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Publication numberUS5580363 A
Publication typeGrant
Application numberUS 08/296,369
Publication dateDec 3, 1996
Filing dateAug 25, 1994
Priority dateDec 9, 1993
Fee statusLapsed
Publication number08296369, 296369, US 5580363 A, US 5580363A, US-A-5580363, US5580363 A, US5580363A
InventorsNaoyuki Goto, Katsuhiko Yamaguchi, Yasuyuki Kawashima
Original AssigneeKabushiki Kaisya Ohara
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Colorimetric analysis
US 5580363 A
Abstract
A method for detecting a defect in a glass-ceramic for magnetic disks includes steps of forming a colored glass-ceramic having Munsell value within the range of 0 to 7 in the CIE color system by subjecting to heat treatment a base glass comprising in weight percent:
______________________________________
SiO2 65-83%Li2 O 8-13%K2 O 0-7%MgO + ZnO + PbO 0.5-5.5%in which MgO 0.5-5.5%ZnO 0-5%PbO 0-5%P2 O5 1-4%Al2 O3 0-7%As2 O3 + Sb2 O3 0-2%a coloring agent of at least one ingredient 0.5-5%selected from the group consisting of metaloxides of V, Cu, Mn, Cr, Co, Mo, Ni, Fe, Te,Ce, Pr, Nd and Er______________________________________
and checking the glass-ceramic visually or by means of an automatic checking device for detecting a defect in the glass-ceramic.
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Claims(4)
What is claimed is:
1. A method for detecting a defect in a glass-ceramic for magnetic disks comprising steps of:
forming a colored glass-ceramic containing lithium disilicate (Li2 O.2SiO2) and alpha-quartz (SiO2)as the main crystal phases said glass-ceramic having a Munsell value within the range of 0 to 7 in the CIE color system, by subjecting to heat treatment a base glass comprising in weight percent:
______________________________________SiO2                  65-83%Li2 O                 8-13%K2 O                  0-7%MgO + ZnO + PbO            0.5-5.5%in whichMgO                        0-5%ZnO                        0-5%PbO                        0-5%P2 O5            1-4%Al2 O3           0-7%As2 O3 + Sb2 O3                      0-2%a coloring agent of at least one ingredient                      0.5-5%;selected from the group consisting of metaloxides of V, Cu, Mn, Cr, Co, Mo, Ni, Fe, Te,Ce, Pr, Nd and Er______________________________________
and
inspecting the glass-ceramic visually or by means of an automatic detecting device to detect the difference which is produced by reflected or diffused light by a defect on the surface of said glass-ceramic and a normal surface portion of said glass-ceramic in order to detect a defect in the glass-ceramic.
2. A method as defined in claim 1 wherein the inspection is carried out visually.
3. A method as defined in claim 1 wherein the inspection is carried out by means of an automatic detecting device.
4. A method as defined in claim 1 wherein the coloring agent is at least one ingredient selected from the group consisting of metal oxides of V, Mn, Cr, Co, Mo, Ni, Fe, Te, Ce, Pr, Nd and Er.
Description
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

This invention relates to a method for detecting a defect in a glass-ceramic for magnetic disks used as recording media in computers.

There has been a rapid progress in developments in magnetic disk for which demand has recently increased remarkably as external media of large scale computers and personal computers.

Aluminum alloy has been conventionally used as a material of magnetic disk substrate. The aluminum alloy substrate, however, tends to produce a substrate surface having projections or spot-like projections and depressions during the polishing process due to defects inherent in the material. As a result, the aluminum alloy substrate is not sufficient in flatness and surface roughness and cannot cope with the recent requirement for high density recording necessitated by increase in the amount of information.

Since a glass-ceramic can be formed to a fine structure containing constituent crystal grains having diameters ranging from 0.02 to 20 μm, it is superior to aluminum alloys in flatness and surface roughness and therefore is more suited to the high density recording. For this reason, magnetic disk substrates made of a glass-ceramic have been proposed and offered on the market.

