|Publication number||US5608550 A|
|Application number||US 08/578,884|
|Publication date||Mar 4, 1997|
|Filing date||Jan 17, 1996|
|Priority date||Jun 24, 1994|
|Also published as||DE19521254A1, US5894539|
|Publication number||08578884, 578884, US 5608550 A, US 5608550A, US-A-5608550, US5608550 A, US5608550A|
|Inventors||Kenneth A. Epstein, Robert P. Wenz|
|Original Assignee||Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (26), Referenced by (195), Classifications (32), Legal Events (4)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This is a continuation of application No. 08/265,230, filed Jun. 24, 1994, now abandoned.
The present invention relates generally to the field of enhancing the brightness of displays, and more particularly to enhancing the brightness of front-lit liquid crystal displays.
Displays such as billboards, mall displays, and pixellated displays, e.g., liquid crystal displays, are typically illuminated for viewing either from the rear of the display, i.e., "backlit," or from the front of the display using either ambient lighting or side lighting. When front lighting, also known as sidelighting, is used, a light source is provided at one or both sides of the display and is raised slightly above the plane of the display to allow the light to be directed down onto the display. However, because the height of the light source over the plane of the display is usually small compared with the length of the display, light rays from the light source strike the display at an angle of incidence approaching 90° (i.e., tangent to the surface). As a result, most of the light is lost via glancing angle reflection at the display surface and is not available to the viewer.
The present invention solves this problem by providing a film on the display designed to maximize the light transmitted to the display, thereby increasing the amount of light available to the viewer. The present invention includes a flat display, such as a liquid crystal display, a transparent film on the display, a reflector on the opposite side of the display, and a light source. The film has many tiny ridges on the side opposite the display. Light rays are directed toward the film at a glancing angle and are bent toward the display by the ridges. The light rays travel through the display once, are reflected by the reflector back through the display a second time, exit the film, and proceed toward the viewer at angles ranging from 0° to ±30° to the normal of the display.
The pitch of the ridges is preferably greater than one ridge per pixel. In one embodiment, the ridges have angles α and β of 70° to 90° and 40° to 50°, respectively, and are separated by a face parallel to the display, as shown in FIG. 2. In another embodiment, the ridges are separated by a face that is tilted at an angle δ within the range of about 1° to 3° with respect to the display, as shown in FIG. 6. In yet another embodiment, angle α is from 5° to 20° and angle β is from 60° to 90°, and the ridges are immediately adjacent each other, as shown in FIG. 5. In still yet another embodiment, a groove is provided adjacent each ridge on the side of the ridge opposite the light source, as shown in FIG. 7.
The light source may be comprised of a point light source, such as a light emitting diode, and a light pipe for converting the point source into a line source. The light pipe may have a rectangular cross-section and have notches on the side of the pipe opposite the display. In the alternative, the pipe may have steps on the side opposite the display that gradually decrease the thickness of the pipe as one moves along the pipe away from the light source.
FIG. 1 shows a schematic side view of a front lighting system according to one embodiment of the present invention.
FIG. 2 shows a schematic side view of a grazing incidence refracting film according to one embodiment of the present invention.
FIG. 3 shows a top schematic view of a front lighting system according to another embodiment of the present invention.
FIGS. 4A and 4B show schematic perspective views of alternative embodiments of a light pipe according to the present invention.
FIGS. 5-7 show schematic side views of alternative embodiments of a grazing incidence refracting film according to the present invention.
FIGS. 8-10 show computer modelled graphs of percentage source emission as a function of position across a display for various embodiments of the system shown in FIGS. 1 and 2.
FIGS. 11A and 11B show computer modelled graphs of light emission from light pipes having square and circular cross-sections, respectively.
FIG. 12 shows a graph of light intensity as a function of position along the length of a light pipe according to one embodiment of the present invention.
A front lighting system according to the present invention is shown in FIG. 1. System 10 is comprised of display panel 12 and light source 20. Display panel 12 is comprised of display 14, grazing incidence refracting film 16 on the side of the display that faces a viewer 25, and reflector 18, e.g., a diffuse reflector, on the opposite side of the display. Display 14 may be any display, including a pixellater display such as a liquid crystal display. Light source 20 is comprised of light tube 22 and optional reflector 24. As shown in FIG. 1, light source 20 provides a light beam 26 which illuminates the front of display panel 12.
