|Publication number||US5415633 A|
|Application number||US 08/098,205|
|Publication date||May 16, 1995|
|Filing date||Jul 28, 1993|
|Priority date||Jul 28, 1993|
|Also published as||EP0712320A1, EP0712320A4, WO1995004556A2, WO1995004556A3|
|Publication number||08098205, 098205, US 5415633 A, US 5415633A, US-A-5415633, US5415633 A, US5415633A|
|Inventors||Kenneth B. Lazarus, Edward E. Crawley, Richard D. Fish|
|Original Assignee||Active Control Experts, Inc.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (8), Non-Patent Citations (1), Referenced by (200), Classifications (13), Legal Events (5)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
The present invention relates to steering devices such as may be used with catheters, cannulae, guidewires and the like. More particularly, the present invention relates to catheters and guidewires that are steerable through body lumena or cavities, and are positioned within or aimed at obstructions, organs, or tissue within the body from a position external to the body.
Medical catheters generally comprise elongate tube-like members which may be inserted into the body, either percutaneously or via a body orifice, for any of a wide variety of diagnostic and interventional purposes. Such medical applications frequently require use of a catheter having the ability to negotiate twists and turns; this is particularly the case with regard to certain cardiovascular applications.
For such applications, the object is to reach and deliver some treatment or instrument to a remote lesion. Often, it is required that the instrument cross the lesion, which may consist of hard and inflexible tissue with a very rough surface, or even protruding flaps.
One such application, Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty (balloon angioplasty), requires manipulation of a catheter from a position outside the patient's body through extended portions of the patient's arterial system to the stenotic site for the purposes of alleviating the lesion by inflating a balloon. This particular procedure, performed with increasing frequency over the past years, is done in preference to open heart bypass surgery, when possible.
In a typical angioplasty procedure, a guidewire is transluminally inserted into the brachial or the femoral artery, to be positioned within the stenotic region and followed by a balloon catheter. The cardiologist usually pre-bends the distal tip of the guidewire before insertion and then rotates (or torques) the wire once it has reached a branch artery to enable the tip of the guidewire to enter the branch. If the angle of the bend needs to be adjusted, the guidewire is removed, re-bent and reinserted, sometimes several times during one angioplasty procedure. Particular difficulty is encountered with pre-bending in cases when an artery branches at one angle, and then sub-branches at a different angle. With repeated removal and reinsertion of the guidewire, the procedure is attended by the risk of significant trauma to the arterial lining, and in many cases, the obstruction cannot be reached at all with the guidewire and catheter.
Coronary arteries are tortuous and have many sub-branches. Often the obstruction is either located where the diameter of the artery is small or, by its very presence, the obstruction leaves only a very small opening through which a guidewire and/or catheter can be passed. Consequently the cardiologist often finds it very difficult to maneuver the guidewire or catheter, which is typically several feet long, from the proximal end.
In another application, Transluminal Laser Catheter Angioplasty (laser angioplasty), the delivery of laser energy from an external source to an intraluminal site to remove plaque or thrombus obstructions in vessels is accomplished by providing a waveguide such as a fiber optic bundle within a catheter. The nature of laser angioplasty requires even greater precision in control of the catheter, to position and aim the laser light at the specific plaques or thrombi to be removed.
These applications could all benefit from an increased degree of steerability of the tip of the guidewire or catheter from a remote site located external to the body. A variety of constructions have been proposed in the past to provide catheters which are steerable from the proximal end to enable the catheter to be aimed or advanced through non-linear cavities without removal for adjustments. Such constructions include those shown in U.S. Pat. No. 4,723,936 of Buchbinder; U.S. Pat. No. 4,921,482 of Hammerslag; U.S. Pat. No. 3,470,876 of Barchilon; U.S. Pat. No. 4,601,705 of McCoy, and others. These constructions involve shape memory alloy elements which may be heated to change their orientation, or devices employing wires or pulleys to steer the tip of a device from a handle located outside the body. However, each of these constructions has limitations.
Shape memory alloy devices have slow response due to reliance on heat transfer as the operative control mechanism. Also, shape memory devices in their superelastic state have a great deal of hysteresis, making them difficult to use for controlling position precisely. Devices making use of wires and or pullies for differential operation have problems achieving precise control over long distances, because long small diameter wires, requiring only minimal changes in length to actuate, do not afford very precise control. In addition, the cable tension required for such devices to work effectively dictates that the stiffness of the tip, which is critical to device effectiveness, is altered by the actuating mechanism. Also, the overall size of the device trades off against the ability to tension the cable, where the strain in the tensioned cable increases as device size decreases. It would therefore be desirable to achieve a remotely steerable catheterization device that does not incur penalties of stiffness, precision or size.
It is therefore an object of the invention to achieve a remotely steerable catheterization device that does not sacrifice desirable traits.
It is another object of the invention to achieve such a device that is scaleable to steer instruments of varying sizes.
It is another object of the invention to achieve a remotely steerable catheterization device that has a controllable stiffness over a portion of its length.
In accordance with one aspect of the present invention, there is provided an improved instrument, which may be either a steerable guidewire or a catheter implement of the type useful for percutaneous transluminal insertion into the coronary vascular system. Controlled negotiation of branches and turns to guide an angioplasty catheter or guidewire to an arterial stenosis or lesion or other treatment site is achieved without the need for prebending. The instrument achieves this performance by controlling deflection of the distal tip of the instrument in one or more planes through a wide and continuous range of angles. In accordance with another aspect, movement or positioning of an implement is enhanced by controllably stiffening a segment or portion of the implement.
In one embodiment of the present invention, a guidewire is provided having an elongate flexible shaft with a central lumen carrying one or more electrically insulated wires to a tip mounted on the distal end. The tip includes one or more layers of piezoelectric ceramic material bonded to opposite sides of a thin metal shim, the piezoelectric ceramic layers being poled and the electric signals from the wires attached such that a signal of one polarity causes one piezoelectric layer to extend, and the other piezoelectric layer to contract making the tip bend. The tip may include one or more pairs of oppositely straining piezoelectrics to produce tip flexing in one plane; a full three-dimensional range of motion is achieved by torquing the shaft, and moving it forward. Or, in a further embodiment, the tip may include an additional pair, or pairs, of oppositely straining piezoelectrics to produce tip bending in a second, orthogonal plane. A full 360 degree range of radial motion is then achieved by the combined action of the two pairs, all commanded remotely by signals extending from the proximal end of the device.
In another embodiment tip deflection is achieved by a lever-like tip with a piezoelectric element positioned eccentrically at the root of the tip to tilt or steer the lever.
