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Publication numberUS5543077 A
Publication typeGrant
Application numberUS 08/369,483
Publication dateAug 6, 1996
Filing dateJan 6, 1995
Priority dateFeb 20, 1991
Fee statusPaid
Also published asDE69216168D1, DE69216168T2, EP0525144A1, EP0525144B1, US5409637, WO1992014800A1
Publication number08369483, 369483, US 5543077 A, US 5543077A, US-A-5543077, US5543077 A, US5543077A
InventorsBernhard Rieger, Hiroki Yoshitake, Atsushi Sawada, Herbert Plach, Georg Weber
Original AssigneeMerck Patent Gesellschaft Mit Beschrankter Haftung
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Nematic liquid-crystal composition
US 5543077 A
Abstract
The invention relates to a nematic liquid-crystal composition especially for active matrix displays with high voltage holding ratio, good low temperature stability and without reversed domains.
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Claims(10)
We claim:
1. A nematic liquid-crystal composition comprising:
8 to 70% by weight of one or more compounds from group 1: ##STR72## wherein R1 is a straight-chain alkyl group of 2 to 5 carbon atoms,
E1 is ##STR73## L is H or F, and Q is OCF2, OCFH, OCFCl or a single bond;
said composition contains at least one compound of formula 3f ##STR74## wherein R3 is a straight-chain alkyl group of 2 to 5 carbon atoms.
2. A composition according to claim 1, wherein said composition further contains at least one compound of formula 3e.
3. A composition according to claim 1, wherein said composition further contains at least one compound of formulae 3a-3e ##STR75## wherein R3 is a straight-chain alkyl group of 2 to 5 carbon atoms.
4. A nematic liquid-crystal composition according to claim 1, wherein said composition further contains one or more compounds from each of groups 1a and 1b: ##STR76## wherein R1 is a straight-chain alkyl group of 2 to 5 carbon atoms;
L is H or F; and
Q is OCF2, OCFH, OCFCl or a single bond.
5. A composition according to claim 4, wherein Q is a single bond and L is F.
6. A composition according to claim 1, wherein said composition contains more than 12% by weight of one or more compounds of group 1.
7. A composition according to claim 1, wherein said composition contains one or more compounds of group 1 wherein L is F and Q is a single bond.
8. A composition according to claim 1, wherein said composition contains 30-60 wt. % of compounds of group 1.
9. A composition according to claim 3, wherein said composition contains 12-30 wt. % of compounds of formulae 3a-3f.
10. A composition according to claim 3, wherein said composition contains 8-40 wt. % of compounds of formulae 3a-3f.
Description

This is a division of Ser. No. 07/842,142, filed Mar. 23, 1992, U.S. Pat. No. 5,409,637 which is based on international application No. PCT/EP92/00291, filed Feb. 11, 1992, abandoned.

The invention relates to nematic liquid-crystal compositions based on terminally and laterally fluorinated compounds. These compositions are Useful for active and passive matrix application.

Active matrix displays (AMD) are highly favored for commercially interesting displays with a high information content. Such AMDs are used for TV application and also for displays with high information content for automobiles and airplanes.

AMDs have non-linear electrical switching elements which are integrated at each picture element. As non-linear driving elements thin film transistors (TFT) [Okubo, U., et al., 1982, SID 82 Digest, pp. 40-41] or diodes (e.g.: metal insulator metal: MIM) [Niwa, K., et al., 1984, SID 84, Digest, pp. 304-307] can be applied. These non-linear driving elements allow to use an electro-optical effect with a rather flat electro-optical characteristic if a good viewing angle characteristic can be obtained. So a TN-type LC cell [Schadt, M. and Helfrich, W., 1971, Appl. Phys. Lett., 18, 127] with a twist angle of 90 can be used. To provide the good contrast over a wide viewing angle, operation in the first minimum of transmission [Pohl, L., Eidenschink, R., Pino, F. del., and Weber, G., 1980, German Pat., DBP 30 22 818, and 1981, U.S. Pat. No. 4,398,803; Pohl, L., Weber, G., Eidenschink, R., Baur, G., and Fehrenbach, W., 1981, Appl. Phys. Lett., 38, 497; Weber, G., Finkenzeller, U., Geelhaar, T., Plach, H. J., Rieger, B., and Pohl, L., 1988, Int. Symp. on Liq. Cryst., Freiburg, to be published in Liq. Crys.] is required. These AMDs are very well suited for TV applications and consequently are of high commercial interest. For these applications some physical properties of the liquid crystals become more important than for passive TN displays. Some of the decisive properties for the performance of an AMD are resistivity and stability of the liquid crystal [Togashi, S., Sekiguchi, K., Tanabe, H., Yamamoto, E., Sorimachi, K., Kajima, E., Watanabe, H., Shimuzu, H., Proc. Eurodisplay 84, Sept. 1984: A 210-288 Matrix LCD Controlled by Double Stage Diode Rings, p. 144 ff, Paris; Stromer, M., Proc. Eurodisplay 84, Sept. 1984: Design of Thin Film Transistors for Matrix Addressing of Television Liquid Crystal Displays, p. 145 ff, Paris].

In an AMD the non-linear switching elements are addressed in a multiplex scheme. So they charge the electrodes of a pixel in the limited time they are active. Then they become inactive until they are addressed again in the next cycle. Consequently the change of the voltage on an activated (charged) pixel is a nondesired but a very decisive feature of such a display. The discharge of a pixel is determined by two factors. They are the capacity of the electrodes of the pixel and resistivity of the dielectric material between the electrodes, namely the liquid crystal. The characteristic time constant of the decay of the voltage at a pixel (RC-time) has to be significantly bigger than the time between two adressing cycles (tadr.). A parameter frequently used to describe the performance of an AMD is the voltage holding ratio HR of a picture element: ##EQU1##

As the voltage at a pixle decays exponentially an increase of the holding ratio necessitates liquid crystal materials with exceptionally high resistivities.

There are several points of importance for the resistivity of the liquid crystal inside a display, e.g. orientation layers, curing condition of the orientation material. But by no means less important are the electrical properties of the liquid crystal used. Especially the resistivitiy of the liquid crystal in the display determines the magnitude of the voltage drop at the pixel.

Recently LC compositions with very good HR values could be obtained by using exclusively fluorinated compounds instead of the conventional LC compositions which are based on cyano compounds. Unfortunately, however, such LC compositions based on fluorinated compounds still pose severe problems. In many cases they tend to have lower pretilt angles than cyano based mixtures and they tend to show smectic phases and/or crystallization problems at low temperatures and it is also very difficult to realize very low threshold voltages without using cyano compounds. Finally the compositions based on fluorinated compounds show reverse domain phenomena (reverse tilt disclination) in many cases. One reason for this problem may reside in the relatively small surface tilt angle of the compositions compared to cyano LC based compositions. Another reason may also be the influence of the elastic constants and especially the K22 value.

There is thus still a great need for liquid-crystal composition having a high resistivity and other suitable material properties for use in AMDs such as a broad nematic mesophase range with an extremely low transition temperature smectic-nematic, no crystallization at low temperatures and being completely free of reverse domain phenomena (reverse tilt disclination).

The invention has for its object to provide a liquid-crystal composition with a very high resistivity which meets also the other demands.

Fluorinated compounds generally show a tendency towards lower pretilt angles than cyano compounds. Nevertheless, the present inventors found big differences of pretilt angles between different structures of fluorinated compounds. Some examples are given in the following table 1 which shows that fluorinated LCs can come close to the pretilt angles of cyano LCs.