In a case where a magnetic disk substrate is formed with a glass-ceramic, defects such as a flaw, crack, break and pin hole, if existing in the glass-ceramic, will adversely affect the properties of the magnetic disk produced, sometimes making the magnetic disk unusable depending upon the magnitude of the defects. In manufacturing the prior art glass-ceramics for magnetic disk substrates, therefore, the surface of the glass-ceramics produced is visually checked for finding out such defects.

It is, however, difficult to find out such defects by a visual checking in the prior art glass-ceramics which are transparent or opaque and this visual checking imposes a heavy burden on a person who visually checks the glass-ceramic products and sometimes causes an error in checking. There is an automatic checking method available for checking glass products by using laser beam but, in the case of the glass-ceramics, the difficulty in finding out defects in the glass-ceramics remains unsolved even by using the automatic checking method. Therefore, this difficulty in checking defects in glass-ceramic products poses a serious problem in the quality management of glass-ceramic products.

It is, therefore, an object of the invention to provide a method for detecting a defect in a glass-ceramic for magnetic disks which enables defects on the surface of the glass-ceramic to be detected easily.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

Accumulated studies and experiments made by the inventors of the present invention for achieving the above described object of the invention have resulted in the finding, which has led to the present invention, that defects on the surface of a glass-ceramic can be easily detected by distinguishing such defects optically from a normal portion of the glass-ceramic.

More specifically, in a glass-ceramic which is transparent or opaque and hence is of a high lightness, a significant difference in reflected or diffused light from the surface of the glass-ceramic is hardly produced and this results in the difficulty in detecting the defects. Accordingly, in the present invention, lightness of the glass-ceramic is set within a predetermined range so that a clear difference will be produced in reflected or diffused light from the surface of the glass-ceramic between a defect on the surface and a normal (i.e., good) portion of the surface of the glass-ceramic and thereby the defect can be detected easily.

For achieving the above descreibed object of the invention, a method for detecting a defect in a glass-ceramic for magnetic disks comprises steps of forming a colored glass-ceramic having Munsell value within the range of 0 to 7 in the CIE color system by subjecting to heat treatment a base glass comprising in weight percent:

______________________________________SiO2               65-83%Li2 O              8-13%K2 O               0-7%Mgo + ZnO + PbO         0.5-5.5%in whichMgO                     0.5-5.5%ZnO                     0-5%PbO                     0-5%P2 O5         1-4%Al2 O3        0-7%As2 O3 + Sb2 O3                   0-2%a coloring agent of at least one                   0.5-5%ingredient selected from the groupconsisting of metal oxidesof V, Cu, Mn, Cr, Co, Mo, Ni,Fe, Te, Ce, Pr, Nd and Er______________________________________

and checking the glass-ceramic visually or by means of an automatic checking device for detecting a defect in the glass-ceramic. In one aspect of the invention, the glass-ceramic contains lithium disilicate (Li2 O.2SiO2) and alpha-quartz (SiO2) as a main crystal phase.

When the intensity of reflected light from a normal portion is designated by Ra and the intensity thereof from a defect on the surface by Rb, it becomes easier to detect the defect as Rb becomes larger than Ra. In other words, it becomes easier to detect the defect as the color of the glass-ceramic becomes nearer to black because Ra becomes smaller. In the Munsell value, lightness is assessed in ten stages and the value of the Munsell value approaches 10 as lightness increases and approaches zero as lightness descreases. According to the invention, the Munsell value is set within the range of 0 to 7. If the Munsell value exceeds 7, lightness of the glass-ceramic is too high to detect a defect on the surface easily.

According to the invention, by this arrangement, a clear difference in reflected or diffused light is produced between a defect on the surface of the glass-ceramic and a normal surface portion of the glass-ceramic whereby the defect can be detected very easily.

A visual checking for a defect in the glass-ceramic therefore becomes very easy and the burden on a person who checks the glass-ceramic is reduced and an error in checking can be prevented. Moreover, it becomes possible to detect a defect on the surface by an automatic checking device using laser beam so that automatization of checking of defects can be realized.