In yet a third embodiment, a plurality of strain actuable elements are distributed along the length of the tip, and are selectively actuated to either induce a particular steering motion of the tip, to change the curvature of a portion of the tip, or to alter the stiffness of a portion in order to either advance, or anchor in place the position of the device.
The steerable device of the present invention thus negotiates tortuous and branched arterial systems, without the need for withdrawal and multiple insertions to deflect the tip.
These and other features of the present invention will be understood from the following drawings of illustrative embodiments, taken together with the detailed description, wherein
FIG. 1 shows a perspective view, partly in schema, of a steerable catheterization device according to the present invention;
FIG. 2 shows a detailed axial cross section of the tip assembly of a device such as that of FIG. 1;
FIGS. 3A-3C show three different architectures of a guidewire or catheter tip;
FIGS. 4A and 4B show two implementations of the tip architecture of FIG. 3B;
FIGS. 5A, 5B and 5C show three embodiments of the implementation of FIG. 4A;
FIG. 6 shows details of an active tip fabricated with coil spring and lubricous coating;
FIG. 7 shows a shaped guide catheter; and
FIGS. 8A, 8B, and 8C show a steering tip bendable with two degrees of freedom about its longitudinal.
FIG. 1 shows a steerable catheterization device 10 in accordance with the present invention, which includes a handle 12, an elongated body 14, and an active tip assembly 16 that is controlled by the handle. Device 10 may be, for example, a guidewire such as is commonly inserted preparatory to placing a catheter into a position near to a patient's heart, or may be a catheter itself, such as is commonly used, for example to insert a balloon to that region for angioplasty. The tip assembly is bent away from the nominal axis "A" of the body, by virtue of one or more active elements. While not specifically shown, the handle 12 includes a mechanism of conventional type, for example a spring loaded collet, that may be moved axially to grip the wire or body 14 and advance it inch by inch through the vascular system of a patient. The handle is preferably also adapted to rotate the wire as it advances, to steer the point of the off-axis tip assembly into branches or around curves as the body 14 is advanced along a vessel pathway. A control button 18 is ergometrically positioned on the handle 12 to control electrical actuation signals which are conducted through the body 14 to actuate the tip 16. This in turn controls the magnitude of off-axis deviation of the tip, or in some embodiments, the angle of tip direction in two planes or other tip characteristic.
As will be readily appreciated by those skilled in the art, the body 14 may be a guidewire, having a diameter of about 0.010 to 0.040 inches, a guide catheter having a diameter of about 0.060-0.135 inches, or other form of catheter or catheter-based device. The general form also mirrors that of certain other insertable instruments, e.g.; devices such as endoscopes and laparoscopy implements. Because of its small dimensions, a guidewire embodiment of the present invention offers the greatest challenges to implementation, and accordingly will be described below to best illustrate details of construction. The overall architecture of this tip is shown in FIG. 3A, and includes a piezoelectric bimorph mounted as a steerable wiggler at the end.
FIG. 2 shows a detailed cross-sectional view of the distal tip region 115 of one embodiment of a guidewire 114 in accordance with the present invention. Guidewire 114 includes a hollow wire body 117 approximately 36-48 inches long, and a steerable tip 119, which is approximately 5-10 inches long. By way of scale, body 117 is preferably formed of a thin metal tube, having an outer diameter illustratively 0.014 inches in diameter, with a wall thickness of 0.004-0.005 inches, leaving a four to six mil lumen. The tubular wall has a high degree of torsional and compressional stiffness to resist twisting and buckling, while allowing the body to bend freely as it is steered and pushed along the vascular system. A tapered nose piece 121 is attached to the end of the tube 117, and extends the internal lumen while tapering to a substantially smaller cross-section. Nose piece 121 may be formed of polycarbonate, stainless steel or the like. At the end of nose piece 121 an electrically actuated bending element 123 extends an additional one or two inches. Element 123 is actuated by one or more electrical conductors 125a, 125b which extend back through the body 117 to the control circuitry of the handle 12. The conductors are shown extending from the proximal end to the handle (FIG. 1), but in alternate embodiments, they may reside entirely within body 117, and connect to surface access pads which are distributed along the body at its proximal end. In this case, the handle contacts the pads to apply control signals to element 123.
Surrounding the nose piece and bending element is a biocompatible and flexible spiral winding 127 which may, for example, be formed of one to three rail diameter platinum wire. An electrically insulating potting agent 128, such as a silicone elastomer, fills the space 130 between the bending element 123 and the biocompatible winding 127. The three structures together--winding 127, potting medium 128 and the actuating element 123--have a high degree of flexibility comparable to that of a conventional (non-steered) guidewire. That is, the tip is floppy allowing the point to enter into branches and flex as it bumps its way around curves, while the elongated wire body 117 follows along. A thin outer shell or lubricous film such as polyurethane film (not shown), may encase the assembly to reduce friction of the device in the artery. By way of scale, the distances "a" and "b" may be, for example, two to seven inches, and one to two inches, respectively.
In accordance with a principal aspect of the invention, element 123 is electrically actuated by a driving voltage from outside to bend the tip off the longitudinal axis by an amount which, in the illustrated embodiment, is controlled up to a deviation calculated to exceed thirty degrees. A deflected position is indicated by "d" in phantom in the FIGURE. Greater deflections may be achieved by lengthening the element 123. Furthermore, the deflected tip may be rotated 360° about the longitudinal axis by torquing the insertion handle 12.
In the presently preferred embodiment of the invention, the adjustable element is fabricated out of piezoceramic plates, which are thinned to a dimension such that a completed multi-layer assembly made with the plates has a passive or non-actuated state bending stiffness comparable to the stiffness of a conventional wire steering tip, while remaining strong enough to deflect the tip when actuated.
In the illustrated construction, the electrically actuated element is formed with first and second strips of piezoelectric material 132, 134 bonded to opposite sides of a thin metal strip 135, and poled in opposite senses. The metal strip 135 serves as a common electrode for actuation of the elements, while wires 125a, 125b are connected to respective opposing plates.
To achieve a suitable flexibility, for a guidewire having a diameter under about fourteen mils, the plates 132, 134 may, for example, be formed of lead zirconium titanate, worked to a thickness of about one mil, and cut in strips six mils wide; the metal strip 135 may be about one mil thick, and also about six mils wide. The plates 132, 134 are 1-11/2 inches long, and preferably the metal shim extends another half inch or more to the tip of the catheter or wire assembly. A solder dot 136 seals the end, enclosing the metal shim 135 and plates 132, 134 within the wire wrap, which as shown is filled with a potting medium 128. With this construction the fragile tip element is securely protected against fragments leaking out into the blood stream in the event of a fracture, while the entire tip assembly remains as supple and flexible as a prior art wire steering tip.
