|Publication number||US5495211 A|
|Application number||US 08/367,725|
|Publication date||Feb 27, 1996|
|Filing date||Jan 3, 1995|
|Priority date||Jan 3, 1995|
|Publication number||08367725, 367725, US 5495211 A, US 5495211A, US-A-5495211, US5495211 A, US5495211A|
|Inventors||Robert B. Liechty|
|Original Assignee||E-Systems, Inc.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (26), Non-Patent Citations (4), Classifications (12), Legal Events (7)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This invention relates to microstrip transmission line networks, and more particularly to reconfigurable microstrip transmission line networks.
Prior art microstrip transmission line networks are devices defining fixed transmission line paths within the microstrip circuitry. Microstrip networks are used in a variety of RF devices including antenna feed networks, switches, tunable filters, matching networks, various distributed resistive elements and beam steering applications. Microstrip circuit networks used for RF beam steering applications are limited in various ways. The length and width of the microstrip transmission lines are static and thus, cannot be varied to increase or decrease the amount of signal delay needed for beam steering an electrically scanned antenna array. Further, the conductivity of the transmission lines remain the same during operation, preventing a transmission line from varying between conductive and lossy elements. Microstrip transmission line networks are also extensively used with RF switching applications. Present applications within RF switches require the use of pin-diodes and biasing networks. Distortion effects and port isolation are other concerns arising within RF switching applications.
Thus, a need has arisen for a microstrip transmission line network capable of overcoming the above-mentioned problems in the various applications using microstrip transmission line networks that provides a versatile, variable and reconfigurable transmission line characteristics and configurations.
The present invention overcomes the foregoing and other problems with a reconfigurable microstrip transmission line network. The reconfigurable network consists of a plurality of excitation sources each generating an excitation beam. These excitation sources may generate electron or photonic energies as desired. The excitation beams illuminate areas upon a transmission layer of a microstrip circuit. The microstrip circuit further includes a dielectric layer insulating the transmission layer from an RF ground plane layer. The excitation beams interact with areas on the transmission layer to define conductive pathways within the surface of the transmission layer. These conductive pathways are selectively actuable in response to the activation of the excitation beams.
For a more complete understanding of the present invention and the advantages thereof, reference is now made to the following Detailed Description taken in conjunction with the accompanying Drawings in which:
FIG. 1 is a prior art illustration of a microstrip transmission line in section used within a microstrip transmission line network;
FIG. 2 illustrates an end view, in section, of a reconfigurable microstrip transmission line network of the present invention;
FIG. 3 illustrates a side view of a reconfigurable microstrip network using electron beam excitation;
FIG. 4 illustrates a side view of a reconfigurable microstrip network using optical excitation; and
FIG. 5 illustrates the application of a reconfigurable microstrip transmission line network within an RF switch.
Referring now to the Drawings, and more particularly to FIG. 1, there is illustrated in section a prior art microstrip transmission line. The prior art microstrip transmission lines include a ground plane layer 10 having an insulator 12 deposited on its surface. Along the top of the insulator 12 is a strip conductor 14. The strip conductor 14 defines a fixed conductive pathway within a microstrip transmission line network.
Referring now to FIG. 2, there is illustrated an end view section of a reconfigurable microstrip transmission line network of the present invention. The reconfigurable microstrip transmission line network includes a network substrate 19 having an RF ground plane 20 bonded to a first side of a dielectric layer 22. The dielectric layer 22 separates the RF ground plane 20 from a transmission layer 24. In the preferred embodiment, the transmission layer is formed of a thin layer of silicon, but similar materials may be used in alternative embodiments. The transmission layer 24 acts as the media for defining a plurality of conductive pathways 38 within the reconfigurable microstrip transmission line network.
The plurality of conductive pathways 38 within the transmission layer 24 are defined by a plurality of miniature vacuum field effect devices (spindt cathodes) 26. The spindt cathodes 26 are mounted upon a silicon base 28 and are surrounded by a dielectric layer 30, preferably of silicon dioxide, covered by a metallic gate film 32. The spindt cathodes 26 emit an electron beam 34 through a plurality of openings 36 within the dielectric and metallic gate film layers 30 and 32.