In detecting a defect, it is desirable for the color of the glass-ceramic to be a complementary color of a color of light used for detecting a defect. When, for example, the color of the glass-ceramic is Y (yellow), M (magenta) or C (cyan), it is desirable that the color of the light used for detecting a defect should be B (blue), G (green) or R (red).

For setting the color of the glass-ceramic to the Munsell value within the range of 0 to 7, some ion ingredient may be added to coxist with other ingredients of the glass-ceramic, i.e., some coloring agent may be added, to impart a color to the glass-ceramic.

For this purpose, the glass-ceramic having the above described Munsell value comprises, as a coloring agent, 0.5-5 weight percent of at least one ingredient selected from the group consisting of metal oxides of V, Cu, Mn, Cr, Co, Mo, Ni, Fe, Te, Ce, Pt, Nd and Er. As the metal oxides, preferable ones are V2 O5, CuO, MnO2, Cr2 O3, CoO, MoO3, NiO, Fe2 O3, TeO2, CeO2, Pr2 O3, Nd2 O3, Er2 O3.

The content of the metal oxide or metal oxides is limited to the range of 0.5-5 weight percent because, if it is below 0.5%, a color of a desired lightness cannot be imparted to the glass-ceramic whereas if it exceeds 5%, the property such as strength of the material is deteriorated. When a single type of the coloring agent is used, the coloring agent exhibits a color which is peculiar to the ion constituting the coloring agent but when more types of coloring agents are mixedly used, the color produced becomes nearer to black.

According to the invention, the color of the glass-ceramic can be set accurately to the Munsell lightness within the range of 0 to 7.

The glass-ceramic used in the method according to the invention is a glass-ceramic of the SiO2 --Li2 O--RO system (where RO represents MgO, ZnO or PbO) obtained by subjecting to heat treatment a base glass containing a MgO ingredient as an essential ingredient. This glass-ceramic has, as a crystal phase, alpha-quartz (SiO2) whose grown crystal grain (secondary grain) has a globular grain structure and has excellent surface characterisitcs of a polished surface by controlling the size of the crystal grain.

This glass-ceramic which has the above described coloring agent comprises, as other ingredients of the SiO2 --Li2 O--RO system glass-ceramic, in weight percent:

______________________________________SiO2              65-83%Li2 O             8-13%K2 O              0-7%MgO + ZnO + PbO        0.5-5.5%in whichMgO                    0.5-5.5%ZnO                    0-5%PbO                    0-5%P2 O5        1-4%Al2 O3       0-7%As2 O3 + Sb2 O3                  0-2%______________________________________

said glass-ceramic containing lithium disilicate (Li2 O.2SiO2) and alpha-quartz (SiO2) as a main crystal phase.

The above described content ranges of the respective ingredients have been selected for the reasons stated below.

The SiO2 ingredient is an important ingredient which produces crystals of lithium disilicate (Li2 O.2SiO2) and alpha-quarts (SiO2) as a main crystal phase by heat treating the base glass. If the amount of this ingredient is below the crystal produced in the glass-ceramic is instable and its texture tends to become too rough. If the amount of this ingredient exceeds 83%, difficulty arises in melting the base glass.

The Li2 O ingredient is also an important ingredient which produces lithium disilicate (Li2 O.2SiO2) crystal as a main crystal phase by heat treating the base glass. If the amount of this ingredient is below 8%, growth of this crystal becomes difficult and melting of the base glass becomes also difficult. If the amount of this ingredient exceeds 13%, the grown crystal of the glass-ceramic becomes instable and its texture tends to become too rough and, besides, chemical durability and hardness of the glass-ceramic are deteriorated. For increasing sufficiently high hardness and high thermal expansion characteristics of the glass-ceramic product (a magnetic disk substrate) and obtaining a further fine crystal grain, the amount of this ingredient should preferably be within the range of 8-12%.

The K2 O ingredient is an ingredient which improves melting property of the base glass and can be included up to 7%, preferably within the range of 1-6%.