              TABLE 1______________________________________Tilt Angles of Various MixturesFluorinated*1      Tilt Angles (deg)compounds               J-1*3                           J-2*3______________________________________L                       2.3     4.5M                       1.6     4.1N                       1.5     4.0O                       1.4     4.1P                       1.0     3.5Mix.X*4            1.3     3.0 ##STR1##               2.2     5.5ZLI-3086                1.2     3.1______________________________________ *1 Each compound, L-P, is mixed with Mix.X in the ratio of 25:75. *2 This compound is mixed with ZLI3086 (a sales item of E. Merck Darmstadt, Germany in the ratio of 25:75). *3 Low temp. baking type polyimides from Japan Synthetic Rubbers wer used as alignment reagents. *4 Does not contain cyano components and consists of 15% of PCH32, 15% of PCH53, 20% of PCH301, 15% of PCH302, 15% of PCH304, 6% of BCH32, 6 of BCH52, 4% of CBC33F and 4% of CBC53F.

The structures of fluorinated compounds used in Table 1

__________________________________________________________________________    DesignationMark    (Acronym)        Structure                       Group__________________________________________________________________________L   CCP-nOCF2.F.F         ##STR2##                       3M   CUP-nF.F         ##STR3##                       2N   ECCP-nF         ##STR4##                       1O   ECCP-nF.F         ##STR5##                       1P   ECCP-nOCF3         ##STR6##                       1__________________________________________________________________________

It has now been found that a nematic liquid-crystal composition based on terminally and laterally fluorinated compounds, characterized in that it comprises about 8 to 70% by weight of one or more compounds from group 1: ##STR7## wherein R1 denotes a straight-chain alkyl group of 2 to 5 carbon atoms, E1 is ##STR8## L is H or F and Q is OCF2, OCFH, OCFCl, CF2 or a single bond, about 8 to 60% by weight of one or more compounds from group 2: ##STR9## wherein R2 denotes a straight-chain alkyl group of 2 to 5 carbon atoms, E2 is ##STR10## and each L is H or F, and/or about 8 to 40% by weight of one or more compounds from group 3: ##STR11## wherein R3 denotes a straight-chain alkyl group of 2 to 5 carbon atoms, E3 is ##STR12## and Q and L are as defined above, with the proviso that both L are F if E3 is trans-1,4-cyclohexylene,

is highly suited for AMD application. Very high RC time values can be obtained in AMDs. These compositions also show a reduced viscosity, allow operation in AMDs in the first minimum of transmission, do not exhibit any crystallization at -30 C. and are free of reverse domain problems (reverse tilt disclination). The latter being due to the very specific selection of fluorinated compounds which makes it possible to achieve fairly high pretilt angles.

Such compositions preferably contain two, three or four compounds from group 1. Preferred compositions comprise more than 12% by weight of one or more compounds from group 1.

The compounds from groups 1 to 3 are known from the European Patent Applns. 0 387 032 and 0 280 902, the European Patents 0 051 738 and 0 125 653, the International Patent Application WO 89/02884 and U.S. Pat. No. 4,302,352, U.S. Pat. No. 4,710,315 and U.S. Pat. No. 4,419,264 or can be prepared in analogy to known compounds.

Preferred compositions comprise simultaneously one or more compounds from each of groups 1a and 1b: ##STR13##

Preferably the compositions comprise one or more compounds from group 2 which are selected from the following formulae: ##STR14##

Preferably the compositions comprise one or more compounds from group 3 which are selective from the formula 3a to 3f: ##STR15##

Preferred compounds from group 1 are those wherein L=F and Q=single bond (=subgroup 1'). However, compositions are especially preferred which contain also compounds from group 1 wherein Q is OCF2, OCFH, OCFCl or CF2 and L is H or F (=subgroup 1"). In subgroup 1", Q is preferably OCF2 or CF2, OCF2 being especially preferred. The weight ratio of components from subgroup 1' and subgroup 1" is preferably ≧1. Especially preferred are compositions with subgroup 1'/subgroup 1"≧2:1. Of course also compositions are of particular importance which are mainly or even exclusively based on. subgroup 1' components. Also preferred are compositions being based on subgroup 1' components which comprise simultaneously one or more compounds from each of groups 1a and 1b.

Preferred compositions also comprise one or more compounds from group 0 having two rings: ##STR16## where R0 denotes a straight-chain alkyl group of 2 to 5 carbon atoms, E.sup. is --(CH2)4 --, --(CH2)2 --, --CO--O-- or a single bond an L and Q are as defined in group 1. Preferably E0 is --(CH2)2 -- or a single bond, Q is a single bond and one of L is H and the other L is H or F. The compositions according to this invention preferably comprise 30 to 60% by weight and especially 35 to 55% by weight of components from group 1. The preferred weight percent ranges for the other groups (if present) are as follows:

group 0: 5 to 30%, especially 10 to 25%

group 2: 12 to 40%, especially 15 to 25%

group 3: 12 to 30%, especially 15 to 25%

Preferably the components from groups 1, 2 and 3 or the basis of the claimed compositions and constitute at least 60% (preferably at least 75%) by weigh of the compositions. It is, however, also possible to use besides components from groups 0 to 3 also other LC components in smaller percentages for fine-tuning the claimed compositions.

From many experimental investigations it also resulted that the most efficient compounds from group 2 are those of the formula ##STR17##

These components are preferably used in an amount of 18 to 30% by weight. Higher amounts are possible but do not further improve the "reverse domain" behavior.

The preparation of the compositions according to the invention is effected in the conventional manner. In general, the desired amount of the components which are used in the smaller amounts is dissolved in the components which constitutes the main constituent, preferably at elevated temperature. If this temperature is chosen to be above the clear point of the main constituent, the completeness of the process of dissolving can be observed particularly easily.

However, it is also possible to mix solutions of the components in a suitable organic solvent, for example acetone, chloroform or methanol, and to remove the solvent after thorough mixing, for example by distillation under reduced pressure. It is self-evident that with this method it must be ensured that the solvent does not introduce any contaminants or undesirable dopants.

By means of suitable additives the liquid crystal phases according to the invention can be modified in such a way that they can be used in any hitherto disclosed kind of AMD.

For the tilt angle measurement, we used crystal rotation method. Cell gap of all test cells used in this work was around 50 μm. Test cells were cells made of Soda lime+ITO by DNT with Polyimide orientation layer (Nissan Chemicals SE-150). Before tilt angle measurement, all test cells were heated up 20 minutes at 120 C. after filling LC mixtures as the isotropic treatment.

The examples below serve to illustrate the invention without limiting it. In the examples, the melting point and clear point of a liquid crystal substance are given in degrees Celsius. The percentages are by weight.

EXAMPLE 1

A liquid-crystal composition consisting of

11% of trans-1-p-fluorophenyl-4-n-pentylcyclohexane,

11% of trans-1-p-fluorophenyl-4-n-hexylcyclohexane,

14% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(3,4-difluorophenyl)-ethane,

14% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(3,4-difluorophenyl)-ethane,

7% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-n-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-fluorophenyl)-ethane,

7% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-n-pentylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-fluorophenyl)-ethane,

10% of 4'-(trans-4-n-propylcyclohexyl)-3,4-difluorobiphenyl,

10% of 4'-(trans-4-n-pentylcyclohexyl)-3,4-difluorobiphenyl,

8 % of p-fluorophenyl trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexane carboxylate and

8 % of p-fluorophenyl trans-4-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexane carboxylate

shows a clearing point of 91 and a birefringence Δn of 0.0871. This composition can be stored at -30 without crystallization, shows a high resistivity in the order of 1013 Ωcm or more and is well suited for AMDs without reverse domain phenomena (tilt angle 4.7).

Example 2

A liquid crystal composition consisting of

8% of trans-1-p-fluorophenyl-4-n-pentylcyclohexane,

8% of trans-1-p-fluorophenyl-4-n-hexylcyclohexane,

5% of p-fluorophenyl-trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexane carboxylate,

5% of p-fluorophenyl-trans-4-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexane carboxylate,

11% of 4'-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-3,4-difluorobiphenyl,

11% of 4'-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-3,4-difluorobiphenyl,

6% of p-[trans-4-(trans-4-ethylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-trifluoromethoxybenzene,

5% of p-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-trifluoromethoxybenzene,

5% of p-[trans-4-(trans-4-butylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-trifluoromethoxybenzene,

5% of p-[trans-4-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-trifluoromethoxybenzene,

13% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(3,4-difluorophenyl)-ethane,

12% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(3,4-difluorophenyl)-ethane,

3% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-fluorophenyl)-ethane and

3% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-fluorophenyl)-ethan

shows a clearing point of 98 and a birefringence of 0.0917. This composition can be stored at -30 without crystallization, shows a high resistivity in the order of 1013 Ωcm and is well suited for AMD's without reverse domain phenomena (tilt angle 4.2).

