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Publication numberUS5476822 A
Publication typeGrant
Application numberUS 08/239,828
Publication dateDec 19, 1995
Filing dateMay 9, 1994
Priority dateMay 7, 1993
Fee statusLapsed
Also published asDE69423809D1, DE69423809T2, EP0623569A1, EP0623569B1, US5637543
Publication number08239828, 239828, US 5476822 A, US 5476822A, US-A-5476822, US5476822 A, US5476822A
InventorsMasaki Iwaya, Kyohei Hayashi, Hiroshi Matsuzaki, Yoshirou Suematsu
Original AssigneeNgk Spark Plug Co., Ltd.
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Ceramic composition for thermistor, thermistor element, and process for producing same
US 5476822 A
Abstract
A ceramic composition for thermistor exhibiting stable resistance values over a wide temperature range and capable of being used for a prolonged time. The composition is represented by (M1 M2 O3)1-x (M1 AlO3)x, wherein M1 is an element selected from the elements of the group 3A of the International Periodic Table excluding La and M2 is an element of the groups 4A, 5A, 6A, 7A and 8 of the International Periodic Table, and wherein the mixing ratio between an electrically conductive substance stable at elevated temperatures and an insulating substance stable at elevated temperatures, may be adjusted. A thermistor formed of the composition is superior in high-temperature stability and can be used over a broad temperature range because its resistance value can be selected to an optimum value.
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Claims(29)
What is claimed is:
1. A ceramic composition for thermistor represented by the formula (M1 M2 O3)1-x (M1 AlO3)x, where
M1 is one or more elements selected from the elements belonging to the group 3A of the International Periodic Table excluding La, M2 is one or more elements selected from the elements belonging to the groups 4A, 5A, 6A, 7A, and 8 of the International Periodic Table and 0.8>>0,
wherein a sintering aid is added to the composition.
2. The ceramic composition for thermistor as defined in claim 1 wherein M1 is one or more elements selected from the group consisting of Y, Sm, Pr, Nd, Dy, Ho, Er, Gd and Yb, and M2 is one or more elements selected from the group consisting of Cr, Ti, Mn, V, Fe and Co.
3. The ceramic composition for thermistor as defined in claim 1 or 2 wherein x is 0.05 to 0.5.
4. The ceramic composition for thermistor as defined in claim 1 wherein M1 is Y or Gd and M2 is Cr.
5. The ceramic composition for thermistor as defined in claim 3 wherein M1 is Y or Gd and M2 is Cr.
6. The ceramic composition for thermistor as defined in claims 2 or 4 wherein the sintering aid comprises silica and/or mullite.
7. The ceramic composition for thermistor as defined in claim 3 wherein the sintering aid comprises silica.
8. The ceramic composition for thermistor as defined in claim 1 wherein the sintering aid is present in an amount of 0.5 to 10 wt %.
9. The ceramic composition for thermistor as defined in claim 1 wherein the sintering aid is present in an amount of 0.8 to 5 wt %.
10. The ceramic composition for thermistor as defined in claim 1 wherein the sintering aid comprises silica and/or mullite.
11. The ceramic composition for thermistor as defined in claim 7 wherein the sintering aid further comprises at least one member selected from the group consisting of CaO--SiO2 compounds, SrO--SiO2 compounds, MgO--SiO2 compounds, B2 O3 --SiO2 --Al2 O3 compounds and B2 O3 --SiO2 compounds.
12. A thermistor element having the ceramic composition as defined in any one of claims 1, 2 or 4 as a main constituent.
13. A thermistor element having the ceramic composition as defined in claim 3 as a main constituent.
14. A thermistor element having the ceramic composition as defined in claim 7 as a main constituent.
15. A process for producing a composition for thermistor comprising:
providing M1 M2 O3 and M1 AlO3, respectively, where M1 is one or more elements selected from the elements belonging to the group 3A of the International Periodic Table excluding La, M2 is one or more elements selected from the elements belonging to the groups 4A, 5A, 6A, 7A, and 8 of the International Periodic Table,
providing a mixture comprising (M1 M2 O3)1-x (M1 AlO3)x where 0.8>>0, and
adding a sintering aid to the mixture.
16. The process as defined in claim 15, wherein each of said M1 M2 O3 and M1 AlO3 is produced through calcinating a starting raw material mixture to form a calcined mass.
17. The process as defined in claim 15 wherein M1 is one or more elements selected from the group consisting of Y, Sm, Pr, Nd, Dy, Ho, Er, Gd and Yb and M2 is one or more elements selected from the group consisting of Cr, Ti, Mn, V, Fe and Co.
18. The process as defined in claim 15 wherein x is 0.05 to 0.5
19. The process as defined in claim 15 or 18 wherein M1 is Y or Gd and M2 is Cr.
20. The process as defined in any one of claims 15, 16 or 17 wherein the sintering aid comprises silica and/or mullite.
21. The process as defined in claim 10, wherein each of said calcined masses is pulverized to form a fine powder.
22. A process for producing a thermistor element, comprising the process as defined in claim 21, and further comprising sintering said pulverized powders.
23. The process as defined in claim 22, wherein the sintering aid is admixed to said pulverized powders.
24. The process as defined in claim 19 wherein the calcination is carried out approximately at 1200-1400 C.
25. The process as defined in claim 19 wherein the calcination is carried out approximately at 1400 C.
26. A process for producing a thermistor element, comprising the process as defined in claim 24, and further comprising sintering said pulverized powders.
27. The process as defined in claim 22 or 23 wherein the sintering is carried out at a temperature approximately of 1450-1600 C.
28. The process as defined in claim 22 or 23 wherein the sintering is carried out at a temperature approximately of 1550 C.
29. The process as defined in claim 20 wherein the sintering aid further comprises at least one compound selected from the group consisting of CaO--SiO2 compounds, SrO--SiO2 compounds, MgO--SiO2 compounds, B2 O3 --SiO2 --Al2 O3 compounds and B2 O3 --SiO3 compounds.
Description
FIELD OF THE INVENTION

