|Publication number||US5567385 A|
|Application number||US 08/505,920|
|Publication date||Oct 22, 1996|
|Filing date||Jul 24, 1995|
|Priority date||Dec 28, 1993|
|Also published as||CA2139147A1|
|Publication number||08505920, 505920, US 5567385 A, US 5567385A, US-A-5567385, US5567385 A, US5567385A|
|Inventors||Charles R. Miller, Haskell B. Berry, Jr.|
|Original Assignee||Premier Medical Technology, Inc.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (16), Non-Patent Citations (4), Referenced by (24), Classifications (13), Legal Events (5)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This is a continuation application of Ser. No. 08/174,297, filed on Dec. 23, 1993, now abandoned.
The invention relates to a sterilant composition, particularly a sterilant composition for use in medical waste shredding apparatus which provides an alkaline environment for producing a non-infectious shredded product, and a method of using the sterilant.
The use of lime for disinfection is very old and well-known. Lime reacts exothermically. The high temperatures produced kill microorganisms.
U.S. Pat. No. 5,248,486, to Matsuoka et al., describes heat generating agents which are quicklime, calcined dolomite and magnesium oxide, optionally combined with a reaction moderating agent, used for medical waste sterilization. The heat generating agents are in a dry phase which, when mixed with an aqueous phase, generates heat whereby sterilization of medical waste, particularly hypodermic needles, is achieved. The process is maintained at a pH of 6.0-8.5 and a temperature of 40° C.-600° C. for 1 to 90 minutes to effect sterilization by killing microorganisms with the heat produced.
U.S. Pat. No. 3,791,977, to Ancel, describes heavy duty exothermic all-purpose cleaning compositions which also use heat generation to obtain the desired results. The compositions used are based on sodium hydroxide.
U.S. Pat. No. 3,850,852, describes a detergent composition including an alkali metal carbonate, such as sodium carbonate.
Dugenet et al., U.S. Pat. No. 4,783,194, describes a process for bacterial decontamination of textiles using carbonate compounds such as sodium carbonate and sodium sesquicarbonate.
A sterilant for rendering non-infectious shredded medical waste operates by alkaline oxidation to break down the pathogens in the medical waste during shredding, rendering the shredded waste product sterile, granular and substantially dry. The sterilant includes an alkaline oxide, such as calcium oxide, and a buffer, such as calcium carbonate including drying agents in the buffer. The sterilant creates a highly alkaline environment, at ambient temperatures, killing all or substantially all pathogens. The effectiveness of the sterilant is not dependent on temperature.
A sterilant of the invention is an alkaline composition which reduces and destroys microorganisms in medical waste of all kinds, including body tissues, surgical instruments, surgical clothing, hospital textiles and in other applications by alkaline oxidation of the microorganism structure. The sterilant is a combination of calcium oxide and calcium carbonate, optionally including other compounds, which effects disinfection or sterilization of medical waste, rendering non-infectious all or substantially all pathogens present in the waste at ambient temperatures in a highly alkaline environment. The pH is typically about 10-12.5, preferably 11-12. The sterilant will destroy microbial organisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, spore formers and other microorganisms, by contacting in a moist environment at ambient temperature and pH of 10-12.5.
In a typical composition, the sterilant contains calcium oxide and calcium carbonate in approximately a 1:1 ratio. Calcium oxide (CaO) in the sterilant combines with water to form calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2). Upon initial contact with microorganisms, the alkaline solution dissolves the outer shell of the target organism, exposing the genetic material (DNA) of the microorganism to the chemical. In this alkaline oxidation process, it is believed that a combination of alkaline reaction and free radical oxygen attacks the DNA and tears apart and dissolves the nuclei of the organism. Any portion not dissolved may be occluded in the surface of the particles remaining, making regrowth impossible. The sterilant kills the pathogens by denaturing nucleic acids and proteins therein.
Reaction time is directly correlated to concentration of Ca(OH)2 volume. The CaCO3 plays a role in providing available surface area for adsorption of any microorganisms onto surface particles. The alkaline environment of the CaCO3 particles may also play a role in destroying the outer shell of the organisms, making the DNA susceptible to attack by the alkaline solution and free radical oxygen.
