strains, neither will the breechmechanism require ,to be so heavy.'. v
A further important advantage is that the cartridges made in this way being of practically uniform diameter, or straight, can be much better packed in magazines than those having a neckandprojectile of much less diameter than their main portion,.and alarger numberof them can be carried by a man. The recoil from a gun charged with my i'm-.
proved cartridge will not be nearly so much as that caused by the usual form of cartridge.
IVhile I prefer to make my improved explosive charge in a single piece, such form is not necessary, and for some purposes it may be desired, especially for large or long car; tridges to make the charge in separate pieces or sections which may be united together to form a charge of any required strength or may be loaded successively into the shell in the required number.
It will be understood that certain important advantages 'of' my invention reside in the powder charge independent of anyparticular form of shell. 1 4
Such being in general the leading features of my invention, I have, in order to make the same more clearly understood, shown in the accompanying drawings means for carrying it into practical efiect, without limiting the improvements in their useful applications to the particular construction which, for the sake of illustration, I have delineated.
' live view of the-described explosivecharge.
In said drawings, Figure 1 is a longitudinal sectional view of a cartridge embodying my invention. Fig. 2 is a similar view of the shell before the insertion of the explosive charge and ball. Fig. 3 is a similar view of the forward portion of the shell, showing its ultimateform. Fig.4isatransversesectional view on line 4 4, Fig.1. Fig. 5 is a perspecin the form of a rod or solid independent of the shell. Fig. 6 is aseetional view showing such rod as composed of aplurality of sections. In the drawings some of the proportions are slightly exaggerated for greater distinctness of illustration.
Referring to thedrawings, A indicates a cartridge shell of suitable material such as brass or copper, having a body or main portion a, which exteriorly is somewhat taperingto facilitate insertion into and removal from the gun, but which 'is interiorlyof uniform diameter so that it may be entirely occupied by the explosive,-which-is shown at O in the form of a rod or solid consisting of an impervious colloid of pyroxylin formed with a plurality of longitudinal perforations II.- At its forward end the shell isformed with an extension a' of less externaldiaineter than that preferred form of priming and igniting devices, such as a fulmiiiate cap d, and wafer n, made of the compound hereinbe'fore referred to.
In the manufacture of the shell the explosive rod or solid 0 is inserted into the shell, either in a single piece or in sections (Fig. 6),
and will fit therein so as to be held by the walls of the shell from disruption by the gases generated within theperforations t. The ball or projectile, shown at B, is then inserted.
Such projectile is of a diameter at its base 1. A cartridge shellhaving a contained explosive charge of cylindrical rod form ofthe diameter of the shell and adapted to be inserted in the shell in such rod form, said rod having an inner concaved end with a disk of fulminate seated at said concaved end, as set forth.
2. The herein described cartridge consisting of a shell tapering exterior-1y, having the interior of-its main body of uniform diameter and having a forward portion or extension of slightly greater interior diameter than said main portion and adapted to hold a projectile.
3. The herein described cartridge consist- 5 ing of a shell-tapering exteriorly, having the interior of its main body of uniform diameter and having a forward portion or extension of slightly greater interior diameter than said main portion, aprojeetile held in said extension, and a powder charge in the form of a rod or solid fitting theinteriorof the main body of the shell, substantially as set forth.
4. The herein described cartridge consisting of a shell tapering exteriorly, having the interior of its main body of uniform diameter and having a forward portion or extension of slightly greater interior diameter than said too main portion and of an exterior diameter uniform with that of the forward end of said main b0dy,a projectile held in said extension, and a powder charge in the form of a rod or solid fitting the interior of the main body of the shell, substantially as set forth.
' In testimony whereof I have hereunto signed my name in the presence of two witnesses.
- E. L. Tom),
H. N. Low.