The MgO ingredient is an important ingredient which has been found in this glass-ceramic to cause a crystal grain of alpha-quartz (SiO2) as the main crystal phase to grow randomly in the entire secondary grain structure. If the amount of this ingredient is below 0.5%, the above described effect cannot be obtained whereas if the amount of this ingredient exceeds 5.5%, growth of a desired crystal becomes difficult.

The ZnO and PbO ingredients may also be added because they have a function similar to that of MgO. If the amount of the ZnO and PbO ingredient exceeds 5%, growth of a desired crystal becomes difficult.

For the same reason, the total amount of the MgO, ZnO and PbO, ingredients should be within the range from 0.5 to 5.5%.

The P2 O5 ingredient is an essential ingredient as nucleating agent for the glass-ceramic. If the amount of this ingredient is below 1%, a desired crystal cannot be produced whereas if the amount of this ingredient exceeds 4%, the grown crystal of the glass-ceramic becomes instable and too rough.

The Al2 O3 ingredient is an effective ingredient for improving chemical durability of the glass-ceramic. If the amount of this ingredient exceeds 7%, the melting property of the base glass is deteriorated and, as a result, the rate of crystal growth of alpha-quartz (SiO2) as the main crystal phase phase is reduced. This ingredient should preferably be added in the amount of 1-8%.

The As2 O3 and Sb2 O3 ingredients may be added as refining agents in melting the base glass. It will suffice if the total amount of one or both of these ingredients up to 2% is added to the glass.

For manufacturing the colored glass-ceramic of the above described composition for magnetic disks, the base glass having the above composition including the coloring agent is melted and after being subjected to heat forming and/or cold forming, is heat treated for crystallization under a temperature of 900° C. or below. By this processing, a colored glass-ceramic containing lithium disilicate (Li2 O.2SiO2) and alpha-quartz (SiO2) as a main crystal phase and having Munsell lightness within the range of 0-7 in the CIE color system is produced. For using this glass-ceramic as a magnetic disk substrate, the glass-ceramic thus heat treated is then subjected to the lapping process and finally polishing process and the surface roughness (Ra) after final polishing comes within the range from 15 Å to 50 Å.

The above described colored glass-ceramic has the Munsell lightness of 0-7 and so a defect on the surface of the glass-ceramic can be detected easily. Besides, this glass-ceramic, the grown crystal grain (secondary grain) of alpha-quartz has a globular grain structure which enables control of the grain size by heat treatment and acheivement of a desired surface roughness of the polished surface whereby the glass-ceramic can be utilized as an excellent magnetic disk substrate.

EXAMPLES

Examples of the colored glass-ceramic for magnetic disks used in the method according to the invention will now be described. Tables 1 and 2 show compositions of respective ingredients of examples (Nos. 1 to 6) of the colored glass-ceramic used in carrying out the method according to the invention and Table 3 shows compositions of respective ingredients of comparative examples of the prior art SiO2 --Li2 O system glass-ceramic together with the colors, rate of reflection, Munsell value, easiness for detecting a defect by visual checking and type of a main crystal phase.

The crystallizing conditions of the respective examples and comparative examples are as follows:

(1) Nucleating Condition (temperature×time)

Examples Nos. 1 to 6: 540° C.×5 hrs.

Comparative examples: 540° C.×5 hrs.

(2) Crystallizing Condition (temperature×time)

Examples Nos. 1 to 6: 740° C.×2 hrs.

Comparative examples: 740° C.×2 hrs.

The glass-ceramics of Examples Nos. 1 to 6 contains 0.5-5 weight percent of at least one ingredient selected from the metal oxides including V2 O, CuO, MnO2, Cr2 O3, CoO, MoO2, NiO, Fe2 O3, TeO2, CeO2. Pr2 O3, Nd2 O3, Er2 O3 and, by containing this ingredient, the Munsell lightness of the glass-ceramic is set within the range of 1-7.

In Tables 1 to 4, Li2 Si2 O5 described in the column of the main crystal phase represents lithium disilicate (Li2 O.2SiO2). The symbol ⊚ in the column of "defect detection" denotes that detection is very easy, and the symbol X denotes that detection is difficult.

