US 560633 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
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PantedV Ma AN DREW BGRAHAM. PHOTD-LITNU. WASHINGTON, 0.6.(
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GENTRIFUGAL SEPARTOR No. 560,633. Patented May 19, 1896.
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` GBNTRIFUGAL SEPARATOR; No. 560,633'. Patented My'lQ, 1896.
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Nrrn STATES CENTRIFUGAL SEPARATOR.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 560,633, dated May 19, 1896. Application filed November 6 1894. Serial No. 528,117. (No model.)
. have invented new and useful Improvements in Centrifugal Separators, of which the following is a specification.
The principal objects of my invention are f to provide a centrifugal separator wherein the force of gravity assists in carrying material under treatment over the separating-surface toward the point of discharge to effect a continuous separation of heavier and lighter substances and a separate and continuous discharge thereof, to provide a defiector within the treatment-cylinder held in a central position largely by the force of the water contained within said cylinder, and also to improve various points in construction. I attain these objects by the mechanism illustrated in the accompanying` drawings, in which- Figure l is a vertical side elevation of one of my improved separators. Fig. 2 is a central vertical section in a plane at right angles to Fig. l. Fig. 3 is an enlarged transverse vertical section of a portion of the treatmentcylinder. Fig. 4 is a detail of one of the staves of the treatment-cylinder detached. Fig. 5 is a detail elevation of an enlarged portion of the deiiector, showing the preferred oblique position of the agitating or plowing studs. Fig. 6 is a central vertical section of another form of separator embodying my improvements. Fig. 7 is a detail bottom plan view of the dividing-ring partly broken away. Fig. S is a central vertical section of still another form of iny invention. Fig. 9 is a detail bottom plan view of the dividing-ring somewhat modified from that shown in Fig. 7. Fig. 10 is a detail sectional view of Fig. 8 on line 10, looking in the direction of the arrow.
The treatment vessel or cylinder A, having a separating-surface A', is preferably provided with heads or ends a, having trunnions a', the upper one of which is hollow and is journaled in suitable boxes a2 on the supporting-frame B. The lower trunnion is stepped in a bearing a3. The treatment vessel or cylinder,which for brevity will be called a treatment-cylinder throughout the specilication, is shown as enlarging toward its lower or discharge end, but may be made straight, if def sired. The treatment-cylinder, when its form will permit, may be constructed of staves or sections of wood A2, as particularly shown in Figs. 2, 3, and 4, secured at their ends to flanges on the heads of the cylinder by means l of bolts b, or they may be secured at one or both ends, preferably at least at the larger, to a supplemental ring B', which is detachably secured to the head of the cylinder to admit of its easy removal and the insertiony rubber or like material to assist in making it` water-tight and to afford a separating-surface which may be replaced when worn. An encircling metal ring forms a belt-surface C at the central portion of the cylinder, which has at each side a thinner rim c, provided with holes through which screws c pass to assist in holding the staves of the cylinder together and also to retain the ring in place. The cylinder is further reinforced by a wrapping of wire C. Near its lower end the cylinder ispprovided with a row of dischargeorifices carrying tubes D, and surrounding these tubes and having an annular channel d through its inner wall is a trough D to catch the material as it is thrown from the treatment-cylinder, provided with dischargepassages dl.
Within the treatment-cylinder, supported on a preferably hollow shaft F., extending through the upper trunnion a', journaled in the boxes e and rotated through a pulley E', is a deflector F, which is made of light material or is hollow, as shown in Fig. 2, so that it is lighter than an equal bulk of' water, thereby enabling it to be maintained in a central position in the treatment-cylinder by the pressure of water surrounding the deiiector, and which, acted upon by centripetal force, presses the defiector throughout its `circumference toward the axis/of rotation, thus exerting a strong uniform` force to cause it to TOO maintain a central position. rlhis construction is especially advantageous when the de-4 fiector is supported at one end only, when it is not mounted very securely, or is j ournaled in bearings a considerable distance apart. The vertical position of the shaft E and deflector is preferably maintained by the hubs of the pulley E contacting with the ends of the boxes e.