This invention relates to a ceramic (or porcelain) composition for a thermistor which is superior in high temperature stability.

BACKGROUND

As a thermistor material which may be employed at higher temperatures, (a) a material mainly composed of a corundum type crystal structure, as disclosed for example in JP Patent KOKAI Publication No. 50-118294 (JP-A-118284/75) or in "Fine Ceramic Handbook" by K. Yano, published by ASAKURA SHOTEN in 1984; (b) a material mainly composed of a compound having a spinel type crystal structure, as disclosed for example in JP Patent KOKAI Publication No. 48-63985 (JP-A-63995/74), (c) a material mainly composed of zirconia, as disclosed in, e.g., "Nainenkikan" (Internal Combustion Engine) vol 30, No. 8, page 98, and (d) a material mainly composed of a compound having a perovskite type crystal structure.

SUMMARY OF THE DISCLOSURE Problems to be Solved by the Invention

However, according to the eager investigation of the inventors of the present invention the following problems have been turned out. With the material (a) mainly composed of the corundum crystal structure, the resistance--temperature characteristics can not be adjusted to a larger extent. If, for example, the additive is added in an excess quantity, the structure ceases to remain the stable corundum type crystal structure, resulting in deteriorated thermal stability.

The material (b) mainly composed of the spinel type crystal structure has a higher rate of change of the resistance versus temperature (a higher temperature gradient constant β), so that it cannot be employed over a wider temperature range. On the other hand, materials mainly composed of NiAl2 O4 or CoAl2 O4 are low in the thermal resistance and hence cannot be employed at elevated temperatures.

The material mainly composed of zirconia (c) is oxygen ion conductive and is increased in resistance in a temperature range lower than the activation temperature so that it cannot be employed practically.

The material mainly composed of the compound having the perovskite type crystal structure (d) has such inconvenience that, if only a slight amount of La oxides remain unreacted, the non-reacted La component reacts with the atmospheric moisture to form unstable La(OH)2 with the result that the device composed of the material collapses or exhibits only unstable resistance values.

OBJECT OF THE INVENTION

It is an object of the present invention to provide a improved novel ceramic composition for thermistor.

It is another object of the present invention to provide a ceramic thermistor which overcomes the above problems.

It is a further object of the present invention to provide a ceramic composition for thermistor which has a broad range of resistance values by adjusting the composition of the material.