A close-up schematic side view of film 16 is shown in FIG. 2. Film 16 is comprised of ridges 30 having first and second faces 32 and 34. Ridges 30 are separated by face 36 which is, but need not be, parallel to the bottom of film 16. The shape of ridges 30 is determined by angles α and β. Light rays 26 are incident on display panel 12 (and thus on film 16) at a glancing angle γ, e.g., 2°. Light rays 26 enter a face 32 of ridge 30 at or near normal incidence. Light rays 26 continue through ridge 30, are reflected at face 34 by total internal reflection, and continue down through film 16 in a direction approximately normal to display panel 12. Light rays 26 pass through display 14 to back reflector 18, where the rays are reflected and diffused back through display 14. Light rays 26 exit display panel 12 via face 36 and proceed toward viewer 25 at angles ranging from 0° to ±30° to the normal of display panel 12.
The height and separation of ridges 30 is a function of the angle γ that light rays 26 from light source 20 strike display panel 12. Ridges 30 should not be so high or so close together that face 32 of one ridge prevents light rays 26 from reaching a face 32 of a neighboring ridge. For a liquid crystal display, ridges 30 are preferably less than 100 μm high, and more preferably within the range of from about 5 μm to 20 μm high, e.g., 9 μm. Angle α is preferably equal to about 90°-γ, i.e., within the range of from about 70° to 90° and more preferably from about 85° to 90°, e.g., 88°. For the angles oe above, angle β is preferably within the range from about 30° to the total internal reflection limit, e.g., 54° for γ=3° and a film 16 having an optical index of 1.6, and is more preferably within the range of about 40° to 50°, e.g., 45°. Angle γ is preferably within the range of from about 0° to 5°, e.g., 2°. The distance between the peaks of adjacent ridges 30 is preferably about 5 to 100 times the heights of the ridges, and preferably within the range of from about 10 to 20, and more preferably about 15.
In an alternative embodiment, a second light source (not shown) similar to light source 20 may be provided on the opposite end of display panel 12 so that light rays from the light sources strike ridges 30 from both directions. In this case, the shape of ridges 30 should be symmetrical so that α=β, e.g., =54°.
If display 14 is a pixellater display, e.g., a liquid crystal display, a pitch of one or more ridges per pixel ensures that the display can be viewed in its entirety. Reflector 18 can be white diffuse, brushed metal, or a particle/resin composite.
Film 16 is preferably a polymer sheet such as polycarbonate. Film 16 is preferably adhered to display 14 via lamination or by ultraviolet (UV) cure. Ridges 30 should cover only a small fraction of the surface area of display 14, i.e., preferably less than 20% and more preferably less than 10%. The majority of the surface of the display should be flat (i.e., face 36) to allow most of the light exiting the display to be undisturbed by the refracting surface structure.
In one embodiment of the present invention, light tube 22 may be comprised of a line of point light sources with corresponding collimating microlenses, a cylindrical lens, or a linear lenticular lens. In another embodiment, a light tube 22 may be comprised of a point light source 40 and a light pipe 42, as shown in FIG. 3. Point light source 40 may be a light emitting diode (LED). LEDs typically have a narrow cone of light emission and operate efficiently in the range of from about 5 to 10 lumens/watt.
Light pipe 42 preferably has a rectangular, e.g., square, cross-section, which preserves the modes emitted from point light source 40, i.e., the cone of emission from light pipe 42 is about the same as that of the light source. This would not be true if light pipe 42 had non-parallel or curved surfaces.
Alternative embodiments of light pipe 42 are shown in FIGS. 4A and 4B. In FIG. 4A, light pipe 42 has a plurality of notches 44 in the surface of the light pipe opposite the direction that light rays from point light source 40 will be directed by the light pipe, i.e., opposite the side of the light pipe adjacent display panel 12. Notches 44 preferably form an angle x of about 45°. The pitch, i.e., frequency, of notches 44 is preferably non-uniform to improve the uniformity of illumination from one end of light pipe 42 to the other. An increasing density of notches 44 compensates for the drop in luminous flux density as light is removed from light pipe 42 proceeding away from point light source 40. The pitch of notches 44 could be from about 5 to 100/cm.
An alternative embodiment of light pipe 42 is shown in FIG. 4B. In FIG. 4B, light pipe 42 is wedge-shaped and has a plurality of step-facets 54 which extract light from the pipe and direct it out the opposite side of the light pipe, as discussed above with respect to FIG. 4A. As in the case of FIG. 4A, the preferred angle x of step-facets 54 is about 45°. Faces 56 are preferably parallel to the opposite surface of light pipe 42, i.e., parallel to the length of step-facets 54, and are preferably uniform across the length of the light pipe to provide uniform illumination across the length of the light pipe.
