|Publication number||US5431811 A|
|Application number||US 08/062,766|
|Publication date||Jul 11, 1995|
|Filing date||May 18, 1993|
|Priority date||May 19, 1992|
|Also published as||CA2096393A1, CA2096393C, DE69313178D1, DE69313178T2, EP0571303A1, EP0571303B1|
|Publication number||062766, 08062766, US 5431811 A, US 5431811A, US-A-5431811, US5431811 A, US5431811A|
|Inventors||Andrea Tusini, Luca Vinci|
|Original Assignee||Hospal Ag|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (11), Referenced by (71), Classifications (24), Legal Events (8)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
1. Field of the Invention
The present invention relates to the field of extracorporeal treatment of blood by dialysis and/or by ultrafiltration. More particularly, the invention relates to a hydraulic circuit for an artificial kidney in which the dialysis-liquid circuit includes an ultrafilter intended to rid the dialysis liquid of microorganisms and possibly pyrogenic elements which it might contain.
2. Description of the Related Art
With the development of high-permeability haemodialyzers, there has been increased interest in the use of dialysis liquid having good biological properties to protect against blood contamination which may occur if portions of the dialysis liquid enter the blood stream. While exchanges in a haemodialyzer during blood purification are intended to only occur from the blood compartment toward the dialysis-liquid compartment, the possibility remains of having, on the contrary, a transfer from the dialysis liquid towards the blood. This may occur either by diffusion or by convection in situations where the pressure in the dialysis-liquid compartment becomes greater than the pressure in the blood compartment.
U.S. Pat. No. 4,834,888 discloses an artificial kidney comprising a filter for in-line sterilization of dialysis liquid before its entry into the haemodialyzer. According to this document, the filter used for sterilizing the dialysis liquid comprises two compartments separated by a membrane capable of retaining germs. The liquid coming from a dialysis-liquid source is completely filtered through this filter before entering the haemodialyzer. In order to avoid filter clogging, the compartment connected to the dialysis-liquid source is rinsed at the end of each haemodialysis session, and may also be rinsed during a session as well.
For this purpose, this compartment has an output connected to a line for draining the used dialysis liquid coming from the haemodialyzer. During the filter-rinsing phase, sterilizing the liquid by filtration is stopped, and the liquid entering the filter then sweeps along the surface of the membrane in order to detach the germs and pyrogenic elements which are deposited thereon. Thereafter, the liquid directly rejoins a line for draining the used dialysis liquid.
In order to check the integrity of the membrane of this sterilization filter, this document describes a specific test performed between two dialysis sessions. This test involves introducing air into at least one part of the dialysis-liquid circuit, and can therefore only be performed when the haemodialyzer is disconnected from the dialysis apparatus.
Thus, the device described in this document has the drawback of not allowing the integrity and efficiency of the membrane of the filter to be checked during use.
The subject of the present invention is a hydraulic circuit for an artificial kidney allowing continuous checking of the correct state of the ultrafilter without stopping its operation.
A subject of the present invention is also a hydraulic circuit for an artificial kidney allowing its user to be warned in case of clogging or breakage of the membrane filtering the dialysis liquid. For this purpose, the present invention provides a hydraulic circuit for an artificial kidney comprising at least one line connected to a dialysis-liquid source, and provided with at least one ultrafilter having two chambers separated by a membrane capable of retaining the microbial and pyrogenic elements. The first chamber is connected to a line which is connected to a dialysis-liquid source. The invention also includes means for determining the transmembrane pressure existing on either side of the membrane of the ultrafilter, means for fixing at least one threshold value for this transmembrane pressure, and means for comparing the transmembrane pressure value determined with the threshold value, in order to act on control means in the case where the transmembrane pressure value determined reaches the fixed threshold value.