As will be apparent from Tables 1 to 2, the glass-ceramics of Examples Nos. 1 to 6 contain the coloring agent or agents and thereby exhibit a predetermined color and have Munsell value within the range of 1-7 and a defect on the surface of the glass-ceramic can be detected easily. It will also be understood that the glass-ceramics of the comparative examples which do not contain any coloring agent is opaque or transparent and their Munsell value is 9 or undisplayable with the result that detection of a defect is difficult.

              TABLE 1______________________________________Examples     1          2        3______________________________________SiO2    75.8       75.8     75.8Al2 O3        3.8        3.8      3.8P2 O5        2.0        2.0      2.0MgO          2.5        2.5      2.5ZnO          0.5        0.5      0.5Li2 O   10.4       10.4     10.4K2 O    4.0        4.0      4.0AS2 O3        0.5        0.5      0.5        CoO 0.5    NiO 0.5  Fe2 O3 0.5Appearance   Blue       White    Brown(Color)                 GreenRate of      4.2        4.4      4.3reflection R(λ = 633 nm)Munsell      3          7        5value(CIE)Defect detection        ⊚                   ⊚                            ⊚Main crystal Li2 Si2 O5                   Li2 Si2 O5                            Li2 Si2 O5phase        α-quartz                   α-quartz                            α-quartz______________________________________

              TABLE 2______________________________________Examples     4          5        6______________________________________SiO2    74.0       75.0     74.0Al2 O3        4.0        4.0      4.0P2 O5        2.0        2.0      2.0MgO          2.5        2.5      2.5ZnO          0.5        0.5      0.5Li2 O   10.5       10.5     10.5K2 O    4.0        4.0      4.0AS2 O3        0.5        0.5      0.5        V2 O5 0.5                   Cr2 O3 1.0                            V2 O5 2.0        MnO2 0.5        CuO 0.5        Cr2 O3 0.5Appearance   Black      Green    Yellowish(Color)                          BrownRate of      4.2        4.5      4.6reflection R(λ = 633 nm)Munsell      1          5        6value(CIE)Defect detection        ⊚                   ⊚                            ⊚Main crystal Li2 Si2 O5                   Li2 Si2 O5                            Li2 Si2 O5phase        α-quartz                   α-quartz                            α-quartz______________________________________

              TABLE 3______________________________________         Comparative                  Examples______________________________________SiO2       72.1       72.0Al2 O3           9.6        2.0P2 O5 1.9MgO             1.0        2.5ZnO             1.0CaO             0.4        9.0BaO             SrO 0.4Li2 O      12.0K2 O       1.1        Na2 O 14.5TiO2ZrO2AS2 O3           0.5Appearance (Color)           WhiteRate of reflection R           5.0        10.0(λ = 633 nm)Munsell value   9(CIE)Defect detection           X          XMain crystal    Li2 Si2 O5phase           α-cristobalite______________________________________

Detection of a defect on the surface of the glass-ceramic for magnetic disk of the above described Example 1 by using an automatic checking device will now be described.

An automatic disk surface checking device RS-1310 with a microscope manufactured by Hitachi Denshi Engineering Co. Ltd. was used for checking of a defect on a substrate for a magnetic disk made of the glass-ceramic of Example 1. In this device, a laser beam projected from a He--Ne laser beam source (output value: 10 mV) is focused as a spot (having an area of 565 μm2, 12 μm the circumferential direction and 60 μm in the radial direction, wavelength being 633 nm) on the surface of the disk through a focusing lens. The device has a LIGHT beam receiving a unit which receives a reflected beam from the surface of a substrate and detects scratches and contaminations, a DARK beam receiving unit which receives diffused beam and detects particles on the surface and a direct reflection receiving unit which detects a pit and a distort. A received defect signal is converted to an electrical signal by a photo multiplier and a photo detector.