Example 3

A liquid crystal composition consisting of

11% of trans-1-p-fluorophenyl-4-n-pentylcyclohexane,

10% of trans-1-p-fluorophenyl-4-n-hexylcyclohexane,

10% of p-fluorophenyl-trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)cyclohexane carboxylate,

10% of p-fluorophenyl-trans-4-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)cyclohexane carboxylate,

11% of 4'-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-3,4-difluorobiphenyl,

11% of 4'-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-3,4-difluorobiphenyl,

3% of p-[trans-4-(trans-4-ethylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-trifluoromethoxybenzene,

3% of p-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-trifluoromethoxybenzene,

3% of p-[trans-4-(trans-4-butylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-trifluoromethoxybenzene,

3% of p-[trans-4-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-trifluoromethoxybenzene,

13% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(3,4-difluorophenyl)-ethane and

12% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(3,4-difluorophenyl)-ethane

shows a clearing point of 93 and a birefringence of 0.0899. This composition can be stored at -30 without crystallization, shows a high resistivity in the order of 1013 Ωcm and is well suited for AMD's without reverse domain phenomena (tilt angle 4.2).

Example 4

A liquid crystal composition consisting of

6% of trans-1-p-fluorophenyl-4-n-pentylcyclohexane,

8% of trans-1-p-fluorophenyl-4-n-hexylcyclohexane,

4% of trans-1-p-fluorophenyl-4-n-heptylcyclohexane,

11% of 4'-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-3,4-difluorobiphenyl,

11% of 4'-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-3,4-difluorobiphenyl,

6% of p-[trans-4-(trans-4-ethylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-trifluoromethoxybenzene,

6% of p-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-trifluoromethoxybenzene,

6% of p-[trans-4-(trans-4-butylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-trifluoromethoxybenzene,

6% of p-[trans-4-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-trifluoromethoxybenzene,

13% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(3,4-difluorophenyl)-ethane,

13% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(3,4-difluorophenyl)-ethane,

5% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-fluorophenyl)-ethane and

5% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-fluorophenyl)-ethane

shows a clearing point of 90 and a birefringence of 0.0900. This composition can be stored at -30 without crystallization, shows a high resistivity in the order of 1013 Ωcm and is well suited for AMD's without reverse domain phenomena (tilt angle 3.9).

Example 5

A liquid crystal composition consisting of

10% of trans-1-p-fluorophenyl-4-n-pentylcyclohexane,

8% of trans-1-p-fluorophenyl-4-n-hexylcyclohexane,

6% of trans-1-p-fluorophenyl-4-n-heptylcyclohexane,

5% of p-trifluoromethoxyphenyl-trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexane carboxylate,

5% of p-trifluoromethoxyphenyl-trans-4-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexane carboxylate,

12% of 4'-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-3,4-difluorobiphenyl,

10% of 4'-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-3,4-difluorobiphenyl,

8% of p-[trans-4-(trans-4-ethylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-trifluoromethoxybenzene,

12% of p-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]trifluoromethoxybenzene,

7% of p-[trans-4-(trans-4-butylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-trifluoromethoxybenzene,

11% of p-[trans-4-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-trifluoromethoxybenzene,

2% of 4,4'-bis-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-2-fluorobiphenyl,

2% of 4,4'-bis-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-2-fluorobiphenyl and

2% of 4-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-4'-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)2-fluorobiphenyl

shows a clearing point of 96 and a birefringence of 0.094. This composition can be stored at -30 without crystallization, shows a high resistivity in the order of 1013 Ωcm and is well suited for AMD's without reverse domain phenomena (tilt angle 4.2).

Example 6

A liquid crystal composition consisting of

10% of trans-1-p-fluorophenyl-4-n-pentylcyclohexane,

8% of trans-1-p-fluorophenyl-4-n-hexylcyclohexane,

6% of trans-1-p-fluorophenyl-4-n-heptylcyclohexane,

5% of 3,4-difluorophenyl-(trans-4-propylcyclohexylethyl)-benzoate,

5% of 3,4-difluorophenyl-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexylethyl)-benzoate,

12% of 4'-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-3,4-difluorobiphenyl,

10% of 4'-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-3,4-difluorobiphenyl,

8% of p-[trans-4-(trans-4-ethylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-trifluoromethoxybenzene,

12% of p-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-trifluoromethoxybenzene,

7% of p-[trans-4-(trans-4-butylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-trifluoromethoxybenzene,

11% of p-[trans-4-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-trifluoromethoxybenzene,

2% of 4,4'-bis-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-2-fluorobiphenyl,

2% of 4,4'-bis-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-2-fluorobiphenyl and

2% of 4-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-4'-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)2-fluorobiphenyl

shows a clearing point of 98 and a birefringence of 0.101. This composition can be stored at -30 without crystallization, shows a high resistivity in the order of 1013 Ωcm and is well suited for AMD's without reverse domain phenomena.

In the present application and in the examples below, the structures of the liquid-crystal compounds are indicated by acronyms, with the transformation into chemical formulae taking place in accordance with Tables A and B below. All radicals CnH2n+1 and CmH2m+1 are straight-chain alkyl radicals containing n or m carbon atoms. The coding in Table B is self-evident. In Table A, only the acronym for the base structure is given. In individual cases, the acronym for the base structure is followed, separated by a hyphen, by a code for the substitutents R1, R2, L1, L2 and L3 :

__________________________________________________________________________Code furR1, R2,L1, L2, L3  R1         R2  L1                              L2                                 L3__________________________________________________________________________nm     Cn H2n+1                  Cm H2m+1                           H  H  HnOm    Cn H2n+1                  OCm H2m+1                           H  H  HnO.m   OCn H2n+1                  Cm H2m+1                           H  H  Hn      Cn H2n+1                  CN       H  H  HnN.F   Cn H2n+1                  CN       H  F  HnF     Cn H2n+1                  F        H  H  HnOF    OCn H2n+1                  F        H  H  HnCl    Cn H2n+1                  Cl       H  H  HnF.F   Cn H2n+1                  F        H  F  HnOmFF  Cn H2n+1                  OCm H2m+1                           F  F  HnmF    Cn H2n+1                  Cm H2m+1                           F  H  HnCF3  Cn H2n+1                  CF3 H  H  HnOCF3  Cn H2n+1                  OCF3                           H  H  HnOCF2  Cn H2n+1                  OCHF2                           H  H  HnS     Cn H2n+1                  NCS      H  H  HrVsN   Cr H2r+1 --CH═CH--Cs H2s --                  CN       H  H  HrEsN   Cr H2r+1 --O--Cs H2s --                  CN       H  H  HnNF    Cn H2n+1                  CN       F  H  HnAm    Cn H2n+1                  COOCm H2m+1                           H  H  HnF.F.F Cn H2n+1                  F        H  F  FnCl.F.F  Cn H2n+1                  Cl       H  F  FnCF3.F.F  Cn H2n+1                  CF3 H  F  FnOCF3.F.F  Cn H2n+1                  OCF3                           H  F  FnOCF2.F.F  Cn H2n+1                  OCHF2                           H  F  FnOCF3.F  Cn H2n+1                  OCF3                           H  F  H__________________________________________________________________________

              TABLE A______________________________________ ##STR18## ##STR19## ##STR20## ##STR21## ##STR22## ##STR23## ##STR24## ##STR25## ##STR26## ##STR27## ##STR28## ##STR29## ##STR30## ##STR31## ##STR32## ##STR33## ##STR34## ##STR35## ##STR36## ##STR37## ##STR38## ##STR39## ##STR40## ##STR41## ##STR42## ##STR43##______________________________________