It is a still further object of the present invention to provide a ceramic composition for thermistor which can be sintered at a temperature not higher than 1600 C. to prevent electrode deterioration, which is free from hygroscopic substances and the resulting sintered body is less susceptible to deterioration in characteristics due to the atmospheric humidity or heat hysteresis and which can be employed over a wide temperature range of from room temperature to 1100 C.

It is a further object of the present invention to provide not only the ceramic compositions aforementioned, but to provide an improved thermistor elements which are obtainable by sintering the aforesaid compositions.

It is also an object of the present invention to provide a process for producing the aforementioned compositions and thermistor element using the same.

Still further objects of the invention will become apparent from the entire disclosure.

At least one of the said objects is accomplished by the following ceramic composition and a thermistor element obtainable from the same composition. The present invention further provides a process for producing a thermistor element.

The ceramic composition for the thermistor according to the present invention is represented by the formula (M1 M2 O3)1-x (M1 AlO3)x, where

M1 is one or more elements selected from the elements belonging to the group 3A excluding La, M2 is one or more elements selected from the elements belonging to the groups 4A, 5A, 6A, 7A and 8 and 0.8>>0.

Part of the elements may be inter-diffused each other, such as the case with certain element(s) of M2 and Al.

Definition

The groups 3A, 4A, 5A, 6A and 7A herein mean 3A, 4A, 5A, 6A and 7A of the Periodic Table according to the agreement in 1965 of the Committee for the Nomenclature for Inorganic Chemistry of International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC).

According to the process aspect of the present invention, there is provided a process for producing a composition for thermistor comprising:

providing M1 M2 O3 and M1 AlO3, respectively, where M1 is one or more elements selected from the elements belonging to the group 3A excluding La, M2 is one or more elements selected from the elements belonging to the groups 4A, 5A, 6A, 7A and 8,

then providing a mixture comprising (M1 M2 O3)1-x (M1 AlO3)x where 0.8>>0.

PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

The ceramic composition for the thermistor represented by (M1 M2 O3)1-x (M1 AlO3)x, where M1 is one or more elements selected from the elements Y, Sm, Pr, Nd, Dy, Ho, Er, Gd and Yb and M2 is one or more elements selected from the elements Cr, Ti, Mn, Fe and Co, where 0.8>>0, does not exhibit hygroscopicity and is free from deterioration in strength and superior in thermal resistance. Preferred of x is 0.01 or more for effective role of x.

The ceramic composition for the thermistor with x being 0.05 to 0.5 does not exhibit hygroscopicity and is free from deterioration in strength and superior in thermal resistance, so that it can be adjusted to practically satisfactory resistance values. More preferred of x is 0.1-0.4.

The ceramic composition for the thermistor mainly composed of a composition comprising (M1 M2 O3)1-x (M1 AlO3)x admixed with a sintering aid (or aids) for improving sinterability exhibits high strength and superior thermal resistance. Any sintering aid capable of forming a liquid phase in the grain boundary for improving sinterability of the ceramics suffices. Silica, mullite or the like is preferred. The amount of addition of the sintering aid is 0.5 to 10 wt % and preferably ranges between 0.8 to 5 wt %.

M1 M2 O3 is a substance exhibiting higher electrical conductivity and M1 AlO3 is a substance exhibiting lower electrical conductivity. A thermistor may be provided in which, by changing the mixing ratio of these two substances, the resistance values can be easily changed and may be maintained stably at higher temperatures. The reason the thermistor exhibits superior stability at elavated temperatures is presumably that such substances as M1 M2 O3 or M1 AlO3 are stable at elevated temperatures, and that the melting points of YCrO3 and YAlO3 compounds, for example, are as high as approximately 2300 C. and 1900 C., respectively.

It has been found that a mixed system of YCrO3 having high electrical conductivity and YAlO3 having high electrical insulating properties is free from yielding of subsidiary components on sintering and, after sintering, is mainly composed of YCrO3 and YAlO3 phases, if a matrix composed of the sintering aids or unavoidable impurities are disregarded. It has also been found that the mixed system exhibits simple reactions and high stability and may be easily adjusted in resistance, such that it can be employed over a broad temperature range of from 300 C. to 1100 C.