Electrical actuation of the device of FIG. 2 is performed via leads 125a, 125b which are connected to outer electrode surfaces of the plates 132, 134, and preferably also by the common electrode formed by the thin metal strip 135. The common electrode may be conductively connected to plated or metalized lines on the surface of the nose piece 121 (if a non-conductive material is used to form the nose piece) which, in turn, contact the conductive metal wire body 117, or may be connected to a separate insulated lead extending through the nosepiece.
As noted above, the dimensional limitations of a guidewire render the implementation of an active piezoelectric steering tip challenging. The thin plates of lead zirconium titanate are formed by taking commercial plates of small grain, low void lead zirconium titanate of greater thickness (e.g., 5, 7 or 10 mil plates as available from suppliers such as Edo, Morgan Matroc, or American Piezoceramics), bonding a plate with a high strength conductive adhesive to each side of a one rail metal sheet, to form a very high shear strength thin bonding layer, and then lapping the outer faces on an optical grinding or lapping jig to achieve a one mil thickness of each piezoceramic plate. The outer faces of each piezoceramic plate are then metallized, preferably with gold or other biocompatible metal to form electrode surfaces, and are then laser cut into strips six mils wide. After fabrication, the piezoceramic material is poled, by application of a high electric field between the conductive electrode faces. This produces a completed piezo bender unit for incorporation into the steering tip.
In addition to achieving a high degree of flexibility in the plates 132, 134, the thin dimensions result in an actuator that operates with low actuation voltages, so that full displacements are readily achieved with signals below thirty volts and one hundred fifty microamperes or less. This allows the device to be actuated by a current-limited electrical control signal, that is safe even in the event of leakage or a short circuit of wires 125a, 125b and body 117. In addition, sufficient actuation signals may be provided by batteries located within the handle 12.
In other embodiments, different piezoelectric elements may be used.
FIG. 3C illustrates an architecture wherein a steering tip 200 is formed by a lever arm 201 flexibly but inextensibly attached by a central wire 202 to a body 203 corresponding to the guidewire 117 of the preceding embodiment, or to a catheter. A piezoelectric post or stack 205 extends off-center and is operated in extension to rock the lever 201 to a desired angle. As in the preceding embodiments, the joint bearing the piezo element is preferably encased and encapsulated, e.g., by a sheath or wire wrap, and potting material.
FIG. 3B shows a third tip architecture 300. In this embodiment the bending tip 301 may be formed with a single metal shim extending the full length of the bending region (as in FIGS. 3A or 2), but a plurality of piezoceramic plates or sheet elements are positioned at discrete separated positions along the metal shim to induce different degrees of bending. As in the device of FIG. 2, the plates are arranged on opposite sides to form piezo benders which are localized along the tip length. When stiffness and dimensional constraints permit sufficient electrical leads, this embodiment may be actuated to undergo more complex bends, such as S-shaped bends, or may be actuated to bend at one position while stiffening the tip at a different position.
In accordance with a principal method of use of the present invention, the guidewire or catheter device is advanced within the vascular system of a patient, e.g., via the femoral artery, and is simultaneously visualized using a contrast medium under a fluoroscope. As the tip nears an arterial branch point or narrowed passage, control signals are applied from the handle to steer the tip, changing its direction as required to an appropriate angle or position, and the device is then rotated (if necessary for a one-dimensional deflector tip) and advanced further.
In accordance with another method of use in accordance with the invention, the tip may be actuated to assume an arc-shape that anchors it in position in a particular position, such as in in the aortic arch. For effecting this latter method, the active strain elements of the tip assembly are preferably mounted over an extended length, perhaps four to six inches, ahead of the tip area. In this case, the elements may be actuated to form a smooth are of a radius that matches the arch curvature, so that the catheter resides in position without irritating the vessel walls. Alternatively, the elements may be actuated so that the catheter assumes a larger or smaller curvature, or has several polygonal bends, contacting the wall in several places to anchor it against sliding or creeping out of position.
By way of particular example, the device may be a tube 600 as shown in FIG. 7 which is preformed to assume an arc-shape to position it in the aortic arch 70. Tube 600 has a pair of sharp bends or elbows, 602, 604 which are spaced to fit the arch, but which have relatively low bending stiffness, so that the tube readily straightens and passes through the patient's vessels during the insertion procedure. However, each elbow has respective piezoelectric strain elements 603,605 mounted about the elbow. These are actuated, once the tube has been positioned, to rigidify the bends and firmly lodge the tube in the desired position to support passage of coaxial catheters and wires within the lumen.
In accordance with yet a third method in accordance with the present invention, actuators may be energized to stiffen the tip or a portion of the tip assembly along its length to rigidify it for entering a branch point or passing an obstruction. Advantageously, by employing electrical signals to stiffen a region of the catheter or wire, the stiffness of the non-actuated positions of the wire or catheter body 117 remains flexible and unaffected.
FIGS. 4A and 4B illustrate two methods of tip actuator placement, shown here for a guide catheter. In FIG. 4A a tip assembly 400 has a plurality of identically-sized strain actuators 405 placed on opposed sides of the tip at a number of equally-spaced intervals along its length, along a region where bending is desired, an inch or two from the end. In FIG. 4B, a tip assembly 410 has both larger strain elements 415 and smaller elements 416, which may be positioned to optimize one or more properties, such as to maximize deflection, avoid fracture of the elements, or speed up the response time of the actuator. Preferably, smaller elements are located at joint or flexure areas.
FIGS. 5A-5C illustrate variations in actuator placement along the tip, either at the extreme end (FIG. 5A), an inch or two back (FIG. 5B) or extending over a major segment of both regions of the end (FIG. 5C). In the latter case, elements at one position may be wired oppositely to those at another position to form a zig-zag rather than a single bend. Such shape, in conjunction with conventional torquing (rotation) of the wire or catheter body may offer enhanced vessel branch navigation abilities.
Preferably the overall tip construction is a multi-layered construction as illustrated in FIG. 6, with an insulating but flexible sheath and a protective coil exterior, as described in respect of FIG. 2, above.
FIG. 8A, 8B and 8C illustrate, greatly enlarged, one embodiment of a tip construction 500 for bending along two degrees of freedom about the longitudinal axis "L" of a steered insertable device. First and second steel shims 510, 511 are mounted to cross each other as a pair of crossing vanes with oppositely-actuated strain elements 550a, 550b, and 551a, 551b positioned on the respective shims to deflect them in first and second planes, respectively. Geometric constraints due to the small geometry are largely avoided by mounting the strain actuators of each vane on opposite faces of the vane, and opposite sides of the vane's crossing axis 520. Furthermore, the actuators of the first vane are mounted at a different position along the axis L, than are the actuators of the second vane. Thus, as illustrated in perspective view FIG. 8A, the first set 550a, 550b bends the tip in the plane of the drawing, when actuated, while the second set causes out-of-plane deflections.