                                  Table B__________________________________________________________________________ ##STR44## ##STR45## ##STR46## ##STR47## ##STR48## ##STR49## ##STR50## ##STR51## ##STR52## ##STR53## ##STR54## ##STR55## ##STR56## ##STR57## ##STR58## ##STR59## ##STR60## ##STR61## ##STR62## ##STR63## ##STR64## ##STR65## ##STR66## ##STR67## ##STR68## ##STR69## ##STR70## ##STR71##__________________________________________________________________________
Example 7

______________________________________S → N [C.]             <40Clearing Point [C]             +103Viscosity [mm2 s-1 ] 20 C.             21Δn (589 nm, 20C.)             +0.0848ne (589 nm, 20 C.)             1.5559V.sub.(10,0,20) [V]             1.81V.sub.(50,0,20) [V]             2.24V.sub.(90,0,20) [V]             2.83Composition [%]:  PCH-5F       5.0             PCH-7F       5.0             CCP-20CF3    8.0             CCP-30CF3    9.0             CCP-50CF3    9.0             ECCP-3F.F    11.0             ECCP-5F.F    10.0             CUP-3F.F     5.0             CUP-5F.F     4.0             CCP-30CF2.F.F                          8.0             CCP-50CF2.F.F                          14.0             CP-30CF3     6.0             CP-50CF3     6.0______________________________________
Example 8

______________________________________S → N [C.]             <-40Clearing Point [C]             +99Viscosity [mm2 s-1 ] 20 C.             23Δn (589 nm, 20C.)             +0.0960ne (589 nm, 20 C.)             1.5751V.sub.(10,0,20) [V]             1.79V.sub.(50,0,20) [V]             2.21V.sub.(90,0,20) [V]             2.81Composition [%]:  PCH-5F       6.0             PCH-7F       6.0             CCP-20CF3    6.0             CCP-30CF3    8.0             CCP-50CF3    7.0             ECCP-3F.F    11.0             ECCP-5F.F    11.0             BCH-3F.F     6.0             CUP-3F.F     7.0             CUP-5F.F     6.0             CCP-30CF2.F.F                          6.0             CCP-50CF2.F.F                          11.0             CP-33F       4.0             CP-55F       4.0______________________________________
Example 9

______________________________________S → N [C.]             --Clearing Point [C]             +93Viscosity [mm2 s-1 ] 20 C.             21Δn (589 nm, 20C.)             +0.0772ne (589 nm, 20 C.)             1.5478V.sub.(10,0,20) [V]             1.82V.sub.(50,0,20) [V]             2.16V.sub.(90,0,20) [V]             2.78Composition [%]:  PCH-5F       6.0             CCH-301      6.0             CCH-303      5.0             CCH-501      6.0             CCP-20CF3    6.0             CCP-30CF3    7.0             CCP-40CF3    6.0             CCP-50CF3    7.0             ECCP-3F.F    7.0             ECCP-5F.F    8.0             CUP-3F.F     3.0             CUP-5F.F     4.0             CCP-30CF2.F.F                          11.0             CCP-50CF2.F.F                          12.0             CP-50CF3     7.0______________________________________
Example 10

______________________________________Clearing Point [C.]             +102Viscosity [mm2 s-1 ] 20 C.             --Δn (589 nm, 20C.)             +0.0970ne (589 nm, 20 C.)             1.5808V.sub.(10,0,20) [V]             2.15V.sub.(50,0,20) [V]             2.57V.sub.(90,0,20) [V]             3.15Composition [%]:  PCH-7F       14.00             CCP-20CF3    5.00             CCP-30CF3    5.00             CCP-40CF3    5.00             CCP-50CF3    5.00             CCP-30CF3    5.00             CCP-50CF3    5.00             BCH-3F.F     14.00             BCH-5F.F     14.00             ECCP-3F      5.00             ECCP-5F      5.00             ECCP-3F.F    9.00             ECCP-5F.F    9.00______________________________________
Example 11

______________________________________Clearing Point [C.]             +102Viscosity [mm2 s-1 ] 20 C.             20Δn (589 nm, 20C.)             +0.0952ne (589 nm, 20 C.)             1.5791V.sub.(10,0,20) [V]             2.05V.sub.(50,0,20) [V]             2.51V.sub.(90,0,20) [V]             3.13Composition [%]:  PCH-7F       11.00             CCP-20CF3    5.00             CCP-30CF3    5.00             CCP-40CF3    5.00             CCP-50CF3    5.00             CCP-30CF2.F.F                          5.00             CCP-50CF2.F.F                          5.00             BCH-3F.F     12.00             BCH-5F.F     12.00             ECCP-3F      8.00             ECCP-5F      7.00             ECCP-3F.F    10.00             ECCP-5F.F    10.00______________________________________
Example 12

______________________________________Clearing Point [C.]             73Viscosity [mm2 s-1 ] 20 C.             --Δn (589 nm, 20C.)             +0.0879ne (589 nm, 20 C.)             1.5688V.sub.(10,0,20) [V]             1.56V.sub.(50,0,20) [V]             1.88V.sub.(90,0,20) [V]             2.32Composition [%]:  PCH-5F       8.00             PCH-7F       8.00             CCP-20CF3    5.00             CCP-30CF3    6.00             CCP-40CF3    6.00             CCP-50CF3    6.00             ECCP-3F.F    5.00             ECCP-5F.F    5.00             BCH-3F.F.F   14.00             BCH-5F.F.F   13.00             CCP-3F.F.F   9.00             CCP-5F.F.F   9.00______________________________________
Example 13

______________________________________Clearing Point [C.]             95Viscosity [mm2 s-1 ] 20 C.             --Δn (589 nm, 20C.)             0.089ne (589 nm, 20 C.)             1.567V.sub.(10,0,20) [V]             1.97V.sub.(50,0,20) [V]             --V.sub.(90,0,20) [V]             2.86Composition [%]:  CP-30CF3     10.00             CP-50CF3     10.00             PCH-5F       8.00             PCH-6F       7.00             PCH-7F       6.00             CCP-20CF3    7.00             CCP-30CF3    7.00             CCP-40CF3    7.00             CCP-50CF3    7.00             ECCP-3F.F    5.00             ECCP-5F.F    5.00             BCH-3F.F     11.00             BCH-5F.F     10.00______________________________________
Example 14

______________________________________Clearing Point [C.]             +93Viscosity [mm2 s-1 ] 20 C.             --Δn (589 nm, 20C.)             +0.0899ne (589 nm, 20 C.)             1.5765V.sub.(10,0,20) [V]             2.02V.sub.(50,0,20) [V]             2.43V.sub.(90,0,20) [V]             3.00Composition [%]:  PCH-5F       11.00             PCH-6F       10.00             CP-3F        10.00             CP-5F        10.00             BCH-3F.F     11.00             BCH-5F.F     11.00             CCP-20CF3    3.00             CCP-30CF3    3.00             CCP-40CF3    3.00             CCP-50CF3    3.00             ECCP-3F.F    13.00             ECCP-5F.F    12.00______________________________________
Example 15

______________________________________Clearing Point [C.]             +100Viscosity [mm2 s-1 ] 20 C.             --Δn (589 nm, 20C.)             +0.0971ne (589 nm, 20 C.)             1.5823V.sub.(10,0,20) [V]             1.99V.sub.(50,0,20) [V]             2.43V.sub.(90,0,20) [V]             2.96Composition [%]:  PCH-7F       12.00             CCP-20CF3    5.00             CCP-30CF3    5.00             CCP-40CF3    5.00             CCP-50CF3    5.00             CCP-30CF2.F.F                          3.00             CCP-50CF2.F.F                          3.00             BCH-3F.F     14.00             BCH-5F.F     14.00             ECCP-3F      7.00             ECCP-5F      7.00             ECCP-3F.F    10.00             ECCP-5F.F    10.00______________________________________
Example 16