Alternative embodiments of film 16 are shown in FIGS. 5-7. FIG. 5 shows a film 116 having ridges 130, each having a gradual face 132 and a steep face 134. There is no face parallel to the bottom of film 116. However, the slope of faces 132 is so gradual that the refractive secondary image from face 134 is negligible.
Angle α is preferably within the range of from about 5° to 20°, with 5° being the lower limit for satisfactory transmission of glancing incidence rays, and 20° being the upper limit for high contrast viewing. Angle β is preferably within the range of from about 60° to 90°. The distance between peaks of adjacent ridges 130 is preferably about 3 to 10 times greater than the heights of the ridges. The design of film 116 allows for ease of manufacturing ridges 130 that are less fragile than ridges 30 in film 16.
The efficiency of face 34 in film 16 (FIG. 2) can be improved by either decreasing the size of face 32 or increasing the size of face 34, as illustrated by FIGS. 6 and 7, respectively. As shown in FIG. 6, film 216 resembles film 16 with the exception that unlike face 36 of film 16, face 236 of film 216 is not parallel with the back of the film. Film 2 16 has a plurality of ridges 230 having faces 232 and 234. Face 236 is inclined at an angle δ that is correlated with angle γ formed by the light rays from the light source. For 1°<γ<3°, 1°<δ<3°, approximately. Because face 236 is inclined at an angle δ, the size of face 232 is decreased. In an alternative embodiment of the present invention, angle δ is negatively correlated with angle γ so that for 1°<γ<3°, -1°>δ>-3°.
As shown in FIG. 7, film 316 is comprised of ridges 330 having faces 332 and 334 and grooves 336 provided adjacent face 334. Assuming the use of light rays having an angle γ less than 6°, the depth d of grooves 336 should be at least about 1/5 that of the height h ridges 330. Grooves 336 allow for an increase in the size of face 334.
The invention will now be further described with respect to the following non-limiting Examples. All measurements are approximate.
A system 10 as shown in FIG. 1 having a film 16 as shown in FIG. 2 was modelled with a computer ray tracing program. Light source 20 (without optional reflector 24) was comprised of a 5 mm high light 22 which was aimed down toward display panel 12 at a 2° angle. Display panel 12 was 100 mm wide and pixels having a center-to-center separation of 300 μm. Ridges 30 were 9 μm high and had a peak-to-peak spacing of 100 μm. Angle α was 88° and angle β was 44°. The illumination of display panel 12 was simulated in two-dimensions (cross-section) by the optical rays from a line source 20 described by a series of twenty light beams (or fans) that extend along the side of the light source facing the display panel. Each fan, tilted at 2° to the horizontal (γ=2°), contained 400 rays evenly spread across its 8° span. Directly beneath display panel 12 was a measurement surface that collected the rays and discriminated the illuminance spatially into bins as a percentage of total light source emission.
The percentage of source emission was calculated as a function of position across the width of the display panel both with and without film 16. The results are shown in FIG. 8, where line 70 represents the illuminance with film 16 in place and line 72 represents the illuminance without the film in place. In line 70, the open circles represent the illuminance at the top of film 16 and the closed circles represent the illuminance directly below display 12. The fact that the open and closed circles form a single line 70 indicates that there is minimal reflection loss at the surface of film 16.
With the film 16 in place, 55% of the light from the light source reached the measurement surface, compared to only 18% without the film. However, qualitatively speaking, the viewer would see an even greater improvement than the three-fold enhancement here. This is true because the back reflector of a reflective liquid crystal display (LCD) is directionally diffuse (or diffusely specular), thus most of the light that is transmitted through a bare LCD surface is reflected by the back reflector at approximately the angle of incidence. It follows that most of the light returns through the LCD/air interface toward the right at a glancing angle and is not useful to a viewer. Therefore, the actual improvement is much greater than a factor of 3.
The dependence of illuminance on the height of light source 20 is shown in a computer modelled graph of FIG. 9. The total light on the LCD was measured for light source heights of 3, 5, and 7 mm to be 63%, 56%, and 49%, respectively. As the graph shows, the 3 mm light source (represented by line 74) gives greater brightness over portions of the display, but with poor uniformity across the width of the display. The 7 mm light source (represented by line 78) is less bright over the same portion of the display, but has greater uniformity across the width of the display. The 5 mm light source (represented by line 76) represented an intermediate case between these two extremes.