Referring now also to FIG. 3, there is more fully illustrated the configuration of the spindt cathodes 26 with the network substrate 19. The spindt cathodes 26 are configured into a cathode array 37 closely situated with the network substrate 19. The cathode array 37 comprises a two dimensional array of spindt cathodes. The array 37 may define an x-y coordinate system of cathodes covering the entire surface area of the transmission layer 24 or alternatively may only be placed to define the desired conductive pathways 38 within the transmission layer 24. The individual cathodes 26 within the array 37 are selectively actuated and deactuated via power/address lines 39.
The electron beams 34 from the cathode array 37 excite a conductive pathway 38 on the transmission layer 24 and creates a conductive region that acts as a transmission line. The electron beam 34 interacts with the silicon of the transmission layer 24 and generates a sufficient number of electron hole pairs within a region to make the region conductive. While excited, the conductive pathways 38 act as microstrip transmission lines. When the spindt cathode 26 is deactuated, the conductive pathway 38 of the silicon layer 24 is no longer excited, and the electrons return to their normal state, causing the conductive pathways to cease to be conductive.
The spindt cathodes 26 within the cathode array 37 are alternately actuated to activate and deactivate the conductive pathways 38 within the transmission layer 24. Conductive pathway 38 length and width is varied by addressing the on-off states of the required spindt cathodes 26 within the data array 37 through the power/address lines 39. The conductivity of a conductive pathway 38 may be changed by controlling the intensity of the electron beam 34 emitted by the spindt cathodes 26. By varying the degrees of conductivity within the conductive pathways 38, both conductive and lossy elements may be produced.
It is further noted that while the preferred embodiment of the present invention illustrates the use of spindt cathodes 26 for exciting the transmission layer 24 to generate the conductive pathways 38, optical sources generating a photon beam may also be used to generate the conductive pathways 38 in a similar manner. FIG. 4 illustrates a reconfigurable microstrip transmission line network using a plurality of laser diodes arranged in a laser diode array 51. As described previously with respect to the spindt cathodes of FIG. 3, the laser diodes are arranged within an array to define an x-y coordinate system or an arrangement outlining the desired conductive pathways 38 within the transmission layer 24. The individual laser diodes within the laser diode array 51 are actuated and deactuated using power/address lines 53. The photon emission from the laser diode array are focused by focusing lenses 55.
Referring now to FIG. 5, there is illustrated the transmission layer 24 of an RF switch 50 utilizing a reconfigurable microstrip transmission line network. The RF switch 50 includes a plurality of input ports 52 and a single output port 54. The output port 54 may be connected to any of the input ports 52 by illuminating one of the four conductive pathways 56 illustrated with a number of spindt cathodes (not shown). For example, by illuminating path 56a, the input of port one is output through output port 54. It is noted that the above-described application comprises only one potential use of a reconfigurable microstrip transmission line network and that a variety of uses for a reconfigurable microstrip transmission line network would be readily apparent to those skilled in the art.
Although preferred and alternative embodiments of the present invention have been illustrated in the accompanying Drawings and described in the foregoing Detailed Description, it will be understood that the invention is not limited to the embodiments disclosed, but is capable of numerous rearrangements, modifications and substitutions of parts and elements without departing from the spirit of the invention.
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|U.S. Classification||333/101, 333/81.00A, 327/369, 333/262, 333/104, 333/246|
|International Classification||H01P3/08, H01P1/15|
|Cooperative Classification||H01P1/15, H01P3/081|
|European Classification||H01P1/15, H01P3/08B|
|Jan 3, 1995||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: E-SYSTEMS, INC., TEXAS
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:LIECHTY, ROBERT BLAINE;REEL/FRAME:007339/0568
Effective date: 19941207
|Oct 13, 1998||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: RAYTHEON E-SYSTEMS, INC., A CORP. OF DELAWARE, TEX
Free format text: CHANGE OF NAME;ASSIGNOR:E-SYSTEMS, INC.;REEL/FRAME:009507/0603
Effective date: 19960703
|Nov 11, 1998||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: RAYTHEON COMPANY, A CORP. OF DELAWARE, MASSACHUSET
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:RAYTHEON E-SYSTEMS, INC., A CORP. OF DELAWARE;REEL/FRAME:009570/0001
Effective date: 19981030
|Jul 29, 1999||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4
|Jul 23, 2003||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 8
|Jul 13, 2007||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 12
|Oct 12, 2012||AS||Assignment|
Effective date: 20120730
Owner name: OL SECURITY LIMITED LIABILITY COMPANY, DELAWARE
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:RAYTHEON COMPANY;REEL/FRAME:029117/0335