Advantageously, the hydraulic circuit according to the present invention may further comprise means for sustaining a continuous tangential flow of liquid along the membrane of the ultrafilter. Thus, the deposition of microorganisms of pyrogenic elements and consequently the clogging of the membrane are reduced as much as possible thereby permitting the life of the ultrafilter to be increased while simultaneously decreasing the risk that undersirable elements will pass into the liquid entering the haemodialyzer or into the extracorporeal blood circuit, in situations where the membrane of the ultrafilter has been damaged.
According to a particular embodiment, the hydraulic circuit of the invention further comprises, downstream of the ultrafilter, means for precisely controlling the flow of liquid. Thus, whatever the pressure loss caused in the dialysis-liquid circuit by the presence of an ultrafilter, the flow rate of dialysis liquid entering the haemodialyzer or the extracorporeal blood circuit can be held constant.
According to another embodiment of the present invention, the hydraulic circuit further comprises a branch circuit allowing the dialysis liquid to short-circuit the ultrafilter. This is particularly advantageous when the liquid filtered is used as the dialysis liquid, because, when a defect in the integrity of the membrane is detected, it is not necessary to stop the treatment, but rather, it is possible to continue the session without exposing the patient to serious risks.
Other features and advantages will emerge in the description which follows, with reference to the drawing.
FIG. 1 schematically illustrates an artificial kidney circuit in accordance with the present invention.
In FIG. 1, a part of the artificial kidney is diagrammatically represented (only the elements relating to the invention have been represented), which comprises a conventional haemodialyzer 1 divided by membrane 2 into two compartments 3 and 4. Blood to be treated flows through compartment 3 and dialysis liquid for purifying the blood passes through compartment 4. The circuit for circulating dialysis liquid inside the artificial kidney comprises an upstream portion 5 for conveying fresh dialysis liquid entering haemodialyzer 1 through an inlet 6, as well as a downstream portion 7 for conveying used dialysis liquid leaving haemodialyzer 1 through an outlet 8. The upstream portion 5 of the dialysis-liquid circuit consists of a mainline 9 capable of conveying fresh dialysis liquid from a source (not shown) towards the haemodialyzer. Line 9 comprises an ultrafilter 10 having an ultrafiltration membrane 11 capable of retaining microorganisms and pyrogenic elements of the dialysis liquid.
Membrane 11 therefore separates the ultrafilter 10 into two compartments; a compartment 12 for receiving fresh dialysis liquid which may be contaminated, and a compartment 13 for collecting the ultrafiltered dialysis liquid.
Compartment 12 includes an inlet opening 14 for the dialysis liquid to be filtered, connected to line 9, as well as an outlet opening 15 for the unfiltered dialysis liquid, connected to line 16, itself connected to the downstream portion 7 of the dialysis-liquid circuit. Compartment 13 of ultrafilter 10 is provided with an outlet opening 18 for the filtered liquid.
Line 9 also comprises, upstream of the ultrafilter 10, a pump 19 for circulating the dialysis liquid. According to the invention, a pressure sensor 23 is arranged in line 9, upstream of the ultrafilter and downstream of the pump 19, which pressure sensor makes it possible to continuously measure the pressure of the dialysis liquid upstream of the ultrafilter.
Similarly, a pressure sensor 24 situated between the ultrafilter 10 and the haemodialyzer 1 makes it possible to continuously measure the pressure of the filtered dialysis liquid at the output of the ultrafilter.
Advantageously, a three-way valve is arranged on either side of the ultrafilter 10. Specifically, valve 20 is situated upstream of the ultrafilter 10 but downstream of the pressure sensor 23, whereas a valve 21 is situated downstream of the ultrafilter but upstream of the pressure sensor 24. These valves 20 and 21 are directly connected to each other by a branch line 22.
A flow meter 25 as well as a circulating pump 26 are arranged downstream of the pressure sensor 24. A control unit 27 receives the information coming from the pressure sensors 23 and 24 as well as from the flow meter 25, and controls the operation of the valves 20, 21, and of the pumps 19 and 26.