According to the process aspect, each of the calcined masses M1 M2 O2 and M1 AlO3 is pulverized to form a fine powder, preferably having a mean particle size of about 1 μm or less. The resulting fine powders are mixed together in a desired proportion, without or preferably with a sintering aid.

The resultant powdery mixture is formed, e.g., by press-forming, molding, or other known shaping method followed by sintering.

Each calcination for M1 M2 O3 or M1 AlO3 is carried out by pre-firing each of a starting raw material mixture with a suitable proportion under the condition that yields synthesized M1 M2 O3 or M1 AlO3, namely at a sufficient temperature for forming calcined/synthesized mass of each compound. The calcination serves to a better sinterability at a relatively low temperature resulting in a homogeneous product without hetrogeneous reaction grades.

The calcining temperature generally ranges from 1200 to 1400 C. so that unreacted residue is minimized and sintering does not proceed in excess so as not to offer difficulty in pulverization.

The sintering is carried out under the conditions that will sinter the mass-to-be sintered to a sufficient relative density, e.g., 90%, 95% or 98% higher of the theoretical. The sintering temperature does not much depend on the selected elements for M1, M2, and generally lies between 1450-1600 C., preferably about 1550 C. Rather the sintering temperature will be affected by the kind and amount of the sintering aids. The sintering temperature is selected so as to give high stability in the electric properties and a sufficient density of the sintered products.

According to the preferred embodiments of the present invention, it is generally possible to adjust the resistance values within a desired range according to the proportion of the ingredients (mixing ratios), yet more, with a reduced, controlled resistance change rate in a wider temperature range of 300 to 900 C.

According to the present invention, a ceramic composition for a thermistor could be produced which is superior in stability at elevated temperature and mechanical strength, and which can be used over a broad temperature range such that it can be used in, for example, a overheating detection device for a catalyst used for cleaning the exhaust gases of the automotive vehicles, a hot gas temperature sensor, such as a sensor for recirculated gases in an exhaust gas circulating device, a high temperature measurement device for an area exposed to a higher temperature or a temperature sensor for a variety of furnaces.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 shows an embodiment of the present invention.

Explanation of Numerals

1--thermistor element; 2--electrode.

EXAMPLES

In the following the present invention will be further elucidated with reference to the preferred embodiments which are not restrictive.

EXAMPLE 1

Example 1 of the present invention is now explained.

Y2 O3 having a purity of 99.9% or higher and a mean particle size of 1 μm and Cr2 O3 having a purity of 98.5% or higher and a mean particle size of 1 μm were weighted to a molar ratio of 1:1, mixed by a wet mixing method, dried and calcined (pre-fired) by subsequently maintaining the mixture 1400 C. for two hours. The resulting calcined YCrO3 exhibiting high electrical conductivity was pulverized to give powders having a mean particle size of approximately 1 μm.

On the other hand, Y2 O3 having a purity of 99.9% or higher and a mean particle size of 1 μm and Al2 O3 having a purity of 99.9% or higher and a mean particle size of 1 μm were weighted to a molar ratio of 1:1, mixed by a wet mixing method, dried and calcined (pre-fired) by subsequently maintaining the mixture at 1400 C. for two hours. The resulting calcined YAlO3 exhibiting high electrical insulating properties was pulverized to give powders having a mean particle size of approximately 1 μm.

YCrO3 and YAlO3 thus produced were weighed from sample to sample at mixing ratios shown in Table 1 and admixed with 1 wt % of SiO2 powders having a mean particle size of 0.6 μm. The resulting mass was mixed together by a wet method (ball mill) to give a slurry mixture which as then passed through a 60-mesh sieve and subsequently dried. The dried mass was then admixed with a binder composed of 15 wt % of PVB, 10 wt % of DBP, 50 wt % of MEK and 25 wt % of toluene for granulating powders for press molding.

