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Publication numberUS551366 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateDec 17, 1895
Filing dateJul 29, 1895
Publication numberUS 551366 A, US 551366A, US-A-551366, US551366 A, US551366A
InventorsFrederick R. Cornwall
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Andrew b
US 551366 A
Abstract  available in
Images(3)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

(No Modem s sheets-sheer 1.

E. R. GORNWLL. Y

ENGINE;

No. 551,356. Patented Deo. 17, 1895.

GRAHAMA FNUTUUYHOAWASMJHGTOM, DC.

(NQ Model.) sheetssheet 2..

F. R. CRNWALL.V I

ENGINE.

Patented Dec. 17, 1,895.

(No Model.) 3 sheets-sheet s.

F. R. CORNWALL.

ENGINE.

No. 551,366. Patented Dec. 17, 1895.

Prien'.

FREDERICK R. CORNVALL, OF ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI, ASSIGNOR TO PIERRE OHOUTEAU, OF SAME PLACE.

ENGINE.

SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 551,366, dated December 17', 1895.

Application filed July 29, 1895.. Serial No. 557,469. (No model.)

To all whom, t may con/cern: and exhausting the motive fluid at its ends. Be it known that I, FREDERICK R. CORN- Still another type is found in the adaptation of WALL, a citizen of the United States, residing an ordinary cut-off to apneulnatic tool. These at the city of St. Louis, State of Missouri, have engines have present a controlling-valve for 5 5 5 invented a certain new and useful Improvethe piston, the piston controlling the position ment in Engines, of which the following is a of the valve by some train of mechanism in full, clear, and exact description, reference which lost motion or play is an essential feabeing had to the accompanying drawings, ture. In both the second and third classes the forming part of this specification, whereindistribution of the motive iiuid depends upon 6o ro Figures 1 and 2 are vert-ical sectional views the position of the piston to throw the valve, of my improved engine. Fig. 3 is a similar and upon the position of the valve to impart view, but at right angles to the section of Figs. motion to or reverse the motion of the piston. l and 2. Fig. ais asectional view through the The primary' object of an engine in any of handle, also showing part of the cylinder in these classes in which the piston delivers im- 65 side elevation. Fig. isacross-sectional view pacting-blows upon a tool is to obtain such through the handle on line 5 5, Fig. 4. Fig. a speed or rapidity of stroke, together with 6 is across-sectional view through the handle power, that the tool will malle practically a on line G 6, Fig. l. Fig. 7 is a top plan view continuous cut, the motion of both piston and of the valve-casing. Fig. 8 is a bottom plan tool amounting almost to vibration. This be- 7o 2o view of the same. Fig. 9 is a plan View of the ing true, the type of engine described in the cylinder-head. Fig. l0 is an elevational View iirst class is eminent-ly satisfactory, saving of the valve-casing cylinder-head. Fig. ll is the objection that it is impossible to start the an end view of the same. Fig. l2 is an enengine when in certain of its positions, such larged view of the valve-casing and valve. as dead-center. The types described in 7 5 2 5 Fig. 13 is a cross-sectional view of the valvethe second and third classes must necessarilyT casing and its cylinder-head, taken on theline run at a slower speed than the valif'eless en- 13 13, Fig. l2. Figs. ll, 15, 16, and 17 are gines by reason of the necessity of throwing diagrainmatica-l views taken through one of two moving parts alternately. Consequently the valve-heads and cylinder-head stem., illustheir effectiveness is lessened in proportion. 8o