It will be understood that the constructions described above for guidewires, may be readily scaled to form an active steerable tip for a guide catheter, for a related instrument incorporating catheter or wire features, such as a balloon pump, or for an endoscope or specialized treatment device. In such cases, when devices are generally of greater diameter but the inner lumen must remain open, it may be desirable to use other strain actuated materials, such as polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF), which may be bonded to the outside of the catheter, but below a protective layer. While generally capable of applying less force, PVDF actuators on larger tubes or catheters may benefit from the larger moment arm from the neutral axis. Further increases in mechanical advantage are obtained by mounting on the outer skin of the tube or catheter. Alternatively, one or more layers of a piezoelectric polymer material may form the tip body itself. In general, however, constructions using piezoceramics as described above, are preferred for their greater force characteristics and desirable low level signal requirements.
The invention being thus disclosed, further variations and modifications will occur to those skilled in the art, and all such variations and modifications are intended to be within the scope of the invention, as defined in the claims appended hereto.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US4799474 *||Mar 9, 1987||Jan 24, 1989||Olympus Optical Co., Ltd.||Medical tube to be inserted in body cavity|
|US4838859 *||May 19, 1987||Jun 13, 1989||Steve Strassmann||Steerable catheter|
|US4921482 *||Jan 9, 1989||May 1, 1990||Hammerslag Julius G||Steerable angioplasty device|
|US4934340 *||Jun 8, 1989||Jun 19, 1990||Hemo Laser Corporation||Device for guiding medical catheters and scopes|
|US4944727 *||Oct 2, 1987||Jul 31, 1990||Catheter Research, Inc.||Variable shape guide apparatus|
|US4984581 *||Oct 12, 1988||Jan 15, 1991||Flexmedics Corporation||Flexible guide having two-way shape memory alloy|
|US5238005 *||Nov 18, 1991||Aug 24, 1993||Intelliwire, Inc.||Steerable catheter guidewire|
|US5281213 *||Apr 16, 1992||Jan 25, 1994||Implemed, Inc.||Catheter for ice mapping and ablation|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US5480382 *||Sep 2, 1994||Jan 2, 1996||Pilot Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.||Steerable medical device|
|US5542434 *||Oct 28, 1994||Aug 6, 1996||Intelliwire Inc.||Guide wire with deflectable tip and method|
|US5590908 *||Jul 7, 1995||Jan 7, 1997||Carr; Donald W.||Sports board having a pressure sensitive panel responsive to contact between the sports board and a surface being ridden|
|US5775715 *||Aug 1, 1995||Jul 7, 1998||K-2 Corporation||Piezoelectric damper for a board such as a snow ski or snowboard|
|US5813997 *||Aug 1, 1996||Sep 29, 1998||Intelliwire, Inc.||Guide wire with deflectable tip and method|
|US5820592 *||Jul 16, 1996||Oct 13, 1998||Hammerslag; Gary R.||Angiographic and/or guide catheter|
|US5830216 *||Oct 30, 1996||Nov 3, 1998||Bristol-Myers Squibb Company||Apparatus and method for knee implantation|
|US5938623 *||Jan 8, 1997||Aug 17, 1999||Intella Interventional Systems||Guide wire with adjustable stiffness|
|US5954716 *||Feb 19, 1998||Sep 21, 1999||Oratec Interventions, Inc||Method for modifying the length of a ligament|
|US5980504 *||Jun 24, 1997||Nov 9, 1999||Oratec Interventions, Inc.||Method for manipulating tissue of an intervertebral disc|
|US6004320 *||Mar 4, 1998||Dec 21, 1999||Oratec Interventions, Inc.||Clip on electrocauterizing sheath for orthopedic shave devices|
|US6007533 *||Mar 4, 1998||Dec 28, 1999||Oratec Interventions, Inc.||Electrocauterizing tip for orthopedic shave devices|
|US6007570 *||Jun 24, 1997||Dec 28, 1999||Oratec Interventions, Inc.||Apparatus with functional element for performing function upon intervertebral discs|
|US6068628 *||Aug 20, 1996||May 30, 2000||Oratec Interventions, Inc.||Apparatus for treating chondromalacia|
|US6073051 *||Jun 24, 1997||Jun 6, 2000||Oratec Interventions, Inc.||Apparatus for treating intervertebal discs with electromagnetic energy|
|US6083216 *||Jan 5, 1999||Jul 4, 2000||Intermedics Inc.||Bent cardiac lead with shape memory torque coil|
|US6095149 *||Jun 24, 1997||Aug 1, 2000||Oratec Interventions, Inc.||Method for treating intervertebral disc degeneration|
|US6095547 *||Jul 6, 1998||Aug 1, 2000||K-2 Corporation||Active piezoelectric damper for a snow ski or snowboard|
|US6099514 *||Sep 29, 1998||Aug 8, 2000||Oratec Interventions, Inc.||Method and apparatus for delivering or removing material from the interior of an intervertebral disc|
|US6122549 *||Jun 24, 1997||Sep 19, 2000||Oratec Interventions, Inc.||Apparatus for treating intervertebral discs with resistive energy|
|US6126682 *||Sep 15, 1998||Oct 3, 2000||Oratec Interventions, Inc.||Method for treating annular fissures in intervertebral discs|
|US6135999 *||Feb 12, 1998||Oct 24, 2000||Oratec Internationals, Inc.||Concave probe for arthroscopic surgery|
|US6146339 *||May 24, 1999||Nov 14, 2000||Advanced Cardiovascular Systems||Guide wire with operator controllable tip stiffness|
|US6168593||Feb 12, 1998||Jan 2, 2001||Oratec Interventions, Inc.||Electrode for electrosurgical coagulation of tissue|
|US6176857||Sep 22, 1998||Jan 23, 2001||Oratec Interventions, Inc.||Method and apparatus for applying thermal energy to tissue asymmetrically|
|US6214001||Apr 24, 1998||Apr 10, 2001||Oratec Interventions, Inc.||Electrocauterizing tool for orthopedic shave devices|