______________________________________S → N [C.]             <-40Clearing Point [C.]             +100Viscosity [mm2 s-1 ] 20 C.             19Viscosity [mm2 s-1 ] 0 C.             55Viscosity [mm2 s-1 ] -20 C.             276Viscosity [mm2 s-1]-30 C.             767Viscosity [mm2 s-1]-40 C.             2609Δn (589 nm, 20C.)             +0.0929ne (589 nm, 20 C.)             1.5722V.sub.(10,0,20) [V]             1.95V.sub.(50,0,20) [V]             2.33V.sub.(90,0,20) [V]             2.86Composition [%]:  PCH-5F       6.00             PCH-6F       3.00             PCH-7F       5.00             BCH-3F.F     9.00             BCH-5F.F     6.00             CCP-20CF3    8.00             CCP-30CF3    9.00             CCP-40CF3    5.00             CCP-50CF3    8.50             ECCP-3F.F    8.50             ECCP-5F.F    8.50             ECCP-30CF3   2.50             CUP-3F.F     3.50             CUP-5F.F     3.00             CCP-30CF2.F.F                          3.50             CCP-50CF2.F.F                          5.50             CBC-33F      3.00             CBC-53F      2.50______________________________________
Example 17

______________________________________S → N [C.]             --Clearing Point [C.]             83Viscosity [mm2 s-1 ] 20 C.             --Δn (589 nm, 20C.)             0.0884ne (589 nm, 20 C.)             1.5635V.sub.(10,0,20) [V]             1.41V.sub.(50,0,20) [V]             --V.sub.(90,0,20) [V]             2.44Composition [%]:  PCH-6F       4.00             PCH-7F       9.00             CCP-20CF3    5.00             CCP-30CF3    5.00             CCP-40CF3    5.00             CCP-50CF3    5.00             ECCP-3F.F    5.00             ECCP-5F.F    5.00             BCH-3F.F     5.00             BCH-5F.F     5.00             CUP-3F.F     6.00             CUP-5F.F     6.00             CCP-30CF2.F.F                          15.00             CCP-50CF2.F.F                          20.00______________________________________
Example 18

______________________________________S → N [C.]             --Clearing Point [C.]             +83Viscosity [mm2 s-1 ] 20 C.             --Δn (589 nm, 20C.)             +0.0970ne (589 nm, 20 C.)             1.5753V.sub.(10,0,20) [V]             1.61V.sub.(50,0,20) [V]             1.93V.sub.(90,0,20) [V]             2.37Composition [%]:  PCH-6F       3.00             PCH-7F       9.00             CCP-20CF3    5.00             CCP-30CF3    5.00             CCP-40CF3    5.00             CCP-50CF3    5.00             BCH-3F.F     10.00             BCH-5F.F     10.00             CUP-3F.F     6.00             CUP-5F.F     6.00             CCP-30CF2.F.F                          15.00             CCP-50CF2.F.F                          20.00             CBC-33F      1.00______________________________________
Example 19

______________________________________S → N [C.]             --Clearing Point [C.]             +83Viscosity [mm2 s-1 ] 20 C.             18Viscosity [mm2 s-1 ] 0 C.             51Viscosity [mm2 s-1 ] -20 C.             248Viscosity [mm2 s-1 ] -30 C.             693Viscosity [mm2 s-1 ] -40 C.             2515Δn (589 nm, 20C.)             +0.0885ne (589 nm, 20 C.)             1.5680V.sub.(10,0,20) [V]             1.72V.sub.(50,0,20) [V]             3.10V.sub.(90,0,20) [V]             2.62Composition [%]:  PCH-5F       6.00             PCH-6        6.00             PCH-7F       6.00             CCP-20CF3    8.00             CCP-30CF3    7.00             CCP-50CF3    7.00             ECCP-3F.F    10.00             ECCP-5F.F    10.00             CCP-30CF2.F.F                          10.00             CCP-50CF2.F.F                          10.00             BCH-3F.F     10.00             BCH-5F.F     10.00______________________________________
Example 20

______________________________________S → N [C.]             --Clearing Point [C.]             +76Viscosity [mm2 s-1 ] 20 C.             21Viscosity [mm2 s-1 ] 0 C.             64Δn (589 nm, 20C.)             +0.0900ne (589 nm, 20 C.)             1.5665V.sub.(10,0,20) [V]             1.59V.sub.(50,0,20) [V]             1.92V.sub.(90,0,20) [V]             2.37Composition [%]:  PCH-7F       10.00             CCH-303      9.00             CCP-20CF3    8.00             CCP-30CF3    8.00             CCP-50CF3    8.00             BCH-3F.F     8.00             BCH-5F.F     8.00             CUP-3F.F     8.00             CUP-5F.F     8.00             CCP-30CF2F.F 10.00             CCP-50CF2F.F 15.00______________________________________
Example 21

______________________________________S → N [C.]             --Clearing Point [C.]             +92Δn (589 nm, 20C.)             +0.0928ne (589 nm, 20 C.)             1.5736V.sub.(10,0,20) [V]             1.68V.sub.(50,0,20) [V]             2.02V.sub.(90,0,20) [V]             2.53Composition [%]:  PCH-5F       4.00             PCH-7F       4.00             CCP-20CF3    7.00             CCP-30CF3    7.00             CCP-40CF3    7.00             CCP-50CF3    8.00             ECCP-3F.F    8.00             ECCP-5F.F    8.00             BCH-3F.F.F   14.00             BCH-5F.F.F   13.00             CCP-3F.F.F   9.00             CCP-5F.F.F   9.00             CBC-33F      2.00______________________________________
Example 22

______________________________________S → N [C.]             --Clearing Point [C.]             +77Δn (589 nm, 20C.)             +0.0893ne (589 nm, 20 C.)             1.5704V.sub.(10,0,20) [V]             1.49V.sub.(50,0,20) [V]             1.81V.sub.(90,0,20) [V]             2.22Composition [%]:  PCH-5F       8.00             PCH-7F       6.00             CCP-20CF3    6.00             CCP-30CF3    7.00             CCP-40CF3    6.00             CCP-50CF3    6.00             ECCP-3F.F    8.00             ECCP-5F.F    8.00             BCH-3F.F.F   14.00             BCH-5F.F.F   13.00             CCP-3F.F.F   9.00             CCP-5F.F.F   9.00______________________________________
Example 23

______________________________________S → N [C.]             --Clearing Point [C.]             +86Δn (589 nm, 20C.)             +0.0954ne (589 nm, 20 C.)             1.5728V.sub.(10,0,20) [V]             1.59V.sub.(50,0,20) [V]             1.94V.sub.(90,0,20) [V]             2.41Composition [%]:  PCH-6F       3.00             PCH-7F       7.00             CCP-20CF3    5.00             CCP-30CF3    5.00             CCP-40CF3    5.00             CCP-50CF3    5.00             ECCP-3F.F    5.00             BCH-3F.F     9.00             BCH-5F.F     9.00             CUP-3F.F     6.00             CUP-5F.F     6.00             CCP-30CF2.F.F                          15.00             CCP-50CF2.F.F                          20.00______________________________________
Example 24

______________________________________S → N [C.]             --Clearing Point [C.]             +81Viscosity [mm2 s-1 ] 20 C.             23Δn (589 nm, 20C.)             +0.0914ne (589 nm, 20 C.)             1.5684V.sub.(10,0,20) [V]             1.64V.sub.(50,0,20) [V]             1.97V.sub.(90,0,20) [V]             2.41Composition [%]:  PCH-7F       8.00             CCH-303      8.00             CCP-20CF3    7.00             CCP-30CF3    7.00             CCP-50CF3    7.00             BCH-3F.F     9.00             BCH-5F.F     10.00             CCP-3F.F     7.00             CCP-5F.F     7.00             CCP-30CF2.F.F                          15.00             CCP-50CF2.F.F                          15.00______________________________________
Example 25