                                  TABLE 1__________________________________________________________________________       resistance value       resistanceSample    composition       (KΩ)   β    change rate (%)Nos.    YCrO3   YAlO3       300 C.            650 C.                900 C.                    300-650                         650-900                              300                                   900 C.__________________________________________________________________________ 1* 100  0  0.45 0.085                0.06                    2520 1510  15[-18]                                   10[-81]2   95   5  13.2 0.382                0.130                    5350 4670 15[-8]                                   10[-27]3   90  10  35.6 0.780                0.240                    5770 5104 12[-6]                                   9[-23]4   80  20  70.0 0.905                0.285                    6570 5000  8[-4]                                   6[-16]5   70  30  96.4 1.081                0.327                    6790 5180  7[-3]                                   5[-13]6   65  35  157  1.824                0.478                    6730 5800 10[-5]                                   8[-17]7   60  40  296  2.836                0.735                    7020 5850 13[-6]                                   7[-16]8   55  45  363  3.591                0.952                    6980 5750 15[-7]                                   9[-20]9   50  50  497  5.100                1.385                    6920 5650 15[-7]                                   8[-18]10* 20  80  >30000            57.0                10.3                    --   7409 --   --__________________________________________________________________________ *marks indicate Comparative Examples

The resulting powders were charged into a metal mold comprised of two platinum wires, each 0.4 mm in diameter, placed at an interval of 1.2 mm, and were pressed under a pressure of 98 MPa (1000 kg/cm2), for producing a molded product, 3 mm in diameter and 2 mm in thickness, having two electrode lines of platinum wires, as shown in FIG. 1. The molded product was sintered in ambient air at 1550 C. to produce a thermistor element.

On the thermistor element, thus produced, resistance values in the atmosphere at 300 C., 650 C. and 900 C. were measured, and values of the temperature gradient constant β were calculated. The results are shown in the columns of the resistance and β. Next, the samples were maintained for 300 hours in the atmosphere at 1000 C. and the resistance values thereof at 300 C., 650 C. and 900 C. before and after the maintenance at 1000 C. were measured in order to check the durability. The results are shown in the resistance change rate column in Table 1. The inventive article exhibits high strength as lead wires and can be easily built into temperature sensors. This may presumably be ascribable to the lower sintering temperature.

In Table 1, β indicates the temperature gradient constant. The temperature gradient constant β, the resistance change rate and the resistance change rate calculated as temperature (converted temperature value derived from the resistance change rate) are defined by the following equation:

β=ln(R/Ro)/(1/K-1/Ko)

resistance change rate=(Rt -Ro)/Ro 100%

where ln indicates common logarithm, and R and Ro indicate resistance values at absolute temperatures K and Ko, respectively. In Table 1, 300-650 and 650-900 denote the temperature gradient constants β between 300 C. and 650 C. and between 650 C. and 900 C., respectively.

Rt denotes the resistance value at an absolute temperature Kt (t=300 C. or 900 C.) after maintenance at 1000 C. for 300 hours.

The values in the resistance change rate column, shown within squire brackets [ ], denote resistance changes before and after the test on durability, as converted into temperatures, and are defined by the following equation:

(Resistance change rate, calculated as temperature)=βKo /(ln(Rt /Ro)Ko +β)-Ko 

It is seen from Table 1 that, by changing the YCrO3 /YAlO3 mixing ratio, the resistance value can be adjusted easily. It is contemplated that no auxiliary components are yielded in the reaction between YCrO3 and YAlO3 and a two-phased mixture is produced after sintering, with the reaction system being simple, so that the resistance value can be adjusted very easily.

However, if the YAlO3 ratio exceeds 80%, the sinterability is lowered, while the resistance value at 300 C. exceeds 30 megohms(MΩ) and it becomes difficult to measure the resistance value at a temperature range below 300 C., such that the thermistor becomes unsuitable for sensing lower temperatures. Above all, if the resistance value of the thermistor element is set so as to be higher than the insulation resistance between harness lead wires, the thermister element can hardly be used for detecting the temperature of the exhaust gases of automotive vehicles or as an alarm device for preventing overheating of the catalytic device for cleaning the exhaust gases of the automotive vehicles. The insulation resistances between the lead wires is occasionally lowered to a level of tens of megohms(MΩ). The sample number 10 has an insulating resistance of 30 megohms or higher and hence becomes unusable.

The resistance change rate of the thermistor element, as measured by the test on durability, was less than 20%, with an exception of sample number 10. Sample number 1 can hardly be used as a thermistor element for a detector device because the value of the constant β thereof is low, and equal to -81 C. in terms of the converted temperature value, thus exhibiting poor temperature accuracy.