A noise level and a DC level of DARK received signal data obtained from a substrate for a magnetic disk made of a glass-ceramic which is of the same composition as Example 1 excepting that the former contains no coloring agent (hereinafter referred to as "DISK 1") are shown in Table 4 and a noise level of DARK received signal data obtained from the substrate for a magnetic disk made of the glass-ceramic of Example 1 (hereinaftre referred to as "DISK 2") is shown in Table 5. Simlarly, a noise level and a DC level of LIGHT received signal data obtained from the DISK 1 are shown in Table 6 and a noise level of LIGHT received signal data obtained from the DISK 2 is shown in Table 7.

              TABLE 4______________________________________DARK received signal data from the DISK 1(without color)(before being subjected to a high-pass filter)Voltage applied to photo mulitplier (V)300      350    400    450  500  550  600  650  700______________________________________Noise 10     10     10   15   15   20   50   75   150(mV)DC    0      0      8    20   45   90   190  380  760level(mV)______________________________________

              TABLE 5______________________________________DARK received signal from DISK 2(with color, Example 1)(after being subjected to a high-pass filter)Voltage applied to photo multiplier (V)300      350    400    450  500  550  600  650  700______________________________________Noise --     --     --   --   5    5    10   18   25(mV)______________________________________

              TABLE 6______________________________________LIGHT received signal data from DISK 1(without color)(before being subjected to a high-pass filter)    Voltage applied to photo multiplier (V)    250     300      350      400______________________________________Noise (mV) 10        10       30     80DC level (mV)      0         0        0      0______________________________________

              TABLE 7______________________________________LIGHT received signal data from DISK 2(with color, Example 1)(after being subjected to a high-pass filter)    Voltage applied to photo multiplier (V)    300     350      400      450______________________________________Noise (mV) 5         10       50     --______________________________________

It will be understood from Table 4 that as the voltage applied to the photo multiplier exceeds 450 V, influence of the diffused light from the surface of the glass-ceramic containing no coloring agent becomes strong with resulting increase in the DC component (mV) in the background level. This state is not desirable from the standpoint of detecting a weak light signal generated from a defect on the surface of the sustrate. Setting the voltage applied to the photo multiplier at a preferred value of 500 V, it has been found that the value of noise in the substrate of the glass-ceramic containing no coloring agent is significantly larger than the value of noise in the substrate of the glass-ceramic of Example 1. This indicates that it is much easier to detect a defect by using the automatic checking device in the substrate of the glass-ceramic of Example 1 than in the substrate of the glass-ceramic containing no coloring agent.

In Table 7 also, it is found that the value of noise is significantly smaller in the substrte of the glass of Example 1 than in the substrate of the glass-ceramic containing no coloring agent, though the difference is not so remarkable as in the DARK receiced signal data.

In the above described example in which He--Ne laser (wavelength: 633 nm) is used, a colored glass-ceramic of a cyan type shows little noise and therefore easy for detection of a defect. Likewise, when a green light source is used, a glass-ceramic of a magenta type is preferable and when a blue light source is used, a glass-ceramic of a dark yellowish color is preferable. When a light source which is near a neutral light such as a halogen lamp light is used, a glass-ceramic of a dark color having a low Munsell lightness is favourable for detecting a defect on the surface.

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Classifications
U.S. Classification65/29.18, 65/33.1, 501/4, 65/33.8, 356/237.3, 356/237.2
International ClassificationC03C10/06, C03C10/00, G11B5/733, C03C4/02, G11B5/62, G11B5/73, C03C10/04
Cooperative ClassificationC03C10/0045, C03C4/02, C03C10/0009, C03C10/0027, C03C10/0036
European ClassificationC03C10/00C2, C03C10/00E, C03C4/02, C03C10/00E2, C03C10/00B
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Feb 1, 2005FPExpired due to failure to pay maintenance fee
Effective date: 20041203
Dec 3, 2004LAPSLapse for failure to pay maintenance fees
Jun 23, 2004REMIMaintenance fee reminder mailed
May 3, 2000FPAYFee payment
Year of fee payment: 4
Oct 31, 1994ASAssignment
Owner name: KABUSHIKI KAISYA OHARA, JAPAN
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:GOTO, NAOYUKI;YAMAGUCHI, KATSUHIKO;KAWASHIMA, YASUYUKI;REEL/FRAME:007224/0854
Effective date: 19941017