US 542338 A
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( Modem 4 Sheets-Sheet 1.
H F. W. HUEG.
No. 542,338. Patented July 9, 1895 l vitmdwy (No Model.) 4 SheetsShet 3.
H. FLW. 'HUEG] BAKE OVEN. Y V
, Patented July 9,1895.
/4 Y I if B a x\ K;
wanes 3% UNITE STATES PATENT OFFICE.
HERMAN F. V. H UEG, OF LONG ISLAND CITY, NEW YORK.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent N 0. 542,3 38, dated July 9, 1895.
dpplicat fi January 10, 1895- Serial No. 534,457. (No model.) 7
To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, HERMAN FREDERICK WILLIAM HUEG, a citizen of the United States, and a resident of Long Island City,
county of Queens, and State of New York,
have invented certain new and useful Improvementsin Bake-Ovens; and I declare that the following is a full and exact specification of my invention, reference being had to the accompanying drawings, Wherein Figure 1 is a perspective view of my improved bake-oven with fermenting'compartment and conveying apparatus. Fig. 2 is a vertical section; Fig. 3,-a horizontal section on line 3 3 in Fig. 2.. Figs. 4 and 5 are details III III in Fig. 12 through the heater, showing the apparatus for heating the oven with oil.
My invention relates. to bake-ovens for bread, cakes, rolls, crackers, and other such articles of food; and it consists'in the hereinafter-described particular construction of an oven with a centrally-located heater and with a fermenting-compartment, of an apparatus for conveying wares in a continuous circuit through the oven and through the fermenting-compartment, and of severalminor contrivances appertaining thereto.
I To bake bread and similar articles of food thoroughly, and to produce thereby the shiny,
brown, and crisp crust which is characteristic of Well-prepared bakers Wares, it is absolutely necessary to retain-the vapors (sweat) arising from the dough in the process of baking. p
Following minutely the process of baking in the pursuit of my trade, I observed,and later convinced myself through practical tests, that the vapors arising from the dough are carried into fines by the current of gases flowing through the oven, and I therefore constructed an oven wherein all connections with fines are avoided, a heater being provided within the bakingichamber, andbut one outlet, closed by a cock-valve, necessary to release superfiuous vapors accumulating beneath the top of the baking-chamber in a continuousbaking process.
My improved bake-oven comprises bakingchamber 0, with heater B set in its center'and dividing it into two compartments 0 and C communicating above the top of the heater. The oven is built preferably of bricks, with double wallsand double decking, outer walls I) being about six inches apart from the inner walls a on back and both sides of the oven, the space between the inner and outer walls on these three sides being divided into fiues through which the gases produced by combustion of the fuel are conducted up and down around the baking-chamber before they pass into the flue E, leading into .-the chimney. The space between the outer and inner walls on the front side of the oven is ten to twelve inches wide, and a square water-boiler D is set therein adjoining the heater. This boiler is kept filled with water conducted to it through feed-pipes, and conveniently located faucets permit the withdrawing of the heated water required for preparing the wares and furnishes also the hot water required for heating the fermenting-compartment F beneath the oven. In this manner the unexpended heat of the gases passing through the fines on both sides of the boiler and theheat accumulated in the wall of the heater are economically utilized and the necessity of providing separately a boiler for heating of water required in the bakery and for heating the fermenting compartment obviated. I
The oven may be heated by coal, and then a suitable coal-furnace A, as shown in Fig. 2, is provided in the lower part of heater B. Flues e and e, connecting the furnace directly with a top flue E, are opened when the fire is started to produce a strong draft, clearing away the dense smoke. On top of the furnace, directly over the fire, register Act is provided, constructed of flat iron bars and opening into the heater. When the fire is clear the flues e and c are partly or entirely shutand this register Aa opened, the hot gases then passing into the heater and through flue er, near the top of the heater, into the dues provided between the inner and outer walls of the oven. The oven may,however, be heated also by gas or oil, and for that purpose, in place of a coal-furnace, an oil or gas heating apparatus, such as are used for boilers, may be set.