The dependence of illumination on the angle γ that light beam 26 strikes display panel 12 is shown in a computer-modelled graph in FIG. 10. The total light on the LCD was measured for a 5 mm light source and having angles γ of 0°, 2° and 4°. As the graph shows, light rays striking the LCD at an angle γ of 4° (represented by line 80) were brighter over a portion of the LCD, but were not uniform across the display. Light rays striking the LCD at 0° (represented by line 84) were less bright over that same portion, but were uniform across the width of the display. An angle γ of 2° (represented by line 82) represented an intermediate case between these two extremes.
A light pipe similar to that shown in FIG. 4A having a square cross-section and V-shaped notches having an angle x of 45° was compared to a light pipe having similar notches and a circular cross-section via computer modelling. A line of optical ray cones, having a cone angle of Θ1/2 =14°, was launched into the input aperture of the light pipes. FIGS. 11A and 11B show calculated emission patterns from the light pipes where the x-axis is the observation angle about the axis (length) of the light pipe and the y-axis is the observation angle along the length of the light pipe, i.e., substantially in the plane of the display.
The calculated emission pattern for a light pipe having a single notch and a square cross-section is shown in FIG. 11A. The calculated emission pattern for a light pipe having a single notch and a circular cross-section is shown in FIG. 11B. The density of the scatter plot corresponds to the intensity of light. The high density pattern in FIG. 11A (square cross-section) is approximately a cone having a cone Θ1/2 =14°, while in FIG. 11B (circular cross-section) the light scatters to a much wider emission pattern. Thus, the square cross-section of the light pipe of the present invention preserves the modes emitted from the light source, i.e., the cone of emission from the light pipe is about the same as that from the light source.
A light pipe resembling that shown in FIG. 4B was constructed. The light pipe wedge formed an angle of 1.2° and had 6 μm wide step facets with a uniform pitch of 52/cm. It tapered from 4 mm by 4 mm at the input aperture to 4 mm by 0.6 mm at the distal end. An amber AllnGaP LED (Hewlett Packard part HLMP-CL00) was mechanically secured against the aperture of the light pipe. A silvered reflective film (EPC-300 Energy Control Products Division #300 "Silverlux", 3M Company, St. Paul, Minn.) was mechanically secured against the faceted side of the light pipe. The light intensity was measured at several positions along the length of the light pipe. The results, shown in FIG. 12, indicate that light intensity (measured in arbitrary units) was relatively uniform along the length of the light pipe.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US3752974 *||Dec 13, 1971||Aug 14, 1973||Coastal Dynamics Corp||Uniform illumination with edge lighting|
|US4011001 *||Mar 14, 1975||Mar 8, 1977||Kabushiki Kaisha Daini Seikosha||Liquid crystal device|
|US4017155 *||Sep 6, 1974||Apr 12, 1977||Kabushiki Kaisha Daini Seikosha||Liquid crystal display device|
|US4252416 *||Oct 23, 1978||Feb 24, 1981||Societe Suisse Pour L'industrie Horlogere Management Services S.A.||Optical instrument for gathering and distribution of light|
|US4282560 *||Jun 23, 1980||Aug 4, 1981||A.C.A. Products, Inc.||Light distributor|
|US4573766 *||Dec 19, 1983||Mar 4, 1986||Cordis Corporation||LED Staggered back lighting panel for LCD module|
|US4737896 *||Jul 21, 1986||Apr 12, 1988||Canon Kabushiki Kaisha||Illumination device|
|US4798448 *||Feb 16, 1988||Jan 17, 1989||General Electric Company||High efficiency illumination system for display devices|
|US4799137 *||Mar 24, 1987||Jan 17, 1989||Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company||Reflective film|
|US4822145 *||May 14, 1986||Apr 18, 1989||Massachusetts Institute Of Technology||Method and apparatus utilizing waveguide and polarized light for display of dynamic images|