Colloidal particles present in the sterilant may also play a major role in the ability of the sterilant to kill microorganisms. With a portion of the sterilant particles being of less than one micron in diameter during shredding, the mobility of the chemicals is greatly enhanced and makes coverage of all available surfaces that may contain microorganisms much more accessible to the chemical. Upon contact, the microscopic particles attack the outer shell of the microorganism and break down the inherent defenses thereof. Once the outer shell is penetrated, the DNA has no defense against the alkaline penetration of the solution. As the concentration of hydroxyl ions increases, the resistance by microorganisms decreases. The defenses of the microorganisms are based on the ability to fight off invasion via the outer shell of the microorganism. This outer shell is destroyed by the sterilant. The increase in hydroxyl ions breaks the outer shell through physical colloidal attack and chemical changes caused by increase of hydroxyl ions. The microorganisms have no defense that will withstand this two fold attack.
The sterilant is hygroscopic and has the ability to trap and retain airborne microorganisms that might otherwise elude the physical and chemical reactions. A very high internal surface area provides the product with the ability to adsorb and absorb microorganisms and, because of the alkalinity, the sterilant immediately breaks down and dissolves the DNA in the microorganisms.
FIG. 1A is a graph showing growth of HIV positive cells with respect to time when not treated with sterilant (control).
FIG. 1B is a graph showing growth of HIV positive cells with respect to time when treated with 2.5% sterilant of the invention.
FIG. 1C is a graph showing growth of HIV positive cells with respect to time when treated with 5.0% sterilant of the invention.
FIG. 1D is a graph showing growth of HIV positive cells with respect to time when treated with 10.0% sterilant of the invention.
FIG. 2A is a bar graph showing in vitro sensitivity of candida albicans to various concentrations of sterilant.
FIG. 2B is a bar graph showing in vitro sensitivity of bacillus subtilus to various concentrations of sterilant.
FIG. 2C is a bar graph showing in vitro sensitivity of pseudomonas aeruginosa to various concentrations of sterilant.
The invention herein provides a sterilizing reaction which takes place at ambient temperatures at a high pH, sterilizing medical waste by rendering pathogens non-infectious and preventing regrowth thereof. The reaction operates by alkaline oxidation to break down the pathogen structure in the medical waste during shredding, rendering the shredded waste product non-infectious. The product is shredded in appearance and is preferably substantially dry. The process optimally operates with a minimum of free water content, although higher quantities of liquid may be present. The sterilant includes an alkaline oxide, such as calcium oxide, and a buffer, such as calcium carbonate and may include further drying agents. In a typical batch of incoming medical waste, 5% sterilant may be used with 15-20% water, by weight. The sterilant creates a highly alkaline environment, is hygroscopic and absorbs free water in the shredded product.
A sterilant for rendering non-infectious all or substantially all pathogens in medical waste includes calcium oxide (CaO) and calcium carbonate (CaCO3) mixed in a ratio of about 20:80 to 60:40, preferably about 40:60 to 60:40, by weight which, when mixed with pathogen-containing material and water, reacts to kill pathogens at a pH of about 10-12.5, preferably about 11-12, and a temperature of 5°-35° C., preferably about 20°-35° C. to produce a non-infectious product. If less than 40% CaO is present, a greater quantity of sterilant is needed in the mix. If more than 60% CaO is present, the reaction generally becomes hot and too much steam is produced. The sterilant is generally used at a concentration of 4 to 10% by weight, preferably 5 to 8% by weight. In a medical waste shredder, such as is described in our copending application Ser. No. 08/014,877, filed Feb. 5, 1993, now U.S. Pat. No. 5,346,142, the reaction time (throughput) of the shredder is about 1 to 5 minutes.
The sterilant operates optimally at ambient temperatures, namely at about 5°-35° C. Any cold water supply may be used. The effectiveness of the sterilant does not depend on the temperature.
The sterilant may further include at least one of the following compounds: magnesium oxide, aluminum oxide, silicon dioxide, ferric oxide, calcium sulfate, potassium oxide and titanium dioxide.