Just above the upper end of the hollow shaft E is located a funnel F, supported by abracket f. This funnel serves to introduce material into the hollow shaft, from which it passes out of orifices f onto the upper portion of the separating-surface. On the surface of the deflector are placed projections or studs G to effect agitation of material over the separating-surface. The outer or service ends of these studs may be made to serve as plows as well as agitators to plow or deflect material on which they operate toward the discharge end of the treatment-cylinder by flattening them on one or both sides and setting them in the defiector with the flattened side at an angle in an oblique position to the path of revolution, as shown in Fig. 5.
To vibrate the treatment-cylinder and separating-surface to assist in separation, there is provided an irregular roll or cam G', supported on an arm g and contacting with the upper head of the treatment-cylinder, producin g shocks thereto in its rotation.
In the form of separator shown in Figs. G and 7 the treatment-cylinder and other parts are made of metal and somewhat different in form. The walls of the treatment-cylinder are curved, the angle with the axis of rotation decreasing toward the discharge end for purposes hereinafter explained. rlhe treatment-eylind er is provided with a vertical ring shaped to afford a belt-surface C2.
This machine is so arranged that the process of separation can be carried on continuously-that is, the introduction of material to the treatment-cylinder and the various stages of separation of heavier from lighter substances and their separate discharge are effected simultaneously and continuously during the operation of the separator. To accomplish this, the lower portion of the treatment-cylinder, preferably throughout its entire circumference, is provided with an extended or enlarged portion Il, forming an interior recess or channel h, from which discharge-oriiices Gf radiate through the wall of the cylinder. lVithin the treatment-cylinder and over the channel h is an adjustable annular plate or ring Hf, made of comparatively light metal, with its upper edge thinned to adapt it to divide or cut the layer of particles of material on the separating-surface, dividing the stratum or layer of heavier substances from beneath the lighter, and also protecting the discharge-orifices for heavier particles from the ingress of the lighter. It may therefore be termed a divider or a protector.7 The edge of the divider approaches closely to the shoulder caused by the enlargement H and leaves only a small passage h between them. This passage may be varied in size by the vertical adjustment of the divider, which may be effected by threaded rods I engaging at their upper ends lugs t' on the ring and near their opposite ends the head of the treatmentcylinder.
To supply comparatively clean water to the recess h for discharge with the particles of heavier material deflected thereunder and to prevent the water within the treatmentcylinder from forcing a channel through and disturbing that portion of the material entering the passage 7L', there are provided tubes t', mounted in orifices in the divider and extending in sufficiently toward the axis of the cylinder to pass through any layer of material that may be formed, and preferably somewhat farther to insure a minimum amount of lighter material being conducted with the water to the chamber 7L and again mingled with the heavier, which are deflected under the divider and discharged therefrom. "Where the cutting edge of the divider closely approaches the separating-surface the shoulder is preferably provided with a removable ring I, which can be replaced as desired when worn.
Around the lower portion of the treatmentcylinder, below the separating-surface and divider-ring, are orifices, preferably carrying short tubes J, for the discharge of the lighter portions of material. An annular trough J supported on the frame B, encircles the lower end of the cylinder, having two compartments and an annular channel j opening into each in alinement with the discharge-orifices g' and tubes J, whereby the heavier and lighter substances are caught separately and discharged from the compartments through spoutsj. It is desirable to impart a tremor or vibration to the separating-surface to assist in separation, and especially to cause the heavier substances that accumulate on the separating surface and such of the lighter portion as form a layer upon the heavier to creep or gradually travel along toward the discharge'- point. To accomplish this, cam-rolls Kf, rotatably mounted on a bracket k, operate in contact with the shoulder caused by the enlargement H of the treatment-cylinder. The irregular shape of these rolls imparts a series of shocks to the cylinder as it rotates, and thus vibrates the separating-surface.
The deflector or agitating-cylinder F is provided with an annular recess 7s to admit of the tubes t" being extended nearer to the axis of rotation, and like the form first illustrated is supported on the hollow shaft E, mounted in journal-boxes c and rotated by the pulley E'.