|US4874228 *||Jan 3, 1989||Oct 17, 1989||Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company||Back-lit display|
|US4896953 *||Aug 8, 1988||Jan 30, 1990||Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company||Anamorphic wide angle safety lens|
|US4929062 *||Nov 2, 1988||May 29, 1990||Motorola, Inc.||Light guide for LCD|
|US4975808 *||Oct 2, 1989||Dec 4, 1990||Motorola, Inc.||Backlighting apparatus|
|US4989125 *||May 10, 1988||Jan 29, 1991||Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company||Reflector using fresnel-type structures having a plurality of active faces|
|US5005108 *||Feb 10, 1989||Apr 2, 1991||Lumitex, Inc.||Thin panel illuminator|
|US5029060 *||Jul 17, 1990||Jul 2, 1991||Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company||Uniform intensity profile catadioptric lens|
|US5040878 *||Jan 26, 1990||Aug 20, 1991||Dimension Technologies, Inc.||Illumination for transmissive displays|
|US5040883 *||Oct 30, 1989||Aug 20, 1991||Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company||Light fixture with beam shaping lens|
|US5070431 *||Jul 30, 1990||Dec 3, 1991||Pioneer Electronic Corporation||Display board illuminating device for passive displays|
|US5136479 *||Jun 19, 1990||Aug 4, 1992||E-Systems, Inc.||Device and method for creating an areal light source|
|US5190370 *||Aug 21, 1991||Mar 2, 1993||Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company||High aspect ratio lighting element|
|US5477239 *||Nov 12, 1993||Dec 19, 1995||Dell Usa, L.P.||Front lighting system for liquid crystal display|
|DE2655166A1 *||Dec 6, 1976||May 18, 1978||Bbc Brown Boveri & Cie||Fluessigkristall-anzeigevorrichtung|
|GB2246231A *||Title not available|
|JPS60107618A *||Title not available|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US5995071 *||Nov 21, 1997||Nov 30, 1999||Hewlett-Packard Company||Reflective display utilizing fresnel micro-reflectors|
|US6048071 *||Mar 23, 1998||Apr 11, 2000||Sharp Kabushiki Kaisha||Front illumination device and reflection-type liquid crystal display device incorporating same|
|US6151089 *||Jan 20, 1999||Nov 21, 2000||Sony Corporation||Reflection type display with light waveguide with inclined and planar surface sections|
|US6166787 *||Mar 17, 1998||Dec 26, 2000||Motorola, Inc.||Optical display device having prismatic film for enhanced viewing|
|US6168281 *||Dec 3, 1998||Jan 2, 2001||Minebea Co., Ltd.||Transparent and spread illuminating apparatus|
|US6264336||Oct 22, 1999||Jul 24, 2001||3M Innovative Properties Company||Display apparatus with corrosion-resistant light directing film|
|US6285425||Jun 29, 1998||Sep 4, 2001||Motorola, Inc.||Ridged reflector for an optical display having a curved and a planar facet for each ridge|
|US6285426 *||Jul 6, 1998||Sep 4, 2001||Motorola, Inc.||Ridged reflector having optically transmissive properties for an optical display device|
|US6288760 *||Mar 13, 1998||Sep 11, 2001||Sharp Kabushiki Kaisha||Front illumination device mounted between an illuminated object and a viewer and a reflection-type liquid crystal display device incorporating same|
|US6329968 *||Oct 27, 1998||Dec 11, 2001||U.S. Philips Corporation||Display device|
|US6334691 *||Mar 15, 2000||Jan 1, 2002||Minebea Co., Ltd.||Spread illuminating apparatus|
|US6347874||Feb 16, 2000||Feb 19, 2002||3M Innovative Properties Company||Wedge light extractor with risers|
|US6357880||Apr 12, 2001||Mar 19, 2002||3M Innovative Properties Company||Display apparatus with corrosion-resistant light directing film|
|US6379016||Sep 26, 2000||Apr 30, 2002||3M Innovative Properties Company||Light guide with extraction structures|
|US6433933 *||Mar 29, 2001||Aug 13, 2002||Palm, Inc.||Internal diffuser for a charge controlled mirror screen display|
|US6494585 *||Feb 17, 2000||Dec 17, 2002||Seiko Epson Corporation||Illumination device, electrooptical device having the illumination device as front light, and electronic equipment|
|US6508560||Dec 20, 2001||Jan 21, 2003||3M Innovative Properties Company||Display apparatus with corrosion-resistant light directing film|