In Figs. 10, 11, 12, and 13 I have shown the apparatus for heating the oven with gas and oil adapted for this purpose. Aa, in Fig. 10, designates a gas-main pipe, divided into branches Ac, and each of these is again divided into secondary pipes extending upward along the walls of the heater and provided at suitable intervals with elongated burners bl). BI) is an air-pipe, having branches Bo, similarly arranged as the gaspipes, and outlets connecting with those of gas-pipes on points where burners bl; are set. These outlet-pipes deliver a current of air into the burners bb, and this mixture of gas and air produces extensively hot flamesconsuming only a comparatively very small quantity of gas. The
V supply of gas and air is regulated by valves Ab and Ad, set in the gas-main and in the secondary pipes, respectively, and by a valve (not shown in the drawings) in the main air-pipe. A draft of air passes into the heater through opening Da, and is regulated by sliding shutter D3 and damper Ed, setin the main line E, leading into the chimney.
For burning of oil the apparatus shown in Figs. 12 and13 is designed. It consists of a square. tank B0, made of wrought-iron and covered air-tight by lid Bl, fastened upon it by bolts around its flanged rim. In this tank, set in the lower part of the furnace and covered with a layer of non eonducting material, crude oil, as usedfor firing boilers, is filled through pipe Po, entering near the bottom and provided with an automatic back-pressure valve on. Through pipe Pa ,entering the tank near the top, compressed air is driven into the space above the level of the oil, and by the pressure of this air the oil is driven upward in the tube st of the burner St and in the fiat tubes Tt extending from the tank into the heater. In tubes Tt, which reach considerably lower than spray-burner S wicks of loosely-woven asbestos fabric are inserted to prevent overflowing of the oil from them.
A draft of air passing into the heater through opening 00, above the covering of the tank, flows upward between the burners, as indicated by arrows, and the combustiongases escape through flue er and through the fines arranged between the walls into the chimney.
Burner Sp consists of tube st, with a finelyperforated crown as set on top of it and airtightly connected around its rim to air-pipe At. The oil driven by the pressure of the air in tank Bo overflows on top of tube st upon the crown c s, and is evaporated by a strong cur rent of air driven into pipe A15 and forcing its way through the crown. To prevent the burning of the oil upon the crown es, the head of the sprayer is inelosed with a hood of wirecloth. The air, saturated with the vapors of the oil, passes through this hood into the heater, where it burns, prod ueingahighrising and very hot flame.
The firing is regulated by increasing or reducing the'pressure of air in tank 130 and by increasing or reducing the draft through the heater. Burners 'lt are effective in heating the lower part of the walls of the baking-chamber, thus supplementing the burner Sp, heating principally the upper part. It will be seen that in this. manner every part of the baking-chamber will be thoroughly and equally heated with the least possible quantity of fuel, the heat radiating from the center toward the sides and the double walls effectively preventing every loss of heat and consequent reduction of the temperature within the baking-chamber.
The baking-chaml'ier extends upward and opens near the bottom. iug from the dough cannot escape through the door, being also barred by the shelves, filling eloselythe area of the baking-chamber. These shelves carrying the wares move from the opening upward, and the wares reach the Thus the vapors risspace near top of the baking-chamber, where these vapors and heat concentrate in such time when they will be mostly benefitted by them.
Pyrometer H is set above the door of the baking-chamber safely insulated from the walls, and pyrometer H near the top of the baking-chamber,where the temperature will be highest. Through tube K, provided with cock-valve K, operated by rods K and K and connecting baking-chamber (l with top flue E, superabundant vapors accumulated in the baking-chamber are released.
To enablethe operator to oversee the process of baking, tubes 0', and 0 provided with mica panes, are laid through the outer and inner walls of the baking-chamber, incandescent lights i, "F, and i operated by switch N, producing the necessary lumination.