|US6246913||Feb 12, 1998||Jun 12, 2001||Oractec Interventions, Inc.||Method and apparatus for the treatment of strabismus|
|US6258086||Mar 19, 1999||Jul 10, 2001||Oratec Interventions, Inc.||Catheter for delivery of energy to a surgical site|
|US6259188||Aug 31, 1999||Jul 10, 2001||Projects Unlimited, Inc.||Piezoelectric vibrational and acoustic alert for a personal communication device|
|US6261311||Jul 30, 1999||Jul 17, 2001||Oratec Interventions, Inc.||Method and apparatus for treating intervertebral discs|
|US6283960||Mar 19, 1998||Sep 4, 2001||Oratec Interventions, Inc.||Apparatus for delivery of energy to a surgical site|
|US6290715||Jan 25, 1999||Sep 18, 2001||Oratec Interventions, Inc.||Method for delivering energy adjacent the inner wall of an intervertebral disc|
|US6350262||Apr 12, 2000||Feb 26, 2002||Oratec Interventions, Inc.||Method and apparatus for applying thermal energy to tissue asymetrically|
|US6371943 *||Jul 14, 1999||Apr 16, 2002||Epimed International, Inc.||Spring tip needle combination|
|US6391028||May 16, 2000||May 21, 2002||Oratec Interventions, Inc.||Probe with distally orientated concave curve for arthroscopic surgery|
|US6461353||Jul 3, 1997||Oct 8, 2002||Oratec Interventions, Inc.||Orthopedic apparatus for controlled contraction of collagen tissue|
|US6461357||Jun 25, 1999||Oct 8, 2002||Oratec Interventions, Inc.||Electrode for electrosurgical ablation of tissue|
|US6482204||Apr 24, 1996||Nov 19, 2002||Oratec Interventions, Inc||Method and apparatus for controlled contraction of soft tissue|
|US6517568||Nov 3, 2000||Feb 11, 2003||Oratec Interventions, Inc.||Method and apparatus for treating intervertebral discs|
|US6547810||Nov 6, 2000||Apr 15, 2003||Oratec Interventions, Inc.||Method for treating intervertebral discs|
|US6638276||Jun 6, 2001||Oct 28, 2003||Oratec Interventions, Inc.||Intervertebral disc device employing prebent sheath|
|US6645203||Jan 2, 2001||Nov 11, 2003||Oratec Interventions, Inc.||Surgical instrument with off-axis electrode|
|US6695839||Feb 8, 2001||Feb 24, 2004||Oratec Interventions, Inc.||Method and apparatus for treatment of disrupted articular cartilage|
|US6726685||Jun 6, 2001||Apr 27, 2004||Oratec Interventions, Inc.||Intervertebral disc device employing looped probe|
|US6733496||Jun 6, 2001||May 11, 2004||Oratec Interventions, Inc.||Intervertebral disc device employing flexible probe|
|US6749605||Feb 1, 2001||Jun 15, 2004||Oratec Interventions, Inc.||Catheter for delivery of energy to a surgical site|
|US6767347||Feb 1, 2001||Jul 27, 2004||Oratec Interventions, Inc.||Catheter for delivery of energy to a surgical site|
|US6832997||Jun 6, 2001||Dec 21, 2004||Oratec Interventions, Inc.||Electromagnetic energy delivery intervertebral disc treatment devices|
|US6878155||Jun 18, 2001||Apr 12, 2005||Oratec Interventions, Inc.||Method of treating intervertebral disc tissue employing attachment mechanism|
|US6936015 *||Jun 6, 2002||Aug 30, 2005||Masayoshi Esashi||Active guide wire and method of making the same|
|US6955657||Dec 31, 2001||Oct 18, 2005||Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.||Intra-ventricular substance delivery catheter system|
|US7052473||Jun 19, 2001||May 30, 2006||St. Jude Medical Ab||Body insert configuring device having tip portion with expandable joints|
|US7069087||Feb 22, 2001||Jun 27, 2006||Oratec Interventions, Inc.||Apparatus and method for accessing and performing a function within an intervertebral disc|
|US7103518 *||Dec 20, 2001||Sep 5, 2006||Automotive Components Holdings, Llc||Embedded sensor steering shaft|
|US7115134||Jul 22, 2002||Oct 3, 2006||Chambers Technology, Llc.||Catheter with flexible tip and shape retention|
|US7167759||Apr 3, 2002||Jan 23, 2007||Biotronik Mess- Und Therapiegeraete Gmbh & Co. Ingenieurbuero Berlin||Electrode line|
|US7309336||Jul 26, 2004||Dec 18, 2007||Oratec Interventions, Inc.||Catheter for delivery of energy to a surgical site|
|US7361168||Aug 4, 2004||Apr 22, 2008||Acclarent, Inc.||Implantable device and methods for delivering drugs and other substances to treat sinusitis and other disorders|
|US7403823 *||Aug 16, 2005||Jul 22, 2008||Pacesetter, Inc.||Super plastic design for CHF pacemaker lead|
|US7410480||Sep 23, 2005||Aug 12, 2008||Acclarent, Inc.||Devices and methods for delivering therapeutic substances for the treatment of sinusitis and other disorders|
|US7559924||Sep 27, 2005||Jul 14, 2009||Abbott Cardiovascular Systems Inc.||Intra-ventricular substance delivery catheter system|
|US7611535||Jun 29, 2006||Nov 3, 2009||Medtronic, Inc.||Fixation band for affixing a prosthetic heart valve to tissue|
|US7615032||Mar 24, 2005||Nov 10, 2009||Windcrest Llc||Vascular guidewire control apparatus|
|US7647123||Oct 31, 2007||Jan 12, 2010||Oratec Interventions, Inc.||Method for treating intervertebral discs|
|US7682390||Jul 30, 2002||Mar 23, 2010||Medtronic, Inc.||Assembly for setting a valve prosthesis in a corporeal duct|
|US7706861 *||Jun 28, 2006||Apr 27, 2010||Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc.||Guide wire insertion and re-insertion tools and methods of use|
|US7720521||Apr 26, 2005||May 18, 2010||Acclarent, Inc.||Methods and devices for performing procedures within the ear, nose, throat and paranasal sinuses|
|US7758606||Feb 5, 2004||Jul 20, 2010||Medtronic, Inc.||Intravascular filter with debris entrapment mechanism|
|US7780726||Aug 24, 2010||Medtronic, Inc.||Assembly for placing a prosthetic valve in a duct in the body|
|US7785273||Sep 22, 2003||Aug 31, 2010||Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc.||Guidewire with reinforcing member|