|US6515722 *||Jun 1, 2000||Feb 4, 2003||Alps Electric Co., Ltd.||Liquid crystal display|
|US6576887||Aug 15, 2001||Jun 10, 2003||3M Innovative Properties Company||Light guide for use with backlit display|
|US6592234||Apr 6, 2001||Jul 15, 2003||3M Innovative Properties Company||Frontlit display|
|US6626545||Dec 31, 2002||Sep 30, 2003||3M Innovative Properties Company||Light directing construction having corrosion resistant feature|
|US6657683 *||May 9, 2002||Dec 2, 2003||Motorola, Inc.||Front illuminator for a liquid crystal display and method of making same|
|US6683720||Dec 14, 2001||Jan 27, 2004||Mitsui Chemicals, Inc.||Reflector, sidelight type backlighting apparatus and reflector substrate|
|US6738051||Apr 6, 2001||May 18, 2004||3M Innovative Properties Company||Frontlit illuminated touch panel|
|US6801276||Feb 24, 2000||Oct 5, 2004||3M Innovative Properties Company||Optical component with a structured element|
|US6879354||Sep 13, 1999||Apr 12, 2005||Sharp Kabushiki Kaisha||Front-illuminating device and a reflection-type liquid crystal display using such a device|
|US6930735 *||Sep 13, 2004||Aug 16, 2005||Enplas Corporation||Surface light source device of side light type and liquid crystal display|
|US6940570||Nov 24, 1999||Sep 6, 2005||Sharp Kabushiki Kaisha||Lighting element for liquid crystal display|
|US6970296 *||Nov 12, 2002||Nov 29, 2005||Osram Gmbh||Signaling device for traffic signals|
|US7163305||Jun 25, 2003||Jan 16, 2007||Gemtron Corporation||Illuminated shelf|
|US7253809||Mar 12, 2004||Aug 7, 2007||3M Innovative Properties Company||Frontlit illuminated touch panel|
|US7262754||Aug 30, 1999||Aug 28, 2007||Semiconductor Energy Laboratory Co., Ltd.||Electronic device with liquid crystal display|
|US7349050 *||Jun 28, 2002||Mar 25, 2008||Lg.Philips Lcd Co., Ltd.||Ultraviolet irradiating device and method of manufacturing liquid crystal display device using the same|
|US7366393||Nov 8, 2006||Apr 29, 2008||Optical Research Associates||Light enhancing structures with three or more arrays of elongate features|
|US7382360 *||Apr 15, 2003||Jun 3, 2008||Synaptics Incorporated||Methods and systems for changing the appearance of a position sensor with a light effect|
|US7434951||Jan 4, 2007||Oct 14, 2008||Gemtron Corporation||Illuminated shelf|
|US7545569||Nov 8, 2006||Jun 9, 2009||Avery Dennison Corporation||Optical apparatus with flipped compound prism structures|
|US7593615 *||Feb 10, 2006||Sep 22, 2009||Rpc Photonics, Inc.||Optical devices for guiding illumination|
|US7674028||Nov 8, 2006||Mar 9, 2010||Avery Dennison Corporation||Light enhancing structures with multiple arrays of elongate features of varying characteristics|
|US7714956 *||Dec 10, 2004||May 11, 2010||Sharp Kabushiki Kaisha||Front illuminating device and a reflection-type liquid crystal display using such a device|
|US7815326||Apr 23, 2010||Oct 19, 2010||Donnelly Corporation||Interior rearview mirror system|
|US7821697||Nov 9, 2009||Oct 26, 2010||Donnelly Corporation||Exterior reflective mirror element for a vehicular rearview mirror assembly|
|US7822543||Mar 16, 2010||Oct 26, 2010||Donnelly Corporation||Video display system for vehicle|
|US7826123||Jun 2, 2009||Nov 2, 2010||Donnelly Corporation||Vehicular interior electrochromic rearview mirror assembly|
|US7832882||Jan 26, 2010||Nov 16, 2010||Donnelly Corporation||Information mirror system|
|US7855755||Oct 31, 2006||Dec 21, 2010||Donnelly Corporation||Interior rearview mirror assembly with display|
|US7859737||Sep 8, 2009||Dec 28, 2010||Donnelly Corporation||Interior rearview mirror system for a vehicle|
|US7864399||Mar 19, 2010||Jan 4, 2011||Donnelly Corporation||Reflective mirror assembly|
|US7866871||Nov 8, 2006||Jan 11, 2011||Avery Dennison Corporation||Light enhancing structures with a plurality of arrays of elongate features|
|US7871169||Nov 10, 2008||Jan 18, 2011||Donnelly Corporation||Vehicular signal mirror|
|US7888629||May 18, 2009||Feb 15, 2011||Donnelly Corporation||Vehicular accessory mounting system with a forwardly-viewing camera|