Sample number 7 was maintained for ten hours in the atmosphere at 1100 C. and resistance values thereof at 300 C. and 900 C. before and after such maintenance were measured in order to check the resistance change rate. It was found that the change rate was 7% at 300 C., thus indicating the change of -3 C. in terms of the converted temperature value. The resistance change rate was 12% at 900 C., thus indicating the change of -26 C. in terms of the converted temperature value.

EXAMPLE 2

Example 2 is now explained.

Yb2 O3 having a purity of 99.9% or higher and a mean particle size of 1.5 μm and Cr2 O3 having a purity of 98.5% or higher and a mean particle size of 1 μm were weighed to a molar ratio of 1:1, mixed together by a wet mixing method, dried and subsequently calcined maintaining the mixture at 1400 C. for two hours. The resulting calcined YbCrO3, exhibiting high electrical conductivity, was pulverized to give powders having a mean particle size of approximately 1 μm.

On the other hand, Yb2 O3 having a purity of 99.9% or higher and a mean particle size of 1.5 μm and Al2 O3 having a purity of 99.9% or higher and a mean particle size of 1 μm were weighed to give a molar ratio of 1:1, mixed together by a wet mixing method, dried and subsequently calcined maintaining the mixture at 1400 C. for two hours. The calcined mass was pulverized to give powders having a mean particle size of approximately 1 μm.

The two kinds of the powders, produced as described above, were weighed to give a composition shown in Table 2, and a thermistor element was produced by the same method as that of Example 1, and the various properties thereof were measured. The results are shown in Table 2. By the way, the respective columns of Tables 2 to 4 have the same meaning as Table 1.

Sample number 11, represented by Yb(Cr0.60 Al0.40)O3, has the resistance of 150 kiloohms(KΩ) at 300 C., such that a thermistor element is produced which is capable of being employed in a temperature range from lower temperatures up to higher temperatures.

                                  TABLE 2__________________________________________________________________________Sample    composition  resistance value (KΩ)                        β    resistance change rate (%)Nos.    YbCrO3    Yb2 O3 --Al2 O3            300 C.                650 C.                    900 C.                        300-650                             650-900                                    300                                        900 C.__________________________________________________________________________11  60   40      150 1.467                    0.450                        6990 5120   16[-7]                                        6[-15]__________________________________________________________________________

The sample number 11 was maintained for ten hours in atmosphere at 1100 C. and the resistance values thereof at 300 C. and 900 C. before and after such maintenance were measured in order to check the resistance change rate. It was found that the change rate at 300 C. was 11% which corresponds to a change of -5 C. in terms of the converted temperature value. The change rate at 900 C. was 7%, which corresponds to a change of -17 C. in terms of the converted temperature value.

EXAMPLE 3

Example 3 will be now explained. A thermistor element having a composition shown in Table 3 was produced by the same method as in Example 1 except using Er2 O3 having a purity of 99.9% and a mean particle size of 1 μm. Measurements similar to those in Example 1 were made of the thermistor elements, and the results shown in Table 3 were obtained.

                                  TABLE 3__________________________________________________________________________Sample    composition         resistance value (KΩ)                     β    resistance change rate (%)Nos.    ErCrO3    ErAlO3         300 C.             650 C.                 900 C.                     300-650                          650-900                                 300                                     900 C.__________________________________________________________________________12  60   40   250 2.010                 0.590                     7288 5308   12[-5]                                     7[-18]__________________________________________________________________________

Sample number 12 was maintained for ten hours in the atmosphere at 1100 C. and resistance values at 300 C. and 900 C. before and after such maintenance were measured in order to check the resistance change rate. The change rate at 300 C. was 14% which was the change of -6 C. in terms of the temperature. The change rate at 900 C. was 8% which corresponded to the change of -20 C. in terms of the temperature.

Example 4 is now explained. Thermistor elements having the compositions shown in Table 4 were produced by the same method as in Example 1 except using Gd2 O3 having a purity of 99.9% and a mean particle size of 1 μm in place of Y2 O3. Measurements were made of these elements in the same way as in Example 1, and the results shown in Table 4 were obtained.