Main flue E, leading into the chimney, is closed by damper Ed, whose construction is shown in Fig. 6. This damper regulates the draft through all parts of the oven, and consists of a hollow square cylinder do, fitted into the line E and set on lid (11). All four sides of this cylinder do are perforated by alternately-arranged apertures dct aud riveted to lid (1p, overlapping the opening into the flue E. Lid 6713 is cast of iron, and additional weight may be placed inside the cylinder do to weigh the damper down. Bell-crank ll pushes it upward when rod 25 is drawn, as indicated by arrow 'r'. Rod 6 is fastened on studs set in board Ks, thus setting damper Ed in such position producing the draft as may be required, This and all other dampers closing and regulating draft through the lines between the walls are operated from the front side of the oven wherethe furnace opens to enable the fireman to regulate the heating of the oven without interfering with thebaker.
Fermenting-chamber F is provided beneath the oven and heated by hot water circulating from boiler D through pipes h laid on its bottom. This fermenting-chamber is built sufficiently long to allow a full charge for the oven (about thirty pans)to be filled in, the wares to rise while another charge is baked.
The wares are conveyed through the fermenting-chamber and through the oven on tracks T, shelves S being detachably suspended from carriers R, consisting of axis 9" and rolls r and T and connected by links 10.
Rolls '2" move upon tracks T, secured to the walls of the fermentingchamber, and from there the carriers are lifted'by wheel W, hooks ocatching the axis 1" on both ends between the roll 1" and link wwupon the track.
T: It will be observed that the curved ends wherein they hang suspended on links to from of these rails rise gradually over the Wheel W, and thus as each carrier is moved forward upon them its axis 7" is automatically lifted out of the hooks. Rails '1" are supported upon pillarst to make the wares accessible to the baker, finishing during their move upon these tracks theirpreparation for baking.
l/Vheel W? in the opening of the bakingchamber is similarly equipped, though correspondingly smallerthan wheel W. This Wheel W transmits the carriers R with shelves S from rails T into the baking-chamber,
the top rails T and are drawn over these rails (or held so suspended, as the case may require) by wheels W which also transmit the carriers R'with shelves S from the bakingchamber upon track T similarly arranged as track T.
WVheelsll and W are made to correspond in circumference to the length of links to, connecting the carriers. On the axes of these wheels a disk is set, to which apawl is adjustably attached, operating a ratchet-wheel of the counting-machine 2, set on the outside wall of the bake-oven and indicating the number of shelves passed into or out of the bakingchamber. Dial X, with set hands, is placed on one side of the indicator Z, and on other side a clock Y to facilitate the regulation of the baking process by the operator.
Wheels W, W W and W transmitting carriers R with shelves S from the fermenting-chamber and through the baking-chamber, are revolved bya worm-gear, the spirallytoothed wheels it being keyed to shafts s and driven concurrently by worms u, or by handpower by levers Zw, to which pawls law are attached, operating ratchet-wheels rw set on.
the shafts of wheels W and W, the ratchetwheels mu and pawls pw servingalso the purpose of arresting the backward motionof these wheels and thus sustain the carriers R with shelves S, suspended from rails T in the baking-chamber when their motion is stopped.
In Fig. 1 I have also shown a device for emptying the pans while the carriers travel on track T Basket Rc', havinga rack q set in the bottom, is placed beneath the shelves, so that the rack will stop each shelf as it is moved along and, swinging it out of its horizontal position, will cause the baked wares to slide from the pan into the basket. Shelves with wares that would not bear such handling are detached on the end of track T from the carriers and transmitted to carriers on track T Shelves with new wares are attached to the carriers during their transmission on the wheels W from track T to track T in the fermenting -chambcr. Shelves with wares not requiring raising by fermentation, are set upon the carriers on wheels W and passed directly into the baking-chamber.