A method of rendering pathogen containing waste material non-infectious using the sterilant of the invention includes mixing pathogen-containing shredded waste material with sufficient sterilant to render non-infectious all or substantially all pathogens in the waste material, the sterilant including calcium oxide and calcium carbonate mixed in a ratio of 20:80 to 60:40, by weight, reacting the sterilant with the pathogen-containing material and water at a pH of about 10-12.5 and a temperature of 5°-35° C., killing all or substantially all the pathogens and producing a non-infectious substantially dry, shredded product. In this method, pathogens are killed by denaturing the nucleic acids and proteins in the pathogens with the alkaline sterilant. The sterilant mixture may optionally also include at least one further reactant selected from magnesium oxide, aluminum oxide, silicon dioxide, ferric oxide, calcium sulfate, potassium oxide and titanium dioxide.
With reference to the Figures, FIGS. 1A through 1D represent graphs showing growth of HIV positive cells with respect to time when treated with various concentrations of the sterilant. FIG. 1A is a control to which no sterilant was added. The procedure was carried out as follows:
The sterilant was weighed out and placed in sterile tubes, and 2.5%, 5% and 10% weight per volume solutions were prepared in cell culture media and cooled on ice. Cell culture medium alone, without sterilant, was also placed in a tube as a control (FIG. 1A). An equal volume of HIV positive cells were added to each solution and the control, allowed to incubate on ice for 10 minutes and then each was filtered. Ten-fold dilutions of each virus solution mixture were made in cell culture media for titration of the residual infectious virus.
Twenty-five microliters of the undiluted mixture and each dilution was added to 25 μl of C8166 cells (at 1×104 per well) in 96-well plates. The plates were then cultured overnight, and the following day 50 μl of media was added to each well. On the fourth day following infection, and every two days thereafter for two weeks, an aliquot of the cells was removed from each well, spotted onto toxoplasmosis slides, fixed with cold acetone and stained for HIV p24 antigen by indirect immunofluorescence. The percentage of p24 HIV-positive cells was determined for each well on each of the test days.
The results are shown graphically in FIGS. 1A-1D, in which FIG. 1A is the control. Treatment of the virus alone in medium without the sterilant did not result in inactivation of the virus. FIG. 1A shows 105 tissue culture infectious doses of virus was present. Treatment of the same virus for 10 minutes with the sterilant powder at the various concentrations completely inactivated the virus, and no infectious virus was detected, even with the undiluted samples (10°). Thus, the powder was able to inactivate at least five log10 of virus under the condition used.
Test results on candida albicans, bacillus subtilis and pseudomonas aeruginosa, compared with control samples, are shown in FIGS. 2A, 2B and 2C, respectively and in Table 1 for candida albicans and Table 2 for pseudomonas aeruginosa. Table 1 shows "Recovery of candida albicans with and without sterilant (PMT 100) after processing through the apparatus described in our copending patent application identified above. Table 2 shows "Recovery of pseudomonas aeruginosa with and without sterilant (PMT 100) after processing through the apparatus described in our copending patent application identified above. Incubation was carried out for 30 minutes with various concentrations of sterilant (PMT 100). There is no reduction in cells without the sterilant (PMT 100). Reduction in cells with 5% PMT 100 sterilant is greater than a log reduction of 106.
In the apparatus of our copending patent application, identified above, medical waste material with about 5% sterilant and 15-20% water is processed in the apparatus at a pH of about 10-12.5 for 1-5 minutes at ambient temperature to produce a non-infectious shredded product which is sufficiently dry for disposal without further processing or water removal. The process operates with a minimum of free water as