The artificial kidney, as described above, operates as follows. Dialysis liquid is circulated by the action of the pump 19 whose delivery is fixed for example at 0.54 1/min, with the valves 20 and 21 being positioned such that liquid circulates through the ultrafilter 10 and not through branch line 22. More specifically, the dialysis liquid flows through line 9, then enters the ultrafilter 10.
By virtue of the action of the pump 26 whose delivery is fixed for example at 0.5 1/min, a large fraction of the liquid entering ultrafilter 10 is filtered by passage through the membrane 11 and enters haemodialyzer 1 through inlet 6. The liquid then leaves haemodialyzer 1 through opening 8 and is conveyed, by virtue of the downstream portion of the dialysis-liquid circuit, towards drainage or regeneration means (not shown).
According to one characteristic of the invention, the pressure values measured by the sensors 23 and 24 and corresponding to the pressure values on the liquid on either side of the ultrafiltration membrane 11 are transmitted during a first mode of operation of the ultrafilter to the control unit 27 which thus determines the value of the transmembrane pressure. During the first mode of operation, dialysis liquid is prefiltered through ultrafilter 10 as discussed in greater detail above. This transmembrane pressure value (TMP) is compared with one or more threshold values previously recorded by the operator in the control unit as a function of the ultrafilter used. Thus, it is possible to fix an upper threshold value corresponding to clogging of the membrane 11, and a lower threshold value corresponding to damage of the membrane, such as breakage. If the TMP value calculated reaches one or the other of the threshold values, the control unit 27 emits a threshold signal intended to warn the operator, by triggering, for example, a visual and/or acoustic alarm, or by displaying a suitable message on a screen (not shown) acting as an interface between the operator and the machine. The operator may then act manually on the control means of valves 20 and 21 in order to operate them so that the dialysis liquid no longer flows through the ultrafilter 10 but follows the branch line 22 in accordance with a second mode of operation, whereby prefiltration by ultrafilter 10 is bypassed. Thus, the threshold values demarcate a desired switch-over-point from the first mode of operation to the second mode of operation, allowing the blood-treatment session to continue with unfiltered dialysis liquid until the operator has replaced the filter.
Alternatively, the control unit 27 may directly control the operation of the valves 20 and 21 when the transmembrane pressure calculated reaches one or other of the threshold values.
According to an advantageous characteristic of the invention, a fraction of the dialysis liquid entering the ultrafilter 10 does not pass through membrane 11, but emerges directly through opening 15 in ultrafilter 10 in order to rejoin, through line 16, the used dialysis liquid coming from haemodialyzer 1. This continuous tangential flow is obtained by virtue of the difference existing between the delivery provided by pump 19 and that of pump 26. Alternatively, it is possible to provide line 16 with a low-delivery pump (not shown) which allows the rate of the tangential flow to be controlled precisely. The continuous sweeping of the ultrafiltration membrane by a tangential flow of liquid has the advantage of carrying with it microorganisms, fewer of which are deposited on the membrane. This increases the life of the ultrafilter and reduces the risk that a large amount of microbial and/or pyrogenic elements will pass to the haemodialyzer in the event that the ultrafiltration membrane is damaged.
According to another characteristic of the invention, the flow of filtered dialysis liquid through membrane 11 is controlled very precisely, by virtue of, for example, pump 26 with very precise delivery, or by the addition of a flow meter 25 that transmits information to control unit 27 which consequently controls the operation of pump 26. This slaving of pump 26 to the flow rate measured by the flow meter 25 allows the flow of dialysis liquid entering haemodialyzer 1 to be held constant.
Numerous variant embodiments are within the capability of a person skilled in the art without departing from the scope of the present invention. For example, it is possible to provide for the transmembrane pressure several upper and lower threshold values corresponding to various degrees of clogging or damage of the ultrafiltration membrane, which require different actions on the part of the operator or the machine.