______________________________________S → N [C.]             --Clearing Point [C.]             +92Δn (589 nm, 20C.)             +0.0969ne (589 nm, 20 C.)             1.5684V.sub.(10,0,20) [V]             1.69V.sub.(50,0,20) [V]             2.06V.sub.(90,0,20) [V]             2.55Composition [%]:  PCH-6F       6.00             PCH-7F       6.00             CCP-20CF3    4.00             CCP-30CF3    4.00             CCP-50CF3    4.00             BCH-3F.F     6.00             BCH-5F.F     6.00             ECCP-3F.F    8.00             ECCP-5F.F    8.00             CUP-3F.F     8.00             CUP-5F.F     8.00             CCP-30CF2.F.F                          10.00             CCP-50CF2.F.F                          15.00             CBC-33F      3.00             CBC-55F      4.00______________________________________
Example 26

______________________________________S → N [C.]             --Clearing Point [C.]             +92Δn (589 nm, 20C.)             +0.0929ne (589 nm, 20 C.)             1.5694V.sub.(10,0,20) [V]             1.80V.sub.(50,0,20) [V]             2.18V.sub.(90,0,20) [V]             2.66Composition [%]:  HP-30CF3     5.00             HP-50CF3     5.00             CP-30CF3     8.00             CP-50CF3     8.00             PCH-5F       8.00             PCH-6F       8.00             PCH-7F       8.00             CCP-20CF3    8.00             CCP-30CF3    8.00             CCP-40CF3    8.00             CCP-50CF3    8.00             BCH-3F.F     9.00             BCH-5F.F     9.00______________________________________
Example 27

______________________________________S → N [C.]             <-40Clearing Point [C.]             +105Viscosity [mm2 s-1 ] 20 C.             19Viscosity [mm2 s-1 ] 0 C.             57Viscosity [mm2 s-1 ] -20 C.             312Viscosity [mm2 s-1 ] -30 C.             941Viscosity [mm2 s-1 ] -40 C.             3828Δn (589 nm, 20C.)             +0.0914ne (589 nm, 20 C.)             1.5777V.sub.(10,0,20) [V]             2.10V.sub.(50,0,20) [V]             2.55V.sub.(90,0,20) [V]             3.15Composition [%]:  PCH-5F       7.00             PCH-6F       7.00             PCH-30CF3    8.00             PCH-50CF3    8.00             ECCP-3F      12.00             ECCP-5F      12.00             BCH-3F.F     11.00             BCH-5F.F     11.00             ECCP-3F.F    12.00             ECCP-5F.F    12.00______________________________________
Example 28

______________________________________S → N [C.]             --Clearing Point [C.]             +83Δn (589 nm, 20C.)             +0.0903ne (589 nm, 20 C.)             1.5689V.sub.(10,0,20) [V]             1.88V.sub.(50,0,20) [V]             2.25V.sub.(90,0,20) [V]             2.76Composition [%]:  PCH-5F       5.00             PCH-6F       13.00             PCH-7F       7.00             CCP-20CF3    10.00             CCP-30CF3    11.00             CCP-40CF3    10.00             CCP-50CF3    12.00             BCH-3F.F     12.00             BCH-5F.F     12.00             CP-30CF3     4.00             CP-50CF3     4.00______________________________________
Example 29

______________________________________S → N [C.]             --Clearing point [C.]             +102Δn (589 nm, 20 C.)             +0.0939ne (589 nm, 20 C.)             1.5767V.sub.(10,0,20) [V]             2.18V.sub.(50,0,20) [V]             2.59V.sub.(90,0,20) [V]             3.16Composition [%]:  PCH-6F     7.00             PCH-7F     7.00             CCP-20CF3  6.00             CCP-30CF3  6.00             CCP-50CF3  4.00             CP-30CF3   7.00             CP-50CF3   6.00             ECCP-3F    6.00             ECCP-5F    4.00             ECCP-3F.F  13.00             ECCP-5F.F  11.00             BCH-3F.F   12.00             BCH-5F.F   11.00______________________________________
Example 30

______________________________________S → N [C.]             --Clearing point [C.]             +103Δn (589 nm, 20 C.)             +0.0928ne (589 nm, 20 C.)             1.5752V.sub.(10,0,20) [V]             2.30V.sub.(50,0,20) [V]             2.70V.sub.(90,0,20) [V]             3.30Composition [%]:  PCH-5F     7.00             PCH-6F     7.00             CP-30CF3   6.00             CP-50CF3   6.00             BCH-3F.F   11.00             BCH-5F.F   11.00             CCP-20CF3  6.00             CCP-30CF3  6.00             CCP-40CF3  4.00             CCP-50CF3  5.00             ECCP-3F.F  10.00             ECCP-5F.F  10.00             ECCP-3F    6.00             ECCP-5F    5.00______________________________________
Example 31

______________________________________S → N [C.]             --Clearing point [C.]             +93Δn (589 nm, 20 C.)             +0.0955ne (589 nm, 20 C.)             1.5845V.sub.(10,0,20) [V]             2.11V.sub.(50,0,20) [V]             2.52V.sub.(90,0,20) [V]             3.08Composition [%]:  PCH-5F     10.00             PCH-6F     9.00             CP-30CF3   5.00             CP-50CF3   5.00             BCH-3F.F   13.00             BCH-5F.F   14.00             HP-30CF3   2.00             BCH-32     2.00             ECCP-3F.F  10.00             ECCP-5F.F  10.00             ECCP-3F    10.00             ECCP-5F    10.00______________________________________
Example 32

______________________________________S → N [C.]               < -40Clearing point [C.]               96Viscosity [mm2 s-1 ]  20 C.               15Viscosity [mm2 s-1 ]  0 C.               41Viscosity [mm2 s-1 ] -20 C.               189Viscosity [mm2 s-1 ] -30 C.               581Viscosity [mm2 s-1 ] -40 C.               1882Δn (589 nm, 20 C.)               0.0940ne (589 nm, 20 C.               1.5733V.sub.(10,0,20) [V] 2.08V.sub.(50,0,20) [V] 2.16V.sub.(90,0,20) [V] 3.01Composition [%]:    PCH-5F     10.00               PCH-6F     8.00               PCH-7F     6.00               CCP-20CF3  8.00               CCP-30CF3  12.00               CCP-40CF3  7.00               CCP-50CF3  11.00               BCH-3F.F   12.00               BCH-5F.F   10.00               CCP-30CF3  5.00               CCP-50CF3  5.00               CBC-33F    2.00               CBC-53F    2.00               CBC-53F    2.00______________________________________
Example 33

______________________________________S → N [C.]           --Clearing point [C.]           96Δn (589 nm, 20 C.)           0.0923ne (589 nm, 20 C.)           1.5656V.sub.(10,0,20) [V]           1.52V.sub.(50,0,20) [V]           --V.sub.(90,0,20) [V]           2.33Composition [%]:           PCH-5F       .00           PCH-7F       5.00           CCP-20CF3    6.00           CCP-30CF3    6.00           CCP-50CF3    5.00           ECCP-3F.F    5.00           BCH-3F.F     4.00           BCH-5F.F     4.00           CCP-20CF2.F.F                        17.00           CCP-30CF2.F.F                        19.00           CCP-50CF2.F.F                        21.00           CUP-3F.F     4.00           CUP-5F.F     4.00______________________________________
Example 34

______________________________________S → N [C.]             --Clearing point [C.]             +106Δn (589 nm, 20 C.)             +0.0928ne (589 nm, 20 C.)             1.5752V.sub.(10,0,20) [V]             2.42V.sub.(50,0,20) [V]             2.89V.sub.(90,0,20) [V]             --Composition [%]:  PCH-5F     7.00             PCH-6F     7.00             CP-30CF3   10.00             CP-50CF3   10.00             BCH-3F.F   11.00             BCH-5F.F   11.00             CCP-20CF3  3.00             CCP-30CF3  3.00             CCP-40CF3  3.00             CCP-50CF3  3.00             CCP-3F     6.00             ECCP-5F    6.00             ECCP-3F.F  10.00             ECCP-5F.F  10.00______________________________________
Example 35

