Manufacture of brushes
US 551994 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
K. S. OKEBFP-E.
MANUPAGTURE 0F BRUSHES. No. 551,994. B55511555 D50. 24, 1595.
ANDREW EGRAHANL FHUTO'UTMU-WASHINGTUN D C iiNiTEn STATES i PATENT EETCE.
KEEFF I S. OIEEFFE, OF SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA.
MANUF'ACTURE OF BRUSHES.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 551,994, dated December 24, 1895, Application filed December 3l, 1894. Serial No. 533,463. (No model.)
Be it known that I, KEEFFE S. OKEEFFE, a citizen of the United Sta-tes, residing at San Francisco, in the countyof San Francisco and State of California, have in vented certain new and useful Improvements in the Manufacture of Brushes; and I do hereby declare that the following is a full, clear7 and exact description thereof.
My invention relates to improvements in the manufacture of brushes, and my object is to do away with the commonly-used wooden head or stock to which the bristles are secured and to replace it with an indestructible metallic stock of peculiar construction provided with means for firmly securing the bristles. Nearly all kinds of brushes are intended to be used with water for different purposes, and after a short period of use the water causes a wooden stock to split, crack, and warp. In addition to this disadvantage the wooden stock soon becomes so thoroughly watersoaked that it causes the bristles or ber to rot and drop out, thus speedily destroying its usefulness.
By doing away with the Wooden stock and usinginstead one of metal I can not only make a cheaper, lighter, and stronger brush, but a more attractive and presentable article. At the same -time I entirely obviate the objections above stated to the Wooden stock, since the metallic stock will neither split nor warp, nor will it retain moisture long enough to injure the material of which the brush part is composed.
Myinvention can be employed in the manufacture of all kinds of brushes, and I may mention in illustration hair and other toilet brushes, scrubbingbrushes, shoe and hat brushes, stablebrushes, paint-brushes, and so on.
In the accompanying drawings I have shown different styles of brushes for different pur-v poses, all, however, constructed according to my invention.
Figure l is a side elevation of a scrubbingbrush partly broken away to show a longitudinalvertical section. Fig. 2 is a similar view of a flesh-brush. Fig. 3 is a broken plan to illustrate the relative positions of the perforated plates forming the brush-stock. Fig. al. is an en d view, partly in cross-section, of the brush shown in Fig. 2. Fig. 5 is a bottom plan to show a special construction for hairbrushes. Fig. 6 is a broken plan of a stock for a round brush, such as a paint-brush.
I construct the stocks of my brushes from two or more perforated plates of metal or other material, which will be light, cheap, and practically indestructible. Hard rubber sheets might be used, orv bone, or even wood for some kinds of brushes. I prefer to use three of such plates A, B, and C. Supposing them to be made of metal, they can be stamped out with dies and perforated at one operation. Into these perforations a b c, which are caused to register, are drawn or threaded the bristles, iiber,wires or other 1n aterial which form the brush. As shown in Fig. l, which shows a scrubbing-brush, the tufts of bristles are inserted in the shape of a staple. In making a reversible brush, Fig. 2, the brush material is threaded entirely through the registering-perforations.
Vhatever the construction of the brush may be or for whatever purpose intended, the middle plate of the series is used as a locking-plate for securing and holding the bristles firmly and rigidly in position. This result is produced by moving such plate longitudinally, Figs. 1 and 2, independently of the other plates of the series, so as to cramp the bunch or tuft of bristles between non-registering perforations, as clearly illustrated. This being done all the plates are secured together by rivets, as shown at d in all the figures. The perforations in the locking-plate are preferably made somewhat elongated or with a pointed end, Fig.` 3, so as to clamp the bristles to better advantage. In the case of a paintbrush, the stock of which is shown in Fig. 6, this locking or cramping effect is produced by giving the circular plate B a partial turn independently of the plates A and C, and then riveting all the plates firmly together.
Light plates of aluminum or any other metal being very easily and cheaply worked into diierent shapes and forms, I can give any desired conformation to my brushes at very little expense. Thus in the case of the scrubhing-brush, Fig. I, in which it is desired to incline the bristles at the ends, the plates composing the stock can be stamped out with the ends inclined, asshown, so that the bristles lOO 'will dry quickly.
when inserted will naturally assume their correct position. This saves all the labor and expense of boring at an angle into a wooden stock, as must now be done. Similarly in the ease of the flesh-brush, Figs. 2 and et, the plates are formed in concave-convex end elevations, and, the bristles bein g drawn entirely through the stock, will be crowded on the concave side, making a short stiff brush, while on the convex side they will be spread, making a longer and softer brush.
Single brushes like Fig. 1 will preferably have the staple-shaped ends of the bunches of bristles concealed by a layer or coating e of wax or other substance, and may, if desired, be provided with a wooden false back f, as shown, in order to give a neat finish.
The hair -brush shown in Fig. 5 is constructed like the other brushes shown, with the exception that a series of triple plates are used to form the stock. These plates are more properly perforated strips imposed upon each other, as before described. Each middle strip forms, as before,a lookin g-plate for the bristles inserted into the perforations, and the idea of so constructing this particular brush is to render it easy to clean. ln ordinary use the whole series ol' strips is held within a frame D, of wood, metal, rubber, or any suitable substance, from which they can be removed. ln the drawin they are shown as held by transverse rods g passing through the frame, the strips being riveted together.
Then removed from the frame, the separate parts of the stock, each forming only a small part of the brush, can be separately washed, and being preferably made of nonoxidizable metal will not rust or tarnish, but This advantage of having easy access to every part of a hair-brush, so as to quickly and thoroughly clean it, will be appreciated by all users of such brushes as now constructed. l
It will be understood that the brushes shown in the drawings are merely illustrative of certain kinds selected from the great variety of brushes for different purposes, in all of which my invention is capable of embodiment.
Vhat I claim isl. In a brush and in combination, a head or stock composed of iiat plates having perforations and secured together with their surfaces in the same plane, one of such plates being a locking plate and having its perforations out of direct line with those in an adjoining plate,
and bristles cramped and held within said perforations, substantially as described.
2. In a brush, a head or stock composed of a plurality of separate groups of perforated plates or strips, each group being composed of two or more of such strips, one of which strips is a locking strip having its perforations out of direct line with those in an adjoining strip, and separate bunches of bristles cramped and held in said perforations, the said groups being arranged side by side andv parallel to one another and held together, substantially as described.
3. ln a brush the combination with a frame and handle, of perforated metal strips arranged in parallel groups of three each, and removably secured to said frame, and bristles secured in and by said perforated strips, substantially as described.
In testimony whereof I have affixed my signature, in presence of two witnesses, this 28th day of December, 1894.
KEEFFE S. OKEEFFE.
Vitnesses z LEsLIE VA'rsoN, L. G. MALLONEE.