Similarly, it is possible to improve the precision of the flow rate of the liquid delivered by the circulation pump 19 by adding to line 9 a flow meter (not shown) to which the operation of the pump 19 would be slaved.
The present invention has been described in its particular application to the case where the filtered liquid is used as the dialysis liquid. It is also possible to apply the invention to situations where the filtered dialysis liquid is injected as a substitution liquid into the extracorporeal blood circuit. This may be the case during haemofiltration when blood purification is performed solely by ultrafiltration without circulation of dialysis liquid on a side of the membrane opposite to the circulating blood. Alternatively the invention can be used in connection with haemodiafiltration where blood is purified both by dialysis and by ultrafiltration with reinjection of a substitution liquid into the extracorporeal blood circuit.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US3506126 *||May 3, 1968||Apr 14, 1970||Milton Roy Co||Closed recirculating hemodialysis system|
|US4113614 *||Dec 10, 1976||Sep 12, 1978||International Business Machines Corporation||Automated hemodialysis treatment systems|
|US4202764 *||Oct 2, 1978||May 13, 1980||Baxter Travenol Laboratories, Inc.||Ultrafiltration control system|
|US4252651 *||Aug 29, 1979||Feb 24, 1981||Baxter Travenol Laboratories, Inc.||Negative pressure valving system and transmembrane pressure alarm system|
|US4298938 *||Jan 28, 1980||Nov 3, 1981||Baxter Travenol Laboratories, Inc.||Backup control circuit for kidney dialysis machine|
|US4606826 *||Apr 17, 1985||Aug 19, 1986||Nissho Corporation||Apparatus for controlling ultrafiltration and method for the same|
|US4735727 *||Mar 25, 1986||Apr 5, 1988||Intermedicat Gmbh||Dialysis equipment|
|US4753733 *||Jul 18, 1986||Jun 28, 1988||E. I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company||Plasmapheresis method and apparatus for overcoming membrane fouling|
|US4834888 *||Dec 3, 1987||May 30, 1989||Fresenius Ag||Hemodialysis apparatus comprising a sterile filter|
|US4936980 *||Jul 27, 1988||Jun 26, 1990||Kuraray Co., Ltd.||Apparatus and method for plasma separation|
|US5147552 *||Jul 25, 1991||Sep 15, 1992||Le Carbone Lorraine||Method of and apparatus for cleaning filters in tangential microfiltration|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US5589077 *||Nov 16, 1994||Dec 31, 1996||Sumitomo Chemical Company, Limited||Liquid filtering and supply system controlling recirculation responsive to pressure difference across filter|
|US5660722 *||Jul 11, 1995||Aug 26, 1997||Fresenius Ag||Hemo(dia)filtration apparatus and filtrate flow regulator|
|US5702597 *||Jun 5, 1995||Dec 30, 1997||Hospal Industrie||Device for preparing a treatment liquid by filtration|
|US5888401 *||Sep 16, 1996||Mar 30, 1999||Union Camp Corporation||Method and apparatus for reducing membrane fouling|
|US5947689 *||May 7, 1997||Sep 7, 1999||Scilog, Inc.||Automated, quantitative, system for filtration of liquids having a pump controller|
|US5954971 *||Jan 7, 1997||Sep 21, 1999||Haemonetics Corporation||Pumped-filter blood-processing apparatus and methods|
|US5989438 *||Dec 12, 1997||Nov 23, 1999||Baxter International Inc.||Active blood filter and method for active blood filtration|