|US7833191 *||Mar 11, 2009||Nov 16, 2010||Biotronik Crm Patent Ag||Controllable electrode for deep brain stimulation|
|US7871436||Feb 15, 2008||Jan 18, 2011||Medtronic, Inc.||Replacement prosthetic heart valves and methods of implantation|
|US7881809||Dec 5, 2006||Feb 1, 2011||St. Jude Medical, Atrial Fibrillation Division, Inc.||Electrophysiology/ablation catheter and remote actuator therefor|
|US7892281||Feb 22, 2011||Medtronic Corevalve Llc||Prosthetic valve for transluminal delivery|
|US7914569||May 13, 2005||Mar 29, 2011||Medtronics Corevalve Llc||Heart valve prosthesis and methods of manufacture and use|
|US7957790 *||Jan 21, 2005||Jun 7, 2011||Siemens Aktiengesellschaft||Catheter|
|US7972378||Jan 23, 2009||Jul 5, 2011||Medtronic, Inc.||Stents for prosthetic heart valves|
|US8000764||Mar 29, 2007||Aug 16, 2011||St. Jude Medical, Atrial Fibrillation Division, Inc.||Electrophysiology/ablation catheter having second passage|
|US8002826||Oct 14, 2009||Aug 23, 2011||Medtronic Corevalve Llc||Assembly for placing a prosthetic valve in a duct in the body|
|US8016877||Jun 29, 2009||Sep 13, 2011||Medtronic Corevalve Llc||Prosthetic valve for transluminal delivery|
|US8043281||Jun 22, 2004||Oct 25, 2011||Medtronic, Inc.||Catheters incorporating valves and permeable membranes|
|US8052750||Mar 23, 2007||Nov 8, 2011||Medtronic Ventor Technologies Ltd||Valve prosthesis fixation techniques using sandwiching|
|US8070801||Feb 23, 2009||Dec 6, 2011||Medtronic, Inc.||Method and apparatus for resecting and replacing an aortic valve|
|US8080000||Dec 20, 2011||Acclarent, Inc.||Methods and apparatus for treating disorders of the ear nose and throat|
|US8090433||Jan 3, 2012||Acclarent, Inc.||Methods and apparatus for treating disorders of the ear nose and throat|
|US8092487||Jun 14, 2010||Jan 10, 2012||Medtronic, Inc.||Intravascular filter with debris entrapment mechanism|
|US8100933||May 8, 2008||Jan 24, 2012||Acclarent, Inc.||Method for treating obstructed paranasal frontal sinuses|
|US8114113||Oct 4, 2005||Feb 14, 2012||Acclarent, Inc.||Multi-conduit balloon catheter|
|US8123721 *||Dec 31, 2008||Feb 28, 2012||St. Jude Medical, Atrial Fibrillation Division, Inc.||Catheter having independently-deflectable segments and method of its manufacture|
|US8137398||Oct 13, 2008||Mar 20, 2012||Medtronic Ventor Technologies Ltd||Prosthetic valve having tapered tip when compressed for delivery|
|US8147481||Jan 9, 2007||Apr 3, 2012||The Cleveland Clinic Foundation||Vascular guidewire control apparatus|
|US8152757||Jun 30, 2009||Apr 10, 2012||Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.||Intra-ventricular substance delivery catheter system|
|US8157852||Jan 22, 2009||Apr 17, 2012||Medtronic, Inc.||Delivery systems and methods of implantation for prosthetic heart valves|
|US8157853||Jan 22, 2009||Apr 17, 2012||Medtronic, Inc.||Delivery systems and methods of implantation for prosthetic heart valves|
|US8162920 *||Apr 23, 2004||Apr 24, 2012||Stereotaxis, Inc.||Magnetic navigation of medical devices in magnetic fields|
|US8172828||May 8, 2012||Acclarent, Inc.||Apparatus and methods for dilating and modifying ostia of paranasal sinuses and other intranasal or paranasal structures|
|US8190389||May 17, 2006||May 29, 2012||Acclarent, Inc.||Adapter for attaching electromagnetic image guidance components to a medical device|
|US8226710||Mar 25, 2011||Jul 24, 2012||Medtronic Corevalve, Inc.||Heart valve prosthesis and methods of manufacture and use|
|US8241274||Aug 14, 2012||Medtronic, Inc.||Method for guiding a medical device|
|US8246575||Feb 17, 2009||Aug 21, 2012||Tyco Healthcare Group Lp||Flexible hollow spine with locking feature and manipulation structure|
|US8246602||Jun 22, 2004||Aug 21, 2012||Medtronic, Inc.||Catheters with tracking elements and permeable membranes|
|US8312825||Apr 16, 2009||Nov 20, 2012||Medtronic, Inc.||Methods and apparatuses for assembly of a pericardial prosthetic heart valve|
|US8313525||Mar 18, 2008||Nov 20, 2012||Medtronic Ventor Technologies, Ltd.||Valve suturing and implantation procedures|
|US8317816||Nov 27, 2012||Acclarent, Inc.||Balloon catheters and methods for treating paranasal sinuses|
|US8348995||Mar 23, 2007||Jan 8, 2013||Medtronic Ventor Technologies, Ltd.||Axial-force fixation member for valve|
|US8348996||Mar 23, 2007||Jan 8, 2013||Medtronic Ventor Technologies Ltd.||Valve prosthesis implantation techniques|
|US8414643||Mar 23, 2007||Apr 9, 2013||Medtronic Ventor Technologies Ltd.||Sinus-engaging valve fixation member|
|US8430927||Feb 2, 2009||Apr 30, 2013||Medtronic, Inc.||Multiple orifice implantable heart valve and methods of implantation|
|US8506620||Nov 13, 2009||Aug 13, 2013||Medtronic, Inc.||Prosthetic cardiac and venous valves|
|US8511244||Oct 19, 2012||Aug 20, 2013||Medtronic, Inc.||Methods and apparatuses for assembly of a pericardial prosthetic heart valve|
|US8540768||Dec 30, 2011||Sep 24, 2013||Sorin Group Italia S.R.L.||Cardiac valve prosthesis|
|US8556850 *||Feb 27, 2012||Oct 15, 2013||St. Jude Medical, Atrial Fibrillation Division, Inc.||Shaft and handle for a catheter with independently-deflectable segments|
|US8562672||Nov 18, 2005||Oct 22, 2013||Medtronic, Inc.||Apparatus for treatment of cardiac valves and method of its manufacture|
|US8579966||Feb 4, 2004||Nov 12, 2013||Medtronic Corevalve Llc||Prosthetic valve for transluminal delivery|
|US8591570||Mar 14, 2008||Nov 26, 2013||Medtronic, Inc.||Prosthetic heart valve for replacing previously implanted heart valve|
|US8603159||Dec 11, 2009||Dec 10, 2013||Medtronic Corevalve, Llc||Prosthetic valve for transluminal delivery|