__________________________________________________________________________ Theoretical Actual Load Yieldb Yieldc LogExperiment Characteristics Samplea (CFU/10 g) (CFU/10 g) Reduction__________________________________________________________________________Without PMT-100 Low Moisture 1 1.88 × 108 6.8 × 107 <10.sup. 2 1.88 × 108 4.1 × 108 0 3 1.88 × 108 1.8 × 108 0 4 1.88 × 108 2.1 × 108 0 5 1.88 × 108 2.2 × 108 0 50% organic 1 1.80 × 108 2.3 × 108 0 2 1.80 × 108 3.7 × 108 0 3 1.80 × 108 2.7 × 108 0 4 1.80 × 108 3.9 × 108 0 5 1.80 × 108 4.7 × 108 0 >70% organic 1 1.73 × 108 2.4 × 108 0 2 1.73 × 108 7.2 × 108 0 3 1.73 × 108 2.8 × 108 0 4 1.73 × 108 3.0 × 108 0 5 1.73 × 108 5.9 × 108 0With 5% PMT-100 Low Moisture 1 1.2 × 108 1.2 × 103 * 105 2 1.2 × 108 <102 >106 3 1.2 × 108 <102 >106 4 1.2 × 108 <102 >106 5 1.2 × 108 <102 >106 50% organic 1 1.1 × 108 1.1 × 102 * 106 2 1.1 × 108 <102 >106 3 1.1 × 108 2.0 × 102 * 5.5 × 105 4 1.1 × 108 <102 >106 5 1.1 × 108 <102 >106 >70% organic 1 8.6 × 107 <102 >106 2 8.6 × 107 <102 >106 3 8.6 × 107 <102 >106 4 8.6 × 107 <102 >106 5 8.6 × 107 <102 >106Without PMT-100 Low Moisture 1 1.3 × 107 2.1 × 107 0 2 1.3 × 107 2.4 × 107 0 3 1.3 × 107 1.8 × 107 0 4 1.3 × 107 2.1 × 107 0 5 1.3 × 107 1.9 × 107 0 50% organic 1 9.3 × 106 1.1 × 107 0 2 9.3 × 106 1.2 × 107 0 3 9.3 × 106 9.4 × 106 0 4 9.3 × 106 1.3 × 107 0 5 9.3 × 106 1.2 × 107 0 >70% organic 1 1.4 × 107 2.2 × 107 0 2 1.4 × 107 2.1 × 107 0 3 1.4 × 107 1.8 × 107 0 4 1.4 × 107 1.7 × 107 0 5 1.4 × 107 1.9 × 107 0With 5% PMT-100 Low Moisture 1 1.3 × 107 <101 >106 2 1.3 × 107 <101 >106 3 1.3 × 107 1.1 × 102 * 1.1 × 105 4 1.3 × 107 <101 >106 5 1.3 × 107 <101 >106 50% organic 1 1.2 × 107 <101 >106 2 1.2 × 107 <101 >106 3 1.2 × 107 <101 >106 4 1.2 × 107 <101 >106 5 1.2 × 107 <101 >106 >70% organic 1 9.4 × 106 <101 >106 2 9.4 × 106 <101 >106 3 9.4 × 106 <101 >106 4 9.4 × 106 <101 >106 5 9.4 × 106 <101 >106__________________________________________________________________________ a Five samples (50-75 g) were collected during processing; The first was taken on the first exited material, other samples were taken at ˜45 sec. intervals. Total run times were ˜5 min. Challenge loads of medical waste ranged from 5410 g-8989 g. Specific composition of each load is available. Samples were transported to the laboratory and processing initiated after 24 hr. at room temperature. 10 g samples were utilized an diluted with 40 ml of 0.1N KH2 PO4 and 50 ml PBS. This neutralized samples to pH 7.0 Samples were agitated by hand for 30 sec. Additional dilutions were made in 4.5 ml of PBS. Samples (0.1 ml) were spread in triplicate on L. agar, MacConkey lactose agar or Sabouraud's dextrose agar. Plates were incubated at 37° C. for 16 h. and counted. b Theoretical yield represents the challenge dose of the microorganisms as dispersed in the defined medical waste sample expressed as CFU/10 g. c Actual yield is the recovery of microorganisms based on the recovery of CFU on agar plates using triplicate samples < indicates no recovery based on lowest dilution plated. *Significant contaminants may have skewed count
the sterilant is hygroscopic and free water is readily absorbed to produce a shredded non-infectious product.
While the invention has been described above with respect to certain embodiments thereof, it will be appreciated by one skilled in the art that variations and modifications may be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention.
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|U.S. Classification||422/28, 510/161, 510/319, 210/764|
|International Classification||A01N59/06, A61L11/00, C02F1/50|
|Cooperative Classification||C02F1/50, A01N59/06, A61L11/00|
|European Classification||A01N59/06, A61L11/00, C02F1/50|
|Jan 22, 1996||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: HVN PARTNERSHIP, TEXAS
Free format text: SECURITY INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:PREMIER MEDICAL TECHNOLOGY, INC.;REEL/FRAME:007784/0058
Effective date: 19960105
|Jan 16, 1998||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: PREMIER MEDICAL TECHNOLOGY, INC., TEXAS
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:BERRY, HASKELL B., JR.;REEL/FRAME:008946/0902
Effective date: 19940224
|Apr 20, 2000||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4
|Apr 20, 2004||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 8
|Apr 11, 2008||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 12