I claim as new and of myinvention and desire to secure by Letters Patent 1 A bake-oven, comprising a baking chamher, having double walls on all sides, and donble decking, and closed against the furnace and flues; a heater set in center of the baking chamber and extending into it, and a furnace beneath this heater, having flues leading directly intochimney and provided with dampers whereby these fiues may bepartly or wholly closed, and with a register, connecting the furnace with the heater and admitting hot gases, produced by the combustion of fuel, to pass throughthe heater and through flues'provided between the inner and outer walls inclosing the baking chamber.
2. In a bake-oven, the combination with a baking chamber, inclosed by double walls on all sides, of a heater, set in center of the'baking chamber'and capable ofbeing heated by oil or gas burners arranged within the heater, the hotgases, produced by combustion of the 1 fuel passing through the heater and through flues provided in the space between the in-. ner and the outer walls inclosing the baking chamber.
v 3. The combination with a bake-oven, having double walls, of a boiler set closely to the heater between the walls and between the tines conducting the hot gases from the furnace, and of pipes, conducting water to and from the boiler, for the purpose of utilizing the heat of gases passing from the heater, for heating a supply of water required for preparing dough. and for heating a fermenting compartment for raising the wares.
l. The combination with abake-oven, havinginner and outer walls and abaking chamber closed against thefurnace and fines, pro-' vided in the space between the inner and the outer walls inclosing the baking chamber, and a double top, communicating with main line to the chimney, of a damper, regulating the draft through the furnace, through the heater and fines and consisting of a hollow cylinder open on top and perforated on sides, set upon a lid, overlapping the opening into the flue and operated by a bell crank and a rod attached to it.
5. In a bake-oven, the combination with a damper, regulating the draft through the fur-' nace, through the heater and fines and operated by a bell crank and a rod attached toit, of a board with studs adapted to hold the rod in position to produce any required draft.
6. The combination with abake-oven, having a heater set within the baking chamber and a furnace beneath the heater and provided with a register, admitting hot gases into the heater, of fines, provided with dampers and connecting the furnace directly with the main flue and thus capable of producing strong draft, necessary when fire is started.
'7. In a bake-oven, comprising a baking chamber with a heater set within the baking chamber and a fermenting compartment arranged beneath, the combination with carriers consisting of two grooved rolls set upon an axis from which shelves with wares are detachablysuspended,and connected hylinks into a flexible train, of rails affixed to the walls of the fermenting compartment and of the baking chamber, and forming suitable tracks over which these carriers are drawn.
8. In a bake-oven, comprising a baking chamber with a heater set within the baking chamber and a fermenting compartment arranged beneath, the combination with carriers from which shelves with Wares are dc tachably suspended, and connected by links into a flexible train of wheels keyed to shafts and provided with hooks in corresponding position, adapted to take up the axes of the carriers between the rolls and their connecting links and thus pull them over rails on which these carriers travel, and to transmit them from one track to another.
9. In a bake-oven, comprising a baking chamber with a heater set within the baking chamber and a fermenting compartment arranged beneath, the combination with carriers from which shelves with wares are detachably suspended, and connected by links into a flexible train, of wheels provided with hooks adapted to take up, move and transmit the carriers,of spirally toothed wheels keyed to the shafts and driven concurrently by worms, and of levers with pawls attached thereto, operating ratchet wheels, set on the shafts of the transmitting wheels, these pawls being adapted to move the transmitting wheels by hand power and to arrest their backward motion, thus sustaining the carriers with shelves suspended from the rails in the baking chamber.
10. In a bake-oven, adapted for a continuous baking process and provided with a count ing machine, the combination with wheels, transmitting carriers into, and outot the bak ing chamber, and correspondingin the extent of their circumference to the length of links connecting the carriers, of a disk, set on the shaft of these wheels and carrying a pawl adjnstably attached to it and operating the counting machine, to indicate the number of shelves transmitted into or outot the baking chamber.
HERMAN F. W. IIUEG.
WILLIAM MUESER, H. TAWZER.