|US8613765||Jul 7, 2011||Dec 24, 2013||Medtronic, Inc.||Prosthetic heart valve systems|
|US8623077||Dec 5, 2011||Jan 7, 2014||Medtronic, Inc.||Apparatus for replacing a cardiac valve|
|US8628566||Jan 23, 2009||Jan 14, 2014||Medtronic, Inc.||Stents for prosthetic heart valves|
|US8628570||Aug 18, 2011||Jan 14, 2014||Medtronic Corevalve Llc||Assembly for placing a prosthetic valve in a duct in the body|
|US8652204||Jul 30, 2010||Feb 18, 2014||Medtronic, Inc.||Transcatheter valve with torsion spring fixation and related systems and methods|
|US8663096||Nov 10, 2008||Mar 4, 2014||Covidien Lp||System and method for rigidizing flexible medical implements|
|US8673000||May 20, 2011||Mar 18, 2014||Medtronic, Inc.||Stents for prosthetic heart valves|
|US8676290||May 11, 2011||Mar 18, 2014||St. Jude Medical, Atrial Fibrillation Division, Inc.||Multi-directional catheter control handle|
|US8685077||Mar 14, 2012||Apr 1, 2014||Medtronics, Inc.||Delivery systems and methods of implantation for prosthetic heart valves|
|US8696743||Apr 16, 2009||Apr 15, 2014||Medtronic, Inc.||Tissue attachment devices and methods for prosthetic heart valves|
|US8721708||Sep 23, 2011||May 13, 2014||Medtronic Corevalve Llc||Prosthetic valve for transluminal delivery|
|US8721714||Sep 17, 2008||May 13, 2014||Medtronic Corevalve Llc||Delivery system for deployment of medical devices|
|US8728075||Aug 30, 2010||May 20, 2014||Medtronic Ardian Luxembourg S.A.R.L.||Multi-directional deflectable catheter apparatuses, systems, and methods for renal neuromodulation|
|US8747458||Aug 20, 2007||Jun 10, 2014||Medtronic Ventor Technologies Ltd.||Stent loading tool and method for use thereof|
|US8747459||Dec 6, 2007||Jun 10, 2014||Medtronic Corevalve Llc||System and method for transapical delivery of an annulus anchored self-expanding valve|
|US8747460||Dec 23, 2011||Jun 10, 2014||Medtronic Ventor Technologies Ltd.||Methods for implanting a valve prothesis|
|US8771302||Apr 6, 2007||Jul 8, 2014||Medtronic, Inc.||Method and apparatus for resecting and replacing an aortic valve|
|US8771345||Oct 31, 2011||Jul 8, 2014||Medtronic Ventor Technologies Ltd.||Valve prosthesis fixation techniques using sandwiching|
|US8771346||Jul 25, 2011||Jul 8, 2014||Medtronic Ventor Technologies Ltd.||Valve prosthetic fixation techniques using sandwiching|
|US8777980||Dec 23, 2011||Jul 15, 2014||Medtronic, Inc.||Intravascular filter with debris entrapment mechanism|
|US8784478||Oct 16, 2007||Jul 22, 2014||Medtronic Corevalve, Inc.||Transapical delivery system with ventruculo-arterial overlfow bypass|
|US8801779||May 10, 2011||Aug 12, 2014||Medtronic Corevalve, Llc||Prosthetic valve for transluminal delivery|
|US8834564||Mar 11, 2010||Sep 16, 2014||Medtronic, Inc.||Sinus-engaging valve fixation member|
|US8870863||May 28, 2010||Oct 28, 2014||Medtronic Ardian Luxembourg S.A.R.L.||Catheter apparatuses, systems, and methods for renal neuromodulation|
|US8876894||Mar 23, 2007||Nov 4, 2014||Medtronic Ventor Technologies Ltd.||Leaflet-sensitive valve fixation member|
|US8876895||Mar 23, 2007||Nov 4, 2014||Medtronic Ventor Technologies Ltd.||Valve fixation member having engagement arms|
|US8876896||Dec 7, 2011||Nov 4, 2014||Medtronic Corevalve Llc||Prosthetic valve for transluminal delivery|
|US8920492||Aug 21, 2013||Dec 30, 2014||Sorin Group Italia S.R.L.||Cardiac valve prosthesis|
|US8951225||May 18, 2006||Feb 10, 2015||Acclarent, Inc.||Catheters with non-removable guide members useable for treatment of sinusitis|
|US8951280||Jun 9, 2010||Feb 10, 2015||Medtronic, Inc.||Cardiac valve procedure methods and devices|
|US8956402||Sep 14, 2012||Feb 17, 2015||Medtronic, Inc.||Apparatus for replacing a cardiac valve|
|US8961398||Oct 31, 2007||Feb 24, 2015||Acclarent, Inc.||Methods and apparatus for treating disorders of the ear, nose and throat|
|US8961593||Dec 5, 2013||Feb 24, 2015||Medtronic, Inc.||Prosthetic heart valve systems|
|US8986329||Oct 28, 2013||Mar 24, 2015||Medtronic Corevalve Llc||Methods for transluminal delivery of prosthetic valves|
|US8986361||Oct 17, 2008||Mar 24, 2015||Medtronic Corevalve, Inc.||Delivery system for deployment of medical devices|
|US8998979||Feb 11, 2014||Apr 7, 2015||Medtronic Corevalve Llc||Transcatheter heart valves|
|US8998981||Sep 15, 2009||Apr 7, 2015||Medtronic, Inc.||Prosthetic heart valve having identifiers for aiding in radiographic positioning|
|US9039657||Sep 3, 2009||May 26, 2015||Acclarent, Inc.||Implantable devices and methods for delivering drugs and other substances to treat sinusitis and other disorders|
|US9039680||Apr 21, 2008||May 26, 2015||Acclarent, Inc.||Implantable devices and methods for delivering drugs and other substances to treat sinusitis and other disorders|
|US9050440||Sep 22, 2006||Jun 9, 2015||Acclarent, Inc.||Multi-conduit balloon catheter|
|US9055965||Mar 22, 2010||Jun 16, 2015||Acclarent, Inc.||Devices, systems and methods useable for treating sinusitis|
|US9060856||Feb 11, 2014||Jun 23, 2015||Medtronic Corevalve Llc||Transcatheter heart valves|
|US9060857||Jun 19, 2012||Jun 23, 2015||Medtronic Corevalve Llc||Heart valve prosthesis and methods of manufacture and use|
|US9066799||Jan 20, 2011||Jun 30, 2015||Medtronic Corevalve Llc||Prosthetic valve for transluminal delivery|
|US9072626||May 6, 2013||Jul 7, 2015||Acclarent, Inc.||System and method for treatment of non-ventilating middle ear by providing a gas pathway through the nasopharynx|
|US9084610||Oct 21, 2011||Jul 21, 2015||Medtronic Ardian Luxembourg S.A.R.L.||Catheter apparatuses, systems, and methods for renal neuromodulation|