______________________________________S → N [C.]             --Clearing point [C.]             +103Δn (589 nm, 20 C.)             +0.0932ne (589 nm, 20 C.)             1.5731V.sub.(10,0,20) [V]             2.11V.sub.(50,0,20) [V]             2.52V.sub.(90,0,20) [V]             3.07Composition [%]:  PCH-6F     7.00             PCH-7F     6.00             CCP-20CF3  7.00             CCP-30CF3  7.00             CCP-40CF3  7.00             CCP-50CF3  7.00             CP-30CF3   6.00             CP-50CF3   6.00             ECCP-3F.F  13.00             ECCP-5F.F  11.00             BCH-3F.F   12.00             BCH-5F.F   11.00______________________________________
Example 36

______________________________________S → N [C.]            --Clearing point [C.]            +100Δn (589 nm, 20 C.)            +0.0924ne (589 nm, 20 C.)            1.5733V.sub.(10,0,20) [V]            2.06V.sub.(50,0,20) [V]            2.45V.sub.(90,0,20) [V]            2.96Composition [%]: PCH-6F      7.00            PCH-7F      8.00            CCP-20CF3   7.00            CCP-30CF3   7.00            CCP-40CF3   7.00            CCP-50CF3   7.00            ECCP-3F     5.00            ECCP-5F     3.00            ECCP-3F.F   13.00            ECCP-5F.F   11.00            BCH-3F.F    10.00            BCH-5F.F    4.00            HP-30CF3    6.00            HP-50CF3    5.00______________________________________
Example 37

______________________________________S → N [C.]               < -40Clearing point [C.]               96Viscosity [mm2 s-1 ]  20 C.               15Viscosity [mm2 s-1 ]  0 C.               41Viscosity [mm2 s-1 ] -20 C.               189Viscosity [mm2 s-1 ] -30 C.               581Viscosity [mm2 s-1 ] -40 C.               1882Δn (589 nm, 20 C.)               0.0940ne (589 nm, 20 C.)               1.5733V.sub.(10,0,20) [V] 2.08V.sub.(50,0,20) [V] 2.16V.sub.(90,0,20) [V] 3.01Composition [%]:    PCH-5F     10.00               PCH-6F     8.00               PCH-7F     6.00               CCP-20CF3  8.00               CCP-30CF3  12.00               CCP-40CF3  7.00               CCP-50CF3  11.00               BCH-3F.F   12.00               BCH-5F.F   10.00               CP-30CF3   5.00               CP-50CF3   5.00               CBC-33F    2.00               CBC-53F    2.00               CBC-55F    2.00______________________________________
Example 38

______________________________________S → N [C.]             --Clearing point [C.]             +95Δn (589 nm, 20 C.)             +0.0902ne (589 nm, 20 C.)             1.5774V.sub.(10,0,20) [V]             2.40V.sub.(50,0,20) [V]             2.84V.sub.(90,0,20) [V]             3.50Composition [%]:  PCH-5F     11.00             PCH-6F     11.00             CP-30CF3   8.00             CP-50CF3   8.00             BCH-3F.F   8.00             BCH-5F.F   8.00             BCH-32     3.00             BCH-52     3.00             ECCP-3F.F  10.00             ECCP-5F.F  10.00             ECCP-3F    10.00             ECCP-5F    10.00______________________________________
Example 39

______________________________________S → N [C.]             --Clearing point [C.]             +92Δn (589 nm, C.)             +0.0958ne (589 nm, C.)             1.5859V.sub.(10,0,20) [V]             2.17V.sub.(50,0,20) [V]             2.61V.sub.(90,0,20) [V]             3.25Composition [%]:  PCH-5F     10.00             PCH-6F     9.00             CP-30CF3   4.00             CP-50CF3   4.00             BCH-3F.F   13.00             BCH-5F.F   14.00             BCH-32     3.00             ECCP-3F.F  11.00             ECCP-5F.F  11.00             ECCP-3F    11.00             ECCP-5F    10.00______________________________________
Example 40

______________________________________S → N [C.]             --Clearing point [C.]             +91Δn (589 nm, 20 C.)             +0.0871ne (589 nm, 20 C.)             1.5758V.sub.(10,0,20) [V]             2.14 (1st)V.sub.(50,0,20) [V]             2.59V.sub.(90,0,20) [V]             3.21Composition [%]:  PCH-5F     11.00             PCH-6F     11.00             CP-3F      8.00             CP-5F      8.00             ECCP-3F    7.00             ECCP-5F    9.00             BCH-3F.F   10.00             BCH-5F.F   10.00             ECCP-3F.F  14.00             ECCP-5F.F  14.00______________________________________
Example 41

______________________________________S → N [C.]             --Clearing point [C.]             +88Δn (589 nm, 20 C.)             +0.0891ne (589 nm, 20 C.)             1.5754V.sub.(10,0,20) [V]             1.98 (1st)V.sub.(50,0,20) [V]             2.39V.sub.(90,0,20) [V]             2.96Composition [%]:  PCH-5F     12.00             PCH-6F     11.00             CP-3F      9.00             CP-5F      9.00             BCH-3F.F   11.00             BCH-5F.F   11.00             CCP-20CF3  3.00             CCP-30CF3  3.00             CCP-40CF3  3.00             CCP-50CF3  3.00             ECCP-3F.F  13.00             ECCP-5F.F  12.00______________________________________
Example 42

______________________________________S → N [C.]             --Clearing point [C.]             85Δn (589 nm, 20 C.)             0.089ne (589 nm, 20 C.)             1.569V.sub.(10,0,20) [V]             1.90V.sub.(50,0,20) [V]             --V.sub.(90,0,20) [V]             2.83Composition [%]:  CP-30CF3   10.00             PCH-5F     9.00             PCH-6F     7.20             PCH-7F     7.20             CCP-20CF3  8.10             CCP-30CF3  8.10             CCP-40CF3  8.10             CCP-50CF3  8.10             ECCP-3F.F  5.40             ECCP-5F.F  5.40             BCH-3F.F   11.70             BCH-5F.F   11.70______________________________________
Example 43

______________________________________S → N [C.]               --Clearing point [C.]               +107Viscosity [mm2 s-1 ]  20 C.               18Viscosity [mm2 s-1 ]  00 C.               53Viscosity [mm2 s-1 ] -20 C.               268Viscosity [mm2 s-1 ] -20 C.               782Viscosity [mm2 s-1 ] -40 C.               3174Δn (589 nm, 20 C.)               +0.0956ne (589 nm, 20 C.)               1.5758V.sub.(10,0,20) [V] 2.00V.sub.(50,0,20) [V] 2.42V.sub.(90,0,20) [V] 2.97Composition [%]:    PCH-5F     6.00               PCH-6F     6.00               CCP-20CF3  5.00               CCP-30CF3  6.00               CCP-40CF3  4.00               CCP-50CF3  5.00               BCH-3F.F   12.00               BCH-5F.F   12.00               ECCP-3F.F  12.00               ECCP-5F.F  12.00               CP-30CF3   10.00               CP-50CF3   10.00______________________________________
Example 44

______________________________________S → N [C.]               --Clearing point [C.]               +104Viscosity [mm2 s-1 ]  20 C.               18Viscosity [mm2 s-1 ]  0 C.               53Viscosity [mm2 s-1 ] -20 C.               272Viscosity [mm2 s-1 ] -30 C.               789Viscosity [mm2 s-1 ] -40 C.               3010Δn (589 nm, 20 C.)               +0.0954ne (589 nm, 20 C.)               1.5786V.sub.(10,0,20) [V] 2.09V.sub.(50,0,20) [V] 2.53V.sub.(90,0,20) [V] 3.13Composition [%]:    PCH-5F     6.00               PCH-6F     6.00               CCP-20CF3  6.00               CCP-30CF3  5.00               CCP-40CF3  4.00               CCP-50CF3  5.00               BCH-3F.F   12.00               BCH-5F.F   12.00               ECCP-3F.F  12.00               ECCP-5F.F  12.00               ECCP-3F    5.00               ECCP-5F    5.00               CP-30CF3   5.00               CP-50CF3   5.00______________________________________
Example 45