|US6039877 *||Sep 22, 1997||Mar 21, 2000||Hospal Industrie||Device and method for preparing a treatment liquid by filtration|
|US6303036||Jul 30, 1999||Oct 16, 2001||Nephros, Inc.||Method and apparatus for efficient hemodiafiltration|
|US6315895||Dec 30, 1999||Nov 13, 2001||Nephros, Inc.||Dual-stage hemodiafiltration cartridge|
|US6350382||Jun 23, 2000||Feb 26, 2002||Scilog, Inc.||Enhancing filtration yields in tangential flow filtration|
|US6406631||Oct 30, 2000||Jun 18, 2002||Nephros, Inc.||Two stage diafiltration method and apparatus|
|US6423231||Oct 29, 1999||Jul 23, 2002||Nephros, Inc.||Non-isosmotic diafiltration system|
|US6526357||Aug 1, 2000||Feb 25, 2003||Gambro, Inc.||Associated parameter measuring and/or monitoring such as in the evaluation of pressure differences|
|US6607669||Oct 15, 2001||Aug 19, 2003||Scilog, Inc.||Method and apparatus for enhancing filtration yields in tangential flow filtration|
|US6635179||Dec 30, 1999||Oct 21, 2003||Nephros, Inc.||Sterile fluid filtration cartridge and method for using same|
|US6689083 *||Nov 27, 2000||Feb 10, 2004||Chf Solutions, Inc.||Controller for ultrafiltration blood circuit which prevents hypotension by monitoring osmotic pressure in blood|
|US6712963||Jun 14, 2002||Mar 30, 2004||Scilog, Llc||Single-use manifold for automated, aseptic transfer of solutions in bioprocessing applications|
|US6716356||Jan 11, 2001||Apr 6, 2004||Nephros, Inc.||Thermally enhanced dialysis/diafiltration system|
|US6719907||Oct 30, 2001||Apr 13, 2004||Nephros, Inc.||Dual-stage filtration cartridge|
|US6767333 *||Aug 28, 2000||Jul 27, 2004||Fresenius Medical Care Deutschland||Safety device for a blood treatment machine and a method of increasing the safety of a blood treatment machine|
|US6776909||Jun 12, 2002||Aug 17, 2004||Fresenius Medical Care Deutschland Gmbh||Filter device|
|US6804991||Jan 14, 2003||Oct 19, 2004||Fresenius Medical Care Deutschland Gmbh||Method and device for detecting a leakage in a fluid system of a blood treatment apparatus|
|US6821421 *||Jul 16, 2002||Nov 23, 2004||Jms Co., Ltd.||Hemodialyzing unit for adjusting dialytic fluid to low flow rate|
|US6899691||Dec 22, 2000||May 31, 2005||Gambro Inc.||Extracorporeal blood processing methods and apparatus|
|US7052603||Jan 26, 2004||May 30, 2006||Scilog, Inc.||Single-use manifold for automated, aseptic transfer of soulutions in bioprocessing applications|
|US7131957||Jun 3, 2004||Nov 7, 2006||Fresenius Medical Care Deutschland Gmbh||Safety device for a blood treatment machine and a method of increasing the safety of a blood treatment machine|
|US7169352||Oct 8, 2003||Jan 30, 2007||Gambro, Inc.||Extracorporeal blood processing methods and apparatus|
|US7410587 *||Aug 3, 2004||Aug 12, 2008||Scilog, Inc.||Liquid handling for filtration and preparative chromatography|
|US7513882||Sep 8, 2006||Apr 7, 2009||Caridianbct, Inc.||Extracorporeal blood processing methods with multiple alarm levels|
|US7534349||Aug 31, 2006||May 19, 2009||Nephros, Inc.||Dual stage ultrafilter devices in the form of portable filter devices, shower devices, and hydration packs|
|US7608053||Oct 27, 2009||Caridianbct, Inc.||Extracorporeal blood processing methods with return-flow alarm|
|US7704454||Oct 8, 2003||Apr 27, 2010||Caridianbct, Inc.||Methods and devices for processing blood|