|US9084876||Mar 15, 2013||Jul 21, 2015||Acclarent, Inc.||Implantable devices and methods for delivering drugs and other substances to treat sinusitis and other disorders|
|US9089258||Mar 15, 2007||Jul 28, 2015||Acclarent, Inc.||Endoscopic methods and devices for transnasal procedures|
|US9089422||Jan 23, 2009||Jul 28, 2015||Medtronic, Inc.||Markers for prosthetic heart valves|
|US9101384||Jan 16, 2009||Aug 11, 2015||Acclarent, Inc.||Devices, systems and methods for diagnosing and treating sinusitis and other disorders of the ears, Nose and/or throat|
|US9107574||Dec 8, 2011||Aug 18, 2015||Acclarent, Inc.||Endoscopic methods and devices for transnasal procedures|
|US20020147412 *||Apr 3, 2002||Oct 10, 2002||Biotronik Mess-Und Therapiegeraete Gmbh & Co.||Electrode line|
|US20040064069 *||Sep 30, 2002||Apr 1, 2004||Reynolds Brian R.||Medical device with support member|
|US20040102824 *||Nov 14, 2003||May 27, 2004||Sharkey Hugh R.||Method for treating intervertebral discs|
|US20040193151 *||Apr 6, 2004||Sep 30, 2004||Oratec Interventions, Inc.||Intervertebral disc device employing looped probe|
|US20040220548 *||Dec 23, 2003||Nov 4, 2004||Medtronic, Inc.||Permeable membrane catheters, systems, and methods|
|US20040260172 *||Apr 23, 2004||Dec 23, 2004||Ritter Rogers C.||Magnetic navigation of medical devices in magnetic fields|
|US20050065456 *||Sep 22, 2003||Mar 24, 2005||Scimed Life Systems, Inc.||Guidewire with reinforcing member|
|US20050137577 *||Jun 22, 2004||Jun 23, 2005||Heruth Kenneth T.||Catheters with tracking elements and permeable membranes|
|US20050137578 *||Jun 22, 2004||Jun 23, 2005||Medtronic, Inc.||Catheters incorporating valves and permeable membranes|
|US20050137579 *||Jun 22, 2004||Jun 23, 2005||Medtronic, Inc.||Permeable membrane catheters, systems, and methods|
|US20050149011 *||Jul 26, 2004||Jul 7, 2005||Oratec Interventions, Inc.||Catheter for delivery of energy to a surgical site|
|US20050187467 *||Jan 21, 2005||Aug 25, 2005||Martin Kleen||Catheter|
|US20050187599 *||Apr 21, 2005||Aug 25, 2005||Hugh Sharkey||Method and apparatus for controlled contraction of soft tissue|
|US20050273020 *||Mar 24, 2005||Dec 8, 2005||Whittaker David R||Vascular guidewire system|
|US20050277851 *||Mar 24, 2005||Dec 15, 2005||Whittaker David R||Vascular guidewire control apparatus|
|US20050277988 *||Mar 24, 2005||Dec 15, 2005||Whittaker David R||Energizer for vascular guidewire|
|US20060004286 *||Apr 26, 2005||Jan 5, 2006||Acclarent, Inc.||Methods and devices for performing procedures within the ear, nose, throat and paranasal sinuses|
|US20110166566 *||Jul 1, 2010||Jul 7, 2011||Loma Linda University Medical Center||Devices and methods for performing percutaneous surgical procedures|
|US20120203169 *||Aug 9, 2012||Tegg Troy T||Shaft and handle for a catheter with independently-deflectable segments|
|USD732666||Aug 9, 2011||Jun 23, 2015||Medtronic Corevalve, Inc.||Heart valve prosthesis|
|DE102008002479A1||Jun 17, 2008||Dec 24, 2009||Biotronik Vi Patent Ag||Vorrichtung zum minimalinvasiven Einführen in ein physiologisches Lumen|
|EP1247543A2 *||Mar 28, 2002||Oct 9, 2002||BIOTRONIK Mess- und Therapiegeräte GmbH & Co Ingenieurbüro Berlin||Electrode lead|
|EP1459691A1 *||Oct 22, 1997||Sep 22, 2004||Oratec Interventions, Inc.||Method and apparatus for treating intervertebral discs|
|EP1459692A1 *||Oct 22, 1997||Sep 22, 2004||Oratec Interventions, Inc.||Method and apparatus for treating intervertebral discs|
|EP2135543A1||Jun 5, 2009||Dec 23, 2009||BIOTRONIK VI Patent AG||Device for minimally invasive insertion into a physiological lumen|
|EP2337501A1 *||Jun 24, 2009||Jun 29, 2011||Critical Care Innovations, Inc.||Ultrasound detectable interventional medical device|
|WO1998017190A2 *||Oct 22, 1997||Apr 30, 1998||John E Ashley||Method and apparatus for treating intervertebral discs|
|WO1999047058A2 *||Mar 19, 1999||Sep 23, 1999||John E Ashley||Catheter for delivery of energy to a surgical site|
|WO2002000287A1 *||Jun 19, 2001||Jan 3, 2002||Rolf Hill||A locating device with polyimide filled joints in the tip section|
|WO2004030742A1 *||Jun 30, 2003||Apr 15, 2004||Scimed Life Systems Inc||Medical device with support member|
|WO2005094936A2 *||Mar 24, 2005||Oct 13, 2005||Windcrest Llc||Vascular guidewire control apparatus|
|WO2011139589A3 *||Apr 21, 2011||Mar 15, 2012||Medtronic Ardian Llc||Catheter apparatuses, systems, and methods for renal neuromodulation|
|WO2014053003A1 *||Aug 28, 2013||Apr 10, 2014||Intellimedical Technologies Pty Ltd||Actuator with electromechanical friction control|
|U.S. Classification||604/95.05, 600/585, 600/434|
|International Classification||A61M25/01, A61M25/092, A61M25/09|
|Cooperative Classification||A61M25/0152, A61M2025/0915, A61M2025/0161, A61M25/0158, A61M25/09|
|European Classification||A61M25/01C10Q, A61M25/09|
|Sep 20, 1993||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: ACTIVE CONTROL EXPERTS, INC., MASSACHUSETTS
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:LAZARUS, KENNETH B.;CRAWLEY, EDWARD F.;REEL/FRAME:006716/0350;SIGNING DATES FROM 19930825 TO 19930826
Owner name: ACTIVE CONTROL EXPERTS, INC., MASSACHUSETTS
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:FISH, RICHARD D.;REEL/FRAME:006716/0348
Effective date: 19930914
|Nov 13, 1998||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4
|Dec 4, 2002||REMI||Maintenance fee reminder mailed|
|May 16, 2003||LAPS||Lapse for failure to pay maintenance fees|
|Jul 15, 2003||FP||Expired due to failure to pay maintenance fee|
Effective date: 20030516