|US7898398||Jan 19, 2010||Mar 1, 2011||Donnelly Corporation||Interior mirror system|
|US7898719||Oct 16, 2009||Mar 1, 2011||Donnelly Corporation||Rearview mirror assembly for vehicle|
|US7906756||Apr 23, 2010||Mar 15, 2011||Donnelly Corporation||Vehicle rearview mirror system|
|US7914188||Dec 11, 2009||Mar 29, 2011||Donnelly Corporation||Interior rearview mirror system for a vehicle|
|US7916009||Apr 21, 2010||Mar 29, 2011||Donnelly Corporation||Accessory mounting system suitable for use in a vehicle|
|US7916130||Nov 17, 2004||Mar 29, 2011||Semiconductor Energy Laboratory Co., Ltd.||Electronic device with liquid crystal display|
|US7918570||Nov 15, 2010||Apr 5, 2011||Donnelly Corporation||Vehicular interior rearview information mirror system|
|US7926960||Dec 7, 2009||Apr 19, 2011||Donnelly Corporation||Interior rearview mirror system for vehicle|
|US7994471||Feb 14, 2011||Aug 9, 2011||Donnelly Corporation||Interior rearview mirror system with forwardly-viewing camera|
|US8000894||Oct 20, 2010||Aug 16, 2011||Donnelly Corporation||Vehicular wireless communication system|
|US8019505||Jan 14, 2011||Sep 13, 2011||Donnelly Corporation||Vehicle information display|
|US8044776||Aug 6, 2009||Oct 25, 2011||Donnelly Corporation||Rear vision system for vehicle|
|US8047667||Mar 28, 2011||Nov 1, 2011||Donnelly Corporation||Vehicular interior rearview mirror system|
|US8049640||Feb 25, 2011||Nov 1, 2011||Donnelly Corporation||Mirror assembly for vehicle|
|US8063753||Feb 24, 2011||Nov 22, 2011||Donnelly Corporation||Interior rearview mirror system|
|US8072318||Oct 30, 2009||Dec 6, 2011||Donnelly Corporation||Video mirror system for vehicle|
|US8083386||Aug 28, 2009||Dec 27, 2011||Donnelly Corporation||Interior rearview mirror assembly with display device|
|US8094002||Mar 3, 2011||Jan 10, 2012||Donnelly Corporation||Interior rearview mirror system|
|US8095260||Sep 12, 2011||Jan 10, 2012||Donnelly Corporation||Vehicle information display|
|US8095310||Apr 2, 2008||Jan 10, 2012||Donnelly Corporation||Video mirror system for a vehicle|
|US8100568||Mar 24, 2011||Jan 24, 2012||Donnelly Corporation||Interior rearview mirror system for a vehicle|
|US8106347||Mar 1, 2011||Jan 31, 2012||Donnelly Corporation||Vehicle rearview mirror system|
|US8111968||Jul 27, 2009||Feb 7, 2012||Rpc Photonics, Inc.||Optical devices for guiding illumination|
|US8121787||Aug 15, 2011||Feb 21, 2012||Donnelly Corporation||Vehicular video mirror system|
|US8134117||Jul 27, 2011||Mar 13, 2012||Donnelly Corporation||Vehicular having a camera, a rain sensor and a single-ball interior electrochromic mirror assembly attached at an attachment element|
|US8154418||Mar 30, 2009||Apr 10, 2012||Magna Mirrors Of America, Inc.||Interior rearview mirror system|
|US8162493||Mar 30, 2011||Apr 24, 2012||Donnelly Corporation||Interior rearview mirror assembly for vehicle|
|US8164817||Oct 22, 2010||Apr 24, 2012||Donnelly Corporation||Method of forming a mirrored bent cut glass shape for vehicular exterior rearview mirror assembly|
|US8170748||Jan 6, 2012||May 1, 2012||Donnelly Corporation||Vehicle information display system|
|US8177376||Oct 28, 2011||May 15, 2012||Donnelly Corporation||Vehicular interior rearview mirror system|
|US8179236||Apr 13, 2010||May 15, 2012||Donnelly Corporation||Video mirror system suitable for use in a vehicle|
|US8179586||Feb 24, 2011||May 15, 2012||Donnelly Corporation||Rearview mirror assembly for vehicle|
|US8194133||May 9, 2008||Jun 5, 2012||Donnelly Corporation||Vehicular video mirror system|
|US8228588||Dec 10, 2010||Jul 24, 2012||Donnelly Corporation||Interior rearview mirror information display system for a vehicle|
|US8243044 *||Apr 10, 2008||Aug 14, 2012||Synaptics Incorporated||Methods and systems for changing the appearance of a position sensor with a light effect|
|US8267559||Jan 20, 2012||Sep 18, 2012||Donnelly Corporation||Interior rearview mirror assembly for a vehicle|
|US8271187||Feb 17, 2012||Sep 18, 2012||Donnelly Corporation||Vehicular video mirror system|