|US7775375||Jun 15, 2006||Aug 17, 2010||Medica S.R.L.||Redundant ultrafiltration device|
|US7780618||Jun 11, 2007||Aug 24, 2010||Caridian Bct, Inc.||Extracorporeal blood processing apparatus and methods with pressure sensing|
|US7824355||Aug 7, 2008||Nov 2, 2010||Caridianbct, Inc.||Methods and devices for processing blood|
|US8088090||Sep 8, 2006||Jan 3, 2012||Caridianbct, Inc.||Extracorporeal blood processing methods with multiple alarm levels|
|US8157999||Apr 17, 2012||Spf Innovations, Llc||Method and apparatus for the filtration of biological solutions|
|US8231787||May 5, 2009||Jul 31, 2012||Spf Innovations, Llc||Tangential flow filtration system|
|US8343347||Jan 1, 2013||Nephros, Inc.||Dual stage ultrafilter devices in the form of portable filter devices, shower devices, and hydration packs|
|US8728315||Mar 9, 2012||May 20, 2014||Spf Innovations, Llc||Method and apparatus for the filtration of biological solutions|
|US9364597||Nov 15, 2011||Jun 14, 2016||B. Braun Avitum Ag||Blood ultrafiltration substitution target method and device|
|US20030136181 *||Jan 14, 2003||Jul 24, 2003||Fresenius Medical Care Deutschland Gmbh.||Method and device for detecting a leakage in a fluid system of a blood treatment apparatus|
|US20030230521 *||Jun 14, 2002||Dec 18, 2003||Schick Karl G.||Single-use manifold for automated, aseptic transfer of solutions in bioprocessing applications|
|US20040011722 *||Jul 16, 2002||Jan 22, 2004||Jms Co., Ltd.||Hemodialyzing unit for adjusting dialytic fluid to low flow rate|
|US20040155066 *||Jan 26, 2004||Aug 12, 2004||Schick Karl G.||Single-use manifold for automated, aseptic transfer of soulutions in bioprocessing applications|
|US20040217056 *||Jun 3, 2004||Nov 4, 2004||Carsten Muller||Safety device for a blood treatment machine and a method of increasing the safety of a blood treatment machine|
|US20050056584 *||Oct 28, 2004||Mar 17, 2005||Uwe Hahmann||Filter device|
|US20060027500 *||Aug 3, 2004||Feb 9, 2006||Schick Karl G||Liquid handling for filtration and preparative chromatography|
|US20060096907 *||Dec 20, 2005||May 11, 2006||Uwe Hahmann||Filter device|
|US20070004997 *||Sep 8, 2006||Jan 4, 2007||Gambro, Inc.||Extracorporeal Blood Processing Methods With Multiple Alarm Levels|
|US20070062871 *||Nov 22, 2006||Mar 22, 2007||Uwe Hahmann||Filter device|
|US20070078368 *||Sep 8, 2006||Apr 5, 2007||Gambro, Inc.||Extracorporeal Blood Processing Methods With Return-Flow Alarm|
|US20070163943 *||Aug 31, 2006||Jul 19, 2007||Nephros, Inc.||Dual stage ultrafilter devices in the form of portable filter devices, shower devices, and hydration packs|
|US20070232980 *||Jun 11, 2007||Oct 4, 2007||Gambro Bct, Inc.||Extracorporeal Blood Processing Apparatus And Methods With Pressure Sensing|
|US20080277343 *||May 23, 2008||Nov 13, 2008||Scilog, Inc.||Liquid handling for filtration and preparative chromatogrphy|
|US20090043237 *||Aug 7, 2008||Feb 12, 2009||Caridianbct, Inc.||Methods and devices for processing blood|
|US20090078625 *||Jun 15, 2006||Mar 26, 2009||Palumbo Giuseppe||Redundant ultrafiltration device|
|US20090277833 *||Nov 12, 2009||Spf Innovations, Llc||Tangential flow filtration system|
|US20090287581 *||May 15, 2008||Nov 19, 2009||Doapp, Inc.||Method and system for providing purchasing on a wireless device|