______________________________________S → N [C.]             --Clearing point [C.]             109Δn (589 nm, 20 C.)             0.094ne (589 nm, 20 C.)             1.571V.sub.(10,0,20) [V]             2.18V.sub.(50,0,20) [V]             --V.sub.(90,0,20) [V]             --Composition [%]:  CP-30CF3   10.00             CP-50CF3   10.00             PCH-5F     8.00             PCH-6F     6.40             PCH-7F     4.80             CCP-20CF3  6.40             CCP-30CF3  9.60             CCP-40CF3  5.60             CCP-50CF3  8.80             BCH-3F.F   9.60             BCH-5F.F   8.00             ECCP-30CF3 4.00             ECCP-50CF3 4.00             CBC-33F    1.60             CBC-53F    1.60             CBC-55F    1.60______________________________________
Example 46

______________________________________S → N [C.]           --Clearing point [C.]           +100Δn (589 nm, 20 C.)           +0.0944ne (589 nm, 20 C.)           1.5750V.sub.(10,0,20) [V]           1.94V.sub.(50,0,20) [V]           2.33V.sub.(90,0,20) [V]           2.87Composition [%]:           PCH-5F       10.00           PCH-6F       9.00           CCP-20CF3    6.00           CCP-30CF3    7.00           CCP-40CF3    5.00           CCP-50CF3    7.00           BCH-3F.F     8.00           BCH-5F.F     8.00           ECCP-3F.F    11.00           ECCP-5F.F    11.00           CCP-30CF2.F.F                        5.00           CCP-50CF2.F.F                        4.00           CBC-33F      5.00           CBC-55F      4.00______________________________________
Example 47

______________________________________S → N [C.]           --Clearing point [C.]           +101Δn (589 nm, 20 C.)           +0.0942ne (589 nm, 20 C.)           1.5769V.sub.(10,0,20) [V]           2.15V.sub.(50,0,20) [V]           2.56V.sub.(90,0,20) [V]           3.11Composition [%]:           PCH-5F       7.00           PCH-6F       7.00           CUP-3F.F     2.00           CCP-20CF3    6.00           CCP-30CF3    6.00           CCP-40CF3    5.00           CCP-50CF3    6.00           BCH-3F.F     10.00           BCH-5F.F     9.00           ECCP-3F.F    11.00           ECCP-5F.F    11.00           CCP-30CF2.F.F                        4.00           CCP-50CF2.F.F                        3.00           CP-30CF3     5.00           CP-50CF3     5.00           CBC-33F      3.00______________________________________
Example 48

______________________________________S → N [C.]             --Clearing point [C.]             83Δn (589 nm, 20 C.)             0.093ne (589 nm, 20 C.)             1.574V.sub.(10,0,20) [V]             1.81V.sub.(50,0,20) [V]             --V.sub.(90,0,20) [V]             --Composition [%]:  HP-30CF3   5.00             HP-50CF3   5.00             PCH-5F     9.00             PCH-6F     7.20             PCH-7F     7.20             CCP-20CF3  8.10             CCP-30CF3  8.10             CCP-40CF3  8.10             CCP-50CF3  8.10             ECCP-3F.F  5.40             ECCP-5F.F  5.40             BCH-3F.F   11.70             BCH-5F.F   11.70______________________________________
Example 49

______________________________________S → N [C.]           --Clearing point [C.]           101Δn (589 nm, 20 C.)           0.0975ne (589 nm, 20 C.)           1.5797V.sub.(10,0,20) [V]           2.04V.sub.(50,0,20) [V]           2.42V.sub.(90,0,20) [V]           2.94Composition [%]:           PCH-6F       7.00           PCH-7F       7.00           CCH-502      2.00           CCP-20CF3    6.00           CCP-30CF3    6.00           CCP-40CF3    6.00           CCP-50CF3    6.00           ECCP-3F.F    11.00           ECCP-5F.F    11.00           BCH-3F.F     8.00           BCH-5F.F     8.00           CUP-3F.F     3.00           CUP-5F.F     3.00           CCP-30CF2.F.F                        4.00           CCP-50CF2.F.F                        4.00           CBC-33F      4.00           CBC-53F      4.00______________________________________
Example 50

______________________________________S → N [C.]              --Clearing point [C.]              +101Viscosity [mm2 s-1 ]  20 C.              17Viscosity [mm2 s-1 ]  0 C.              50Viscosity [mm2 s-1 ] -20 C.              230viscosity [mm2 s-1 ] -30 C.              SmecticViscosity [mm2 s-1 ] -40 C.              --Δn (589 nm, 20 C.)              +0.0941ne (589 nm, 20 C.)              1.5733V.sub.(10,0,20) [V]              2.04V.sub.(50,0,20) [V]              2.49V.sub.(90,0,20) [V]              3.07Composition [%]:   PCH-5F       10.00              PCH-6F       10.00              CCP-20CF3    6.00              CCP-30CF3    7.00              CCP-40CF3    5.00              CCP-50CF3    7.00              BCH-3F.F     8.00              BCH-5F.F     7.00              ECCP-3F      2.00              ECCP-3F.F    12.00              ECCP-5F.F    12.00              CCP-30CF2.F.F                           3.00              CCP-50CF2.F.F                           3.00              CBC-33F      4.00              CBC-53F      4.00______________________________________
Example 51

______________________________________S → N [C.]              --Clearing point [C.]              +102Viscosity [mm2 s-1 ]  20 C.              16Viscosity [mm2 s-1 ]  0 C.              47Viscosity [mm2 s-1 ] -20 C.              222Viscosity [mm2 s-1 ] -30 C.              634Viscosity [mm2 s-1 ] -40 C.              SmΔn (589 nm, 20 C.)              +0.0876ne (589 nm, 20 C.)              1.5631V.sub.(10,0,20) [V]              2.10 (1st)V.sub.(50,0,20) [V]              2.54V.sub.(90,0,20) [V]              3.11Composition [%]:   PCH-5F       8.00              PCH-6F       8.00              CP-3F        5.00              CP-5F        5.00              BCH-3F.F     7.00              BCH-5F.F     7.00              CCP-20CF3    8.00              CCP-30CF3    7.00              CCP-40CF3    7.00              CCP-50CF3    7.00              ECCP-3F.F    9.00              ECCP-5F.F    8.00              CCP-30CF2.F.F                           7.00              CCP-50CF2.F.F                           7.00______________________________________
Example 52

______________________________________PCH-5F           5%       TNI 92 C.PCH-7F           6%       Δn 0.091CCP-30CF3       12%       V10 1.50 VCCP-50CF3       11%       tilt angle ⊖ 3.7CCP-30CF3.F     11%CCP-50CF3.F     10%BCH-30CF3.F     12%BCH-3F.F.F      11%CCP-3F.F.F      12%CCP-5F.F.F       9%______________________________________
Example 53

______________________________________PCH-5F.F        11%       TNI 85 C.CCP-3F.F        12%       Δn 0.086CCP-5F.F        11%       V10 1.45 VCCP-3F.F.F      11%       tilt angle ⊖ 3.8CCP-5F.F.F      10%BCH-3F.F        12%BCH-5F.F        10%BCH-3F.F.F      12%BCH-5F.F.F      10%______________________________________
Example 54

______________________________________EPCH-5F.F        5%       TNI 88 C.EPCH-7F.F        6%       Δn 0.083CCP-3F.F        10%       tilt angle ⊖ 4.3CCP-5F.F        11%CCP-30CF3       12%CCP-50CF3       10%BCH-3F.F        11%BCH-5F.F        12%CCP-30CF2.F.F    9%CCP-50CF2.F.F   14%______________________________________
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Classifications
U.S. Classification252/299.63, 252/299.67
International ClassificationC09K19/42, G02F1/13, C09K19/30
Cooperative ClassificationC09K19/3001, C09K2019/3021, C09K19/3003
European ClassificationC09K19/30A, C09K19/30A1
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