|US8277059||Oct 7, 2010||Oct 2, 2012||Donnelly Corporation||Vehicular electrochromic interior rearview mirror assembly|
|US8282226||Oct 18, 2010||Oct 9, 2012||Donnelly Corporation||Interior rearview mirror system|
|US8282253||Dec 22, 2011||Oct 9, 2012||Donnelly Corporation||Mirror reflective element sub-assembly for exterior rearview mirror of a vehicle|
|US8288711||Mar 2, 2012||Oct 16, 2012||Donnelly Corporation||Interior rearview mirror system with forwardly-viewing camera and a control|
|US8294975||Jan 11, 2010||Oct 23, 2012||Donnelly Corporation||Automotive rearview mirror assembly|
|US8304711||Jan 20, 2012||Nov 6, 2012||Donnelly Corporation||Vehicle rearview mirror system|
|US8309907||Apr 13, 2010||Nov 13, 2012||Donnelly Corporation||Accessory system suitable for use in a vehicle and accommodating a rain sensor|
|US8325028||Jan 6, 2012||Dec 4, 2012||Donnelly Corporation||Interior rearview mirror system|
|US8325055||Oct 28, 2011||Dec 4, 2012||Donnelly Corporation||Mirror assembly for vehicle|
|US8335032||Dec 28, 2010||Dec 18, 2012||Donnelly Corporation||Reflective mirror assembly|
|US8355839||Apr 24, 2012||Jan 15, 2013||Donnelly Corporation||Vehicle vision system with night vision function|
|US8368845||Oct 10, 2008||Feb 5, 2013||Semiconductor Energy Laboratory Co., Ltd.||Electronic device with liquid crystal display|
|US8369678||Jul 27, 2009||Feb 5, 2013||Rpc Photonics, Inc.||Optical devices for guiding illumination|
|US8379289||May 14, 2012||Feb 19, 2013||Donnelly Corporation||Rearview mirror assembly for vehicle|
|US8400704||Jul 23, 2012||Mar 19, 2013||Donnelly Corporation||Interior rearview mirror system for a vehicle|
|US8427288||Oct 21, 2011||Apr 23, 2013||Donnelly Corporation||Rear vision system for a vehicle|
|US8462204||Jul 1, 2009||Jun 11, 2013||Donnelly Corporation||Vehicular vision system|
|US8465162||May 14, 2012||Jun 18, 2013||Donnelly Corporation||Vehicular interior rearview mirror system|
|US8465163||Oct 8, 2012||Jun 18, 2013||Donnelly Corporation||Interior rearview mirror system|
|US8503062||Aug 27, 2012||Aug 6, 2013||Donnelly Corporation||Rearview mirror element assembly for vehicle|
|US8506096||Oct 1, 2012||Aug 13, 2013||Donnelly Corporation||Variable reflectance mirror reflective element for exterior mirror assembly|
|US8508383||Mar 26, 2012||Aug 13, 2013||Magna Mirrors of America, Inc||Interior rearview mirror system|
|US8508384||Nov 30, 2012||Aug 13, 2013||Donnelly Corporation||Rearview mirror assembly for vehicle|
|US8511841||Jan 13, 2011||Aug 20, 2013||Donnelly Corporation||Vehicular blind spot indicator mirror|
|US8525703||Mar 17, 2011||Sep 3, 2013||Donnelly Corporation||Interior rearview mirror system|
|US8543330||Sep 17, 2012||Sep 24, 2013||Donnelly Corporation||Driver assist system for vehicle|
|US8547322||Oct 10, 2008||Oct 1, 2013||Semiconductor Energy Laboratory Co., Ltd.||Electronic device with liquid crystal display|
|US8559093||Apr 20, 2012||Oct 15, 2013||Donnelly Corporation||Electrochromic mirror reflective element for vehicular rearview mirror assembly|
|US8577549||Jan 14, 2013||Nov 5, 2013||Donnelly Corporation||Information display system for a vehicle|
|US8608327||Jun 17, 2013||Dec 17, 2013||Donnelly Corporation||Automatic compass system for vehicle|
|US8610992||Oct 22, 2012||Dec 17, 2013||Donnelly Corporation||Variable transmission window|
|US8653959||Dec 2, 2011||Feb 18, 2014||Donnelly Corporation||Video mirror system for a vehicle|
|US8654433||Aug 5, 2013||Feb 18, 2014||Magna Mirrors Of America, Inc.||Rearview mirror assembly for vehicle|
|US8676491||Sep 23, 2013||Mar 18, 2014||Magna Electronics Inc.||Driver assist system for vehicle|
|US8705161||Feb 14, 2013||Apr 22, 2014||Donnelly Corporation||Method of manufacturing a reflective element for a vehicular rearview mirror assembly|
|US8727547||Aug 12, 2013||May 20, 2014||Donnelly Corporation||Variable reflectance mirror reflective element for exterior mirror assembly|
|US8779910||Nov 7, 2011||Jul 15, 2014||Donnelly Corporation||Interior rearview