|US20110215051 *||Sep 8, 2011||Spf Innovations, Llc||Method and apparatus for the filtration of biological solutions|
|US20120165718 *||Aug 13, 2010||Jun 28, 2012||Michael Herrenbauer||Tube set for a blood handling apparatus and blood handling apparatus comprising a tube set|
|DE102010048771A1 *||Oct 14, 2010||May 16, 2012||B. Braun Avitum Ag||Verfahren und Vorrichtung zur Messung und Behebung von Systemänderungen in einer Vorrichtung zur Behandlung von Blut|
|DE102010052070A1 *||Nov 17, 2010||May 24, 2012||B. Braun Avitum Ag||Verfahren und Vorrichtung zur Anpassung des Substitutionsziels bei der Ultrafiltration von Blut|
|DE102012111375A1 *||Nov 23, 2012||Jun 12, 2014||B. Braun Avitum Ag||Verfahren und Vorrichtung zur Erkennung einer verminderten Dialyseleistung verursacht durch Verklottung|
|EP1078641A2 *||Aug 26, 2000||Feb 28, 2001||Fresenius Medical Care Deutschland GmbH||Safety device for a blood treatment apparatus and method for increasing the safety of a blood treatment apparatus|
|EP1327457A1 *||Nov 22, 2002||Jul 16, 2003||Fresenius Medical Care Deutschland GmbH||Methode and device to detect a leak in a liquid circuit of a blood treatment apparatus|
|WO1998033537A1 *||Jan 29, 1998||Aug 6, 1998||Hospal Ag||Hydraulic circuit for dialysis liquid|
|WO1998050699A1 *||May 5, 1998||Nov 12, 1998||Scilog, Inc.||Automated, quantitative filtration of liquids|
|WO2002047609A2 *||Nov 21, 2001||Jun 20, 2002||Chf Solutions, Inc.||Feedback control of ultrafiltration to prevent hypotension using osmotic pressure|
|WO2002047609A3 *||Nov 21, 2001||Apr 17, 2003||Chf Solutions Inc||Feedback control of ultrafiltration to prevent hypotension using osmotic pressure|
|U.S. Classification||210/90, 210/195.2, 210/117, 210/143, 604/6.09, 210/420, 210/929, 210/435, 210/130, 210/433.1, 210/321.69, 210/134, 210/254, 210/424, 210/97|
|Cooperative Classification||Y10S210/929, A61M2205/707, A61M2205/705, A61M1/1656, A61M2205/702, A61M2205/7518, A61M1/1672|
|Jul 14, 1993||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: HOSPAL AG, SWITZERLAND
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:TUSINI, ANDREA;VINCI, LUCA;REEL/FRAME:006618/0321
Effective date: 19930706
|Nov 23, 1998||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4
|Dec 30, 2002||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 8
|Aug 18, 2005||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: GAMBRO HOSPAL (SCHWEIZ) AG, SWITZERLAND
Free format text: MERGER;ASSIGNOR:HOSPAL AG;REEL/FRAME:016891/0559
Effective date: 20040309
|Jun 1, 2006||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: GAMBRO HOSPAL (SCHWEIZ) AG, SWITZERLAND
Free format text: CHANGE OF NAME;ASSIGNOR:HOSPAL LTD.;REEL/FRAME:017946/0279
Effective date: 20040309
|Dec 3, 2006||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: CITICORP TRUSTEE COMPANY LIMITED, UNITED KINGDOM
Free format text: SECURITY AGREEMENT;ASSIGNOR:GAMBRO HOSPAL (SCHWEIZ) AG;REEL/FRAME:018573/0281
Effective date: 20061130
|Dec 18, 2006||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 12
|Dec 28, 2011||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: GAMBRO HOSPAL (SCHWEIZ) AG, COLORADO
Free format text: RELEASE OF SECURITY INTEREST IN PATENTS;ASSIGNOR:CITICORP TRUSTEE COMPANY LIMITED, AS SECURITY AGENT;REEL/FRAME:027456/0154
Effective date: 20111207