qo trating the manner of controlling the motive The object of this present invention is to fluid which throws t-he valve or permits it to construct an engine in which is employed a be thrown. controlling-valve for the piston, said valve This invention relates to a new and useful being self-controlled and movable independimprovement in engines of that class which ently of the piston. Combined with this fun- 85 are adapted to be run by compressed air as a damental object, other conditions are present motive iluid, in the front end of the cylinder and provided for and new features of conof which is inserted a tool-shank, receiving struction are employed, all as will hereinafter impactingblows fromthepiston. These types be described, and afterward pointed out in of engines, 0r the engines designed for boilerthe claims. 9o 4o calking, stone-cutting, carving, 85e., such as In the drawings, 2O indicates a cylinder, shown in the accompanying drawings, have the front end of which is formed with a regenerally been divided into several classes, duced bore, in which is inserted the stein 2l according to the characteristics of each. One on piston 22, which (3o-operates with the shank class is known as the valveless engine, inof a tool 23 by delivering impacting-blows 95 45 which the piston controls itself, and no conthereupon as the piston reciprocates. The

trolling or distributing valve for the piston is construction of these parts, however, is unnecessary. Anotherclasshas present the conimportant, as there are many different forms trolling-valve, which admits and exhausts the of cylinders, bores, pistons, and tools, all of motive fluid from each end of the piston, causwhich are well known. I :o 5o ing it to reciprocate, the piston in turn con- Formed at or near the upper end of cylintrollingthe position of the valve byadmitting der 2O is an annular ring or iiange 2l, with which co-operates a collar or coupling-sleeve 25, said collar being formed with an internal iange 2G at its lower end which fits under ring 24, and being interiorly screw-threaded, as shown, to receive and hold in position the head or handle-base which clamps the valvecasing and cylinder-head in position. The handle-base or head, as it is sometimes called, with which the collar engages, has projecting from its upper portion a handleshanls; 27, which terminates in a core 28. (See Fig. 4.) Through this core and shank is formed an inlet-port for the motive iluid, which port leads into the valve-casing, as will hereinafter be described. The outer end of the core is provided with a valve-seat 29, with which co-operates a valve 30 arranged on a sleeve 3l, mounted on the core. This sleeve 3l extends out beyond the core and is provided with means for the attachment of a supply-pipe for the motive fluid. (Not shown.) The inner end of the sleeve is formed with a flange'32, which abuts against a shoulder on the handle-shank, with which flange engages an inwardly-projecting fla-nge 3B of ring 34, which is mounted upon the handle-shank. If desired, means may be provided for locking this ring in a xed or an adjusted position.

35 indicates a hand-grasp mounted upon the sleeve 3 l, which hand-grasp is preferably provided or formed with a projection 3G at its inner end. The function of this projection 36 is to prevent the hand of the operator from slipping either longitudinally or circumferentially, the hand-grasp at the same time serving as an index to the position of the valve.

The hand-grasp 35 is secured against longitudinal and rotary movement on the sleeve by a screw 37 which passes through said parts and into a circumferential groove 3S in core 28, (sce Fig. 5,) said screw also serving to limit the rotary movement of the handle-grasp and sleeve on the core, and determine the fullopen or full-closed position of the valve 30. To normally keep the valve closed, I provide a torsion-sprin g 39, one end of which engages the handle-shank and the other end the sleeve 30, upon which valve 29 is arranged.

By the above construction the operator is enabled to control the amount of motive fluid admitted to the engine by a slight turn of the hand, no occasion being required for the use of any particular finger to perform this ofce.

The handle-base, which I have indicated as 40 in the drawings, is formed with a transverse groove in its lower face, which receives the valve-casing 4l, in which is mounted a three-headed valve 42. The ends of the valvechamber are closed by rotary adjustable heads 43, which have arranged thereon stems 44, extending into recesses or seats in the ends of the valve. To prevent the valve from rotating in its movement, I extend a pin or projection up into a groove formed on its face, as shown in Figs. l and 2. 4G indicates the cylinder-head.

The valve-casing, handle-base and cylinder-head have several registering ports, and in referring to said ports I will not specify the parts through which they are formed, but will refer to them as leading to or from the valve-chamber.