In Figs. 8, 9, and l0 is illustrated still another form of my invention. The general shape of the treatment-cylinder, deflector, and most of the other parts are shown as similar IOO IIO
to those illustrated in Figs. 6 and 7 but the treatment-cylinder in this instance is preferably provided with'a hollow trunnion at its lower end'and Vthe deflector with an extended shaft L, which passes through said trunnion and is journaled in a box L', the upper portion Z of which may also serve as a step for the trunnion. rlhe journal-box L is extended down to receive the plunger l', serving as a guide to the same. On the upper end of this plunger rests the deflector-shaft L, and at its opposite end it is connected by means of a sliding box M to one end of a lever M", pivotally fulcrumed at m to the supportingbrackets fm', and connected at its other `end by'a sliding box N to the crank portion of a crank-shaf t N. This crank-shaft is supported in journal-boxes 'a on brackets n', depending from the lower part of the frame of the separator, as particularly shown in Fig. l0, is rotated by a belt upon the pulley O, and is held from longitudinal movement in its boxes by collars o. By the rotation of the crankshaft N a rocking motion will be imparted to the lever M', reciprocatingthe plunger Z, and as this supports the shaft of the dellector the latter with the agitators will be moved in a direction transverse to its path of rotation, causing practically the whole of the separating-surface to come under the influence of said agitators. The upper portionof the deflector-shaft is journaled, and there is sufficient space between the pulley E', boxes e, and other parts of the separator to admit the reciprocation ofthe deliector. In this form of separator the dividing-ring is made slightly different in form and is adjustably secured to the lower part of the deflector by threaded studs O and is revolved by the deflector in its rotation instead of by the treatment-cylinder, as previously described. The divider, in addition to the tubes t" and other parts attached to it, preferably carries several proj ections or plows 0', extending into the channel h and serving to move or plow the material passing under the divider over the discharge-orifices g to facilitate its discharge. Vithout these plows material piles up within the channel between the orifices, and therefore tends to clog. To admit of access to the studs O for the adjustment of the dividingring, there are screw-threaded holes through the bottom of the treatment-cylinder opposite the studs, provided with screw-threaded plugs P.
The operation of the separators, when constructed as first described, is in successive alternations of separating and accumulating a desired quantity of heavier material on the separating-surface while discharging the lighter portions and then discharging the accumulated heavier, diverting the two to different places of deposit, employing the force of gravity acting in the direction of travel of the material through the treatment-cylinder toward the point of discharge to assist the other forces employed for effecting such sepa-` ration and discharge of-the respective substances. The treatment-cylinder and deflector are rotated at a relatively greater or less speed, as will suit the peculiar conditions existing. `The material to be separated inv a finely-divided state and mingled with a condeilector and the inner wall of the cylinder l well filled or the separating-surface 'submerged. During the separating period the differential speed of the separating-surface and the deflector should be sufliciently great that the force of the Water flowing through the channel, the agitation caused by the projections and otherwise, and the force of gravity will carry the lighter portionsof the material downward over the separating-surface to the discharge-orifices; but said combined forces are sufficiently weak to permit the heavier substances, actuated by centrifugal force, to lodge and accumulate on the separating-surface until a desired quantity has gathered, when the introduction of material to the treatment-cylinder is preferably discontinued, water alone being introduced during the unloading period, and the differential speed of the cylinder anddeflector is now increased, preferably by lessening the speed of IOO the former, thereby lessening the centrifugal force developed to maintain the layer of heavier substances on the separating-surface, at the same time increasing the agitation to which such material is subjected sufficiently to enable these forces, assisted by gravitation, to move it downward to the dischargeorifices, through which it passes into the surrounding trough. After the heavier has been discharged the initial speed may be restored andthe operation repeated. As the heavier and lighter portions of the material flow from the trough D they will be received in separate receptacles. If desired, additional water may be introduced to the treatment-cylinder by means of a pipe f2, extended into the hollow trunnion a g In the operation of the separator illustrated in Fig. 6 of the drawings the process of separation and discharge of the heavier and lighter material is continuous. Thematerial is introduced into the treatment-cylinder and separated in the manner just described, and the lighter substances will travel down the separating-surface, passing over the dividing-rin g to their discharge-orifices, while the heavier will accumulate in a layer nearest the separating-surface under the lighter. The outward slant of the wall of the treat- `ment-cylinder as it approaches the discharge end is less than in the previous insta e- `tarding the progress of material/armi making IIO the accumulation on the separating-surface, Which tends in the preceding form to pile up at the feed end, nearly uniform throughout. The layer of heavier substances will be driven by centrifugal force, assisted by the force of gravity and by the vibration of the cylinder, gradually along the separatingsurface toward the discharge end of the cylinder, at the same time carrying along any lighter substances that may be lodged thereon, and as the layer reaches the divider the heavier Will be divided from beneath the lighter and diverted through the narrow passage 7L into the channel under the dividingring, from whence it Will be discharged through the orifices into the appropriate compartment in the surrounding trough, While the lighter substances pass to the orifices nearer the end of the cylinder and are discharged and caught in the other compartments.