In Table 4, the resistance change rate denotes the resistance change rate before and after the elements were maintained for 300 hours at 1000 C. and the corresponding change in terms of the converted temperature values. It is seen that, by setting X in the composition of (GdCrO3)1-x (YAlO3)x so as to be 0.2 to 0.5, the thermistor elements could be produced which exhibited practically optimum resistance values and which exhibited only small resistance change rate value and the resistance change value in terms of the converted temperature value even when the elements were maintained at higher temperatures.

                                  TABLE 4__________________________________________________________________________        resistance value      resistanceSample    composition        (KΩ)  β    change rate (%)Nos.    GdCrO3    YAlO3        300 C.            650 C.                900 C.                    300-650                         650-900                              300                                    900 C.__________________________________________________________________________13  80   20  450 0.530                0.165                    6710 5050 15.6[-7]                                    3.8[-10]14  60   40  150 1.650                0.430                    6820 5820 18.3[-8]                                    4.8[-11]15  50   50  212 2.950                0.75                    6460 5930 22.2[-10]                                    4.0[-9]__________________________________________________________________________

Sample number 14 was maintained for ten hours in the atmosphere at 1100 C. and the resistance values at 300 C. and 900 C. before and after such maintenance were measured in order to check the resistance change rate. It was found that the change rate at 300 C. was 18.4%, which corresponded to the change of -8 C. in terms of the converted temperature value. The resistance change rate at 900 C. was 44%, which corresponded to the change of -10 C. in terms of the converted temperature value.

Besides the liquid phase forming materials which are essential, the sintering aids may further optionally comprise one or more of the following materials CaO--SiO2 type compounds, SrO--SiO2 type compounds, MgO--SiO2 type compounds, B2 O3 --SiO2 --Al2 O3 type compounds and B2 O3 --SiO2 type compounds.

It should be noted that modification obvious for one skilled in the art can be done without departing from the essential gist and scope of the present invention as disclosed hereinabove and claimed hereinbelow.

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US5637543 *Dec 18, 1995Jun 10, 1997Ngk Spark Plug Co., Ltd.Ceramic composition for thermistor, thermistor element, and process for producing same
US5644284 *Apr 25, 1995Jul 1, 1997Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.Temperature sensor
US6136231 *Nov 20, 1998Oct 24, 2000Keystone Thermometrics, Inc.Yttrium chromite chromia thermistors
US6204748 *Mar 27, 2000Mar 20, 2001Keystone Thermometrics, Inc.Yttrium chromite chromia thermistors
US6261480Aug 25, 1999Jul 17, 2001Denso CorporationWide-range type thermistor element and method of producing the same
US6306315 *Feb 25, 1999Oct 23, 2001Denso CorporationThermistor device thermistor device manufacturing method and temperature sensor
US6740261Nov 28, 2000May 25, 2004Denso CorporationWide-range type thermistor element and method of producing the same
US7056453Aug 20, 2001Jun 6, 2006Denso CorporationThermistor device, thermistor device manufacturing method and temperature sensor
US7138901Mar 30, 2004Nov 21, 2006General Electric CompanyTemperature measuring device and system and method incorporating the same
EP0866472A2 *Mar 18, 1998Sep 23, 1998Denso CorporationWide-range type thermistor element and method of producing the same
Classifications
U.S. Classification501/152, 501/127, 338/22.00R, 252/519.1, 252/62.30T, 501/134, 252/519.14, 501/153
International ClassificationC04B35/50, H01C7/04, C04B35/00, C04B35/44, C04B35/42
Cooperative ClassificationH01C7/045, C04B35/44, C04B35/42
European ClassificationH01C7/04C2D, C04B35/42, C04B35/44
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Feb 5, 2008FPExpired due to failure to pay maintenance fee
Effective date: 20071219
Dec 19, 2007LAPSLapse for failure to pay maintenance fees
Jun 27, 2007REMIMaintenance fee reminder mailed
May 27, 2003FPAYFee payment
Year of fee payment: 8
Jun 7, 1999FPAYFee payment
Year of fee payment: 4
Jul 8, 1994ASAssignment
Owner name: NGK SPARK PLUG CO., LTD., JAPAN
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:IWAYA, MASAKI;HAYASHI, KYOHEI;MATSUZAKI, HIROSHI;AND OTHERS;REEL/FRAME:007100/0972
Effective date: 19940605