The inlet -port 47 is, as before stated, formed through the handle and extends down into the valve-chamber at about a midway position, where itis controlled by the central head of the valve, passing from one side to the other of said inlet-port and directing the motive fluid on top or beneath the piston. As shown in Fig. l the motive fluid passes to the left of the central head of the valve, andis directed on top of the piston through port 43. During the downstroke of the piston the fluid therebeneath is being exhausted through port 4 9, between the central and right-hand heads of the valve and out through the exhaust-port 5l. This operation is obvious, as is also the reverse movement of the pistou, as shown in Fig. 2, in which the valve has moved to the left, and its central head is now directing the motive fluid from port 47 to the right thereof and through port 49 to beneath the piston. The huid above the piston is being exhausted by passing through port 48, auxiliary exhaust-port 50, and exhaustport 51 to the exterior. This auxiliary exhaust-port 50 is made by grooving the valvecasing across its top and along its side edges, as shown in Figs. 3 and 7, which conducts the exhaust taken from two points to a common point (port 5l). This manner of conducting off the exhaust through a common port is accomplished in a very simple manner and occasions very little extra labor, as the work is all open and the handle-base forms the remaining walls for the ports. In this connection I might add that this same man` ner of forming ports may be advantageously employed in port 49 between the valve-casing and head 4G, as shown in Figs. l, 2, 8, and l1.

Freni the above it will be noted that the piston is controlled by the valve moving from one end of its chamber to the other, and but a single port 49 is necessary in the cylinder, whereas in other constructions two or more ports are generally necessary in the cylinder. It will also be noted that ports 48 and 49 are constantly open, inlet-port 47 is closed for a short time only and that when the central head is passing and the exhaust-ports 50 and 51 are alternately opened and closed.

I have referred to the movement of the valve, and I will now describe how such movement is effected. The valve is formed with tWo ports 52 and 54, 52 leading from a point to the left of the central head to a seat 53 in the right-hand end of the valve, and 54 leadving from a point to the right of the central head to a seat 55 in the left-hand end of the valve. Seats 53 and 55 are each provided IDO IIO

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with a side groove 56, which runs' nearly to4 the outer end of the valve, leaving the exposed end of the valve solid, except for the circular opening forming the seat. The stems 4l on the rotatably adjustable heads 43 are likewise provided with a groove 57, which runs nearly their entire length, leaving the ends circular and unmutilated. In order to regulate the area of the opening formed by the registering grooves 5G and 57, I provide means on the heads 43 for locking them in a rotary adjustable position. This means is best illustrated in Fig. 13, where the valvecasing is formed with a series of aligned openings G1, G2, 68, and 64C, while the head 4:3 is provided with a number of openings G5, G6, 67, and 68, arranged at different angles to each other, andbeing adapted to register with the several openings in the valve-casing, as 65 will form a straight opening through valve-casing and head in connection with aligned openings 6l. 6G will register in the same manner with 62, 67 with 63, and GS with 64. As shown in Fig. 13, a pin 60 passes through openings 6l and G5, and the valve-head and its stem are locked in this position, which is a full-open position., the valve being prevented from rotation by the pin or projection 45. This position will permit the valve to be thrown quickly by the sudden admission or exhaust of the air at its ends. If it is desired to throw the valve slightly slower, pin GO is removed, the head and stem rotated, and the pin inserted in the next opening 62, when opening 66 registers therewith. The movement of the valve may be further retarded by placing the pin in openings 63 and 87, or the admission and exhaust may be considerably choked by rotating the head and stem, as shown in Fig. 17, and placing the pin in openings te and 68. It may be desirable to' so rot-ate the stems that the relations of their grooves to the {zo-operating groove in the valve will be different at each end of the valve, and in this manner the valve will move quicker in one direction. The object of this is to cushion the piston on its upstrolre by cutting off the motive fluid therebeneath quickly, and when the piston starts on its downstroke to throw on a full head of motive iiuid for a longer time, which is accomplished by the valve taking a longer time to move from t-he position it occupies when directing the motive fluid on top of the piston.