The operation of the form illustrated in Figs. 8, 9, and l0 of the drawings is very similar to that just described. The dividingring, however, travels with the detlector, and with its plows o aids the discharge of the heavier substances from the channel 71. During the operation the crank-shaft is revolved, imparting a slight reciprocation to the defiector and the divider-ring, which increases the field of action of the agitators and assists the separation and discharge of material.
W'hile there are illustrated separators having treatment-cylinders provided with shafts or trunnions on which they are journaled, it is not necessary to make them in this Way, as the cylinder may be provided with bearings encircling its body, if desired. The studs carried by the defiector should be eX- tended far enough therefrom to produce sufiicient agitation.
Vhat l regard as new, and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is-
l. In a centrifugal separator, the combination of a rotatable separating-surface, a deflecter therein of less specific gravity than a volume of Water of equal size, whereby the same is held in position by the Water Within the separator, substantially as described.
2. ln a centrifugal separator, the combination of a rotatable treatment-cylinder composed of staves or sections secured at least at one end to a ring, Which is detachably secured to the head of the cylinder, substantially as described.
3. In a centrifugal separator, the combination of a rotatable treatment-cylinder composed of staves or sections secured at least at one end to a ring, which is detachably secured to the head of the cylinder, and an cncircling ring mounted on said cylinder affording a belt-surface therefor, substantially as described.
4f. In a centrifugal separator, the combination of a rotatable separating-surface provided With one or more passages for the discharge of heavier substances, a plate protecting such passages from the ingress of the lighter substances, and agitators operating under said plate, substantially as described.
5. In a centrifugal separator, the combination of a rotatc ble separating-surface for separating material into strata of heavier and lighter substances, and an independently-r0- tatable divider for separating the heavier stratum from beneath the lighter, substantially as described.
6. ln a centrifugal separator, the combination of a rotatable separating-surface for separating material into strata of heavier and lighter substances, a divider for separating the heavier stratum from beneath the lighter, discharge-passages beneath the same and agitators carried by the divider operating in proximity in said passages, substantially as described.
7. In a centrifugal separator, the combination of a rotatable separating-surface upon which material is separated into strata of heavier and lighter substances, a divider for separating the heavier stratum from beneath the lighter, and a differentially-rotatable deflector therein carrying agitators, substantially as described.
8. ln a centrifugal separator, the combination of a rotatable separating-surface upon which material is separated into strata of heavier and lighter substances, a conduit depositing material for separating near the upper portion of the separating-surface, a divider for separating the heavier strata from beneath the lighter near its lower portion, discharge-orifices in proximity thereto, and a defiector to guide material over the separatingsurface, substantially as described.
9. In a centrifugal separator, the combination of a rotatable separating-surface upon which material is separated into strata of heavier and lighter substances, a conduit depositing material for separation near the upper portion of the separating-surface, a divider for separating the heavier stratum from beneath the lighter near its lower portion, discharge-oriiices in proximity thereto, and a longitudinally-reeiprocating deflector acting over the separating-surface, for agitatin g material, substantially as described.
l0. In a centrifugal separator,` the combination of a rotatable separating-surface, a conduit depositing the material for separation near the upper portion of said surface, one or more orifices for discharging the same near the loWer portion thereof, and a longitudinally -reciprocat-ing agitator acting over the separating-surface, substantially as described.
ll. In a centrifugal separator, the combination of a rotatable separating-surface upon which material is separated into strata of heavier and lighter substances, a divider for separating the heavier stratum from beneath the lighter,and a longitudinally-reciprocatin g agitator acting over the separating-surface, substantially as described.
l2. lnaoentrifugal separator, the oombina` dieeharge-orioesl in proximity thereto, and tion of a rotatable separating-surface upon alongitudinally-reoiprooating agitatoraoting Io which material `is separated into strata of. overthe separating-surface, substantially as heavier and lighter substances, a conduit dei described.
5 positing material for separation near the up- ORRIN B. PECK.
per portion of the separating-surface, a di- Witnesses: vider for separating the heavier stratum from O. RICH,
beneath the lighter near `its lower portion, J. DE LA I `ON'1AIN.