The operation of the valve is as follows: Assuming the parts to be in the position shown in Fig. l, the motive fluid entering the valvechamber through port 47 will pass through port iS on top of the piston. Atthe same time the motive fluid will pass through port 52 in the valve and enter the valve-chamber at the right-hand end, filling the same and forcin g the valve to the left quickly or slowly, as the case may be, depending upon the size of the opening controlled by the stem 44. The iiuid beneath the piston is being exhausted through ports i9 and 5l and the fluid at the left-hand end of the valve is being eX- hausted through seat 55, port 5i, and port 5l. As the valve is thrown to the left, the momentum and expansion of the fluid carrying it past dead-center, the fluid will be directed beneath the piston, and to the left-hand end of the valve, the fluid above the piston exhausting through port 49 and exhaust-ports 50 and 5l and the liuid at the right-hand end of the valve exhausting through seat 53, port 52, and ports 50 and 5l.

It may be desirable in some instances to control the exhaust, and to do this I mount upon the handle-base 1l() a slotted ring 69, which is held in place by the collar 25, which, by registering the slot with exhaust-port 5l, will permit a free escape, said escape, however, being choked or entirely cut off by moving the ring around the handle-base.

In order to lock the handle-base, collar and associate parts to the cylinder, to prevent movement between them, I mount in the lower end of the handle-base a yielding piece 70, which is preferably screwed up into the bottom of the handle-base. This piece 70 is formed with teeth 7l, which co-operate with I teeth on the interior periphery of' the inturned flange 26 of collar 25, the cylinder 2O and its ring 24 being cut away to permit this. On the lower end of this piece 70 I pivot a crosspiece 7 2, which is adapted to be turned at an angle to the groove in the cylinder, and rest upon the side edges of the groove, where it holds the piece 70 and teeth 7l under tension, the strain being to force the teeth into tighter engagement with the flange 2G.

I am aware that many minor changes in the construction, arrangement, and combination of the several parts of my invention may be made and substituted for those herein shown and described without in the least departing from the nature and principle of my invention.

Having thus described my invention, what I claim, and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is

l. The combination with. the cylinder, of a piston arranged therein, valve chamber, ports leading from the valve chamber to or near the ends of the piston chamber, and av valve located in said valve chamber for controlling said ports, said valve being selt thrown, and so constructed as to co-operate with means arranged in its chamber for controlling the speed of the valve; substantially as described. Y

2. The combination with the cylinder, of a piston arranged therein, a valve-chamber, ports which lead from the valve-chamber to or near the ends of the piston-chamber, a valve for controlling said ports, said valve being formed with ports whereby it is self-operated, and means located within the valve chamber which co-operate with the valve, to control its speed; substantially as described.

3. The combination with a piston, of a controlling valve therefor, which is movable in- IOO IIO

dependently of the piston, said valve in its movement alternately directing and exhausting the motive fluid above and below the piston, and ports formed in said valve, for conducting and exhausting the motive fluid to and from the ends of the valve chamber, substantially as described.

Li. In an engine, the combination with the cylinder formed With a ring at or near its upper end, of a cylinder-head for the cylinder, a handle base for holding the cylinder-head in position, a handle on said handle-base, through which is formed an inlet port for the engine, a rotary hand-grasp on the handle for controlling the inlet port, and a coupling sleeve or collar formed with an inturned flange to engage the ring on the cylinder, said collar also engaging the handle base and head; substantially as described.

.5. In an engine, the combination with the cylinder having a ring formed thereon near its upper end, of a cylinder-head forming the end Wall of the piston-chamber, a handle-base for holding said head in position, a handle on said base through which is formed an inlet port for the motive fluid and. a rotary handgrasp on the handle for actuating a throttlevalve and controlling the inlet port; substantially as described.

6. In an engine, the combination With the cylinder, of a handle secured thereto, said handle being formed With an inlet port for the motive fluid, a rotary throttle valve for controlling the passage of the motive fluid through the handle, and a rotary grasping portion for said handle, which grasping portion operates the throttle valve, substantially as described.

7. In an engine, the combination With the cylinder, of a handle secured thereto, through Which handle is formed an inlet-port for the motive-fluid, a rotatable hand-grasp on said handle, and a throttle-valve for the motivefluid, which is controlled by said hand-grasp; substantially as described.

8. In an engine, the combination with the cylinder of a handle secured thereto, said haudle being formed with a core, through which passes the motive-fluid for the engine, a throttle valve for controlling said passage and a rotary sleeve mounted on said core, which sleeve,by rotation,operates the throttle valve; substantially as described.

9. In an engine, the combination With the cylinder of a handle secured thereto, said handle being formed With an inlet-port for the motive fluid, a rotary sleeve forming the handgrasp of the handle, a throttle-valve operated by said rotary sleeve, which throttle-valve controls the passage of motive-fluid to the engine, and means 0n the rotary sleeve for the attachment of a supply-pipe for the motivelluid; substantially as described.

10. In an engine, the combination With the handle, which is secured thereto, and through Which is formed an inlet-port for the motivefiuid, of a rotary hand-grasp on the handle, a throttle-valve for controlling the passage of the motive fluid through the hand-grasp, which valve is operated by the rotary handgrasp, and means for limiting the rotary movement of said hand-grasp; substantially as described.

l1. In an engine, the combination with the cylinder, of a handle secured thereto, through which handle is formed an inlet-port for the motive fluid, a throttle-valve for controlling the passage of motive-fluid through the handle, a rotary sleeve forming a hand-grasp, for operating said valve, and a projection 36 on said handle; substantially as described.

l2. In an engine, the combination with the cylinder of a handle secured thereto, through which handle is formed an inlet port for the motive fluid, a throttle valve arranged in the handle, a rotatable sleeve forming the hand grasp for the handle, which sleeve operates the throttle valve, means for limiting the rotary movement ofsaid sleeve, and means for returning the sleeve to a normal position in which the throttlevalve is closed, substantially as described.

13. The combination With the core 28 formed with a valve-seat in its end, of a sleeve 3l mounted thereon and formed with avalve 30, which eo-operates With the valve-seat, a collar 34 for holding the sleeve in place, a handgrasp 35, and a screw 37, which secures the hand-grasp to the sleeve, and passing into a groove in the core, limits the rotary movement of the parts; substantially as described.

11i. In an engine, the combination with the cylinder, of a handle secured thereto, through which is formed the inlet-port, of a core formed on the handle, a sleeve mounted on the core, said sleeve being formed with a flange 32 at its end, a collar 34 formed With a flange 33 for engaging the sleeve flange and retaining the sleeve on the core, a torsion-spring for returning the sleeve to a normal position, a hand -grasp mounted on the sleeve, and a throttle valve Which is actuated by the rotary movement of said parts; substantially as described.

15. In an engine, the combination With a cylinder, of a valve-casing arranged thereon, a valve located in the casing, rotary adjustable heads for said casing, and means Which cooperate With the valve upon the rotation of the heads, to control the speed of the valve, substantially as described.

16. In an engine, the combination With a cylinder, of avalve-casing arranged thereon, a valve Within the casing, rotary adjustable heads on said casing, and means, whereby upon the rotary adjustment of said heads, the speed of the valve is regulated, substantially as described.

17. In an engine, the combination With the cylinder, of a cylinder-head, a valve-casing, tting against the cylinder-head, a handlebase fitting against the valve casing, and a coupling-sleeve connecting the handle-base to the cylinder and clamping the interposed parts in position; substantially as described.

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lS. The combination with the valve-casing, of adjustable heads provided with inwardly projecting grooved stems, and a valve Within the casing which is so formed as to co-operate with the grooves on the stems on the adjustable heads; substantially as described.

19. The combination with the valve-casing of a valve located therein, and formed with grooved recesses in its ends, to which lead ports, and grooved stems which project into said recesses; substantially as described.

20. The combination with the valve-casing, of a valve located therein and formed with seats in its ends to which lead ports, of adj ustable heads for the valve-casing, and stems on said heads, which enter into the valvesea-ts and control the movement of the valve; substantially as described.

2l. The combination with a valve-casing, of a three headed valve located therein, grooved recesses in the ends of said valve, ports leading to said recesses, rotary adjustable heads for the valve-casing, and grooved stems on said heads, which project into the recesses in the valve; substantially as described.

The combination with a valve-casing, of an inlet-port leading 'thereinto, a three headed valve located in the valve-casing, the central head of which cntrols the inlet-port, While the two end-heads control the exhaustports, and two constantly open ports in the casingbetween the central and two end heads; substantially as described.

23. The combination with a valve-casing, of an inlet-port leading thereinto, a threeheaded valve located in the valve-casing, the central head of which passes `from side to side of the inlet port, exhaust-ports, Which are controlled by the vtwo end-heads, and ports leading from the valve-casing Which are constantly open; substantially as described.

24. The combination with a valve-casing, of a non-rotary valve located therein, rotary adjustable heads in said casing, means for locking the heads in an adjusted position,

and stems on said heads which co-operate With seats in the valve to control the admission and exhaust of the motive-duid at each end of the valve; substantially as described.

The combination with a valve-casing, of a non-rotary valve located therein, rotary adjustable heads in said casing, means for locking the heads in an adjusted position, and stems formed With grooves in their sides, which stems project into seats in the valve, the grooves in the stems co-operating with similar grooves in the valve seats; substantially as described.

2G. The combination with the handle-base, of a valve-casing which projects thereinto, an inlet-port formed through the handle-base and leading into the valve-casing, and an exhaust-po rt leading from the valve-casing into a groove or chamber, located between the valve-casing and handle-base; substantially as described.

27. The combination with the handle-base, of a valve-casing which projects thereinto, an inlet-port formed through the handle-base and leading into the valve-casing, exhaustports leading from the valve-casing into a groove or grooves, located between the valvecasing and handle-base, said grooves being connected and led out through the handlebase substantially as described.

28. The combination with the cylinder, formed with a ring thereon, near its upper end, oi' a collar operating With said ring, a handle-base with which said collar also cooperates, and a yielding projection xedly mounted in the handle-base for engaging teeth on the inturned iiange of the collar; substantially as described.

29. The combination with the cylinder, formed With a ring thereon, of a handle-base, a collar for connecting said parts together, said collar being formed With an inturnedi'lange which co-operates with the ring on the cylinder, a yielding Aspring; piece xedly mounted in the handle-base and engaging the dange of the collar, and means for holding said yielding piece constantly under tension When in operation; substantially as described.

30. The combination with the cylinder, handie-base, and collar, of means for locking said parts against rotary movement, said means comprising a fixed yielding spring mounted in the handle-base and engaging the collar, and having means for co-operating with the cylinder to lock the spring in its engaged position; substantially as described.

8l. The herein described lock, comprising aspring portion provided vth teeth, and a pivoted portion mounted on the spring portion for locking it in place; substantially as described.

The herein described lock, comprising aA spring portion provided with teeth, and a pivoted-portion mounted on the spring-portion for holding it under tension; substantially as described.

33. In an engine the combination With a cylinder formed with a flange near its upper end, a collar formed With an iii-turned liange to engage the cylinder flange, avalve casing, a handle base upon which the collar is threaded, said handle base holding the valve-casing in position, and a ring mounted on the handle base and held in position by said collar, said ring being slotted or formed With an opening to control the exhaust, substantially as described.

In testimony whereof I hereunto affix my signature, in presence of tWo Witnesses, this 23d day of July, 1895.

FREDERICK R. CORNWALL. lVitnesses HUGH K. WAGNER, ALFRED HUHN.

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US5092224 *Jan 26, 1990Mar 3, 1992Thomas IndustriesConical rod piston
US5174322 *Mar 7, 1991Dec 29, 1992Town & Country Research & Development, Inc.Automatic two-position four-way pulsating valve
US5213025 *Oct 28, 1991May 25, 1993Thomas Industries Inc.Conical rod piston
Classifications
Cooperative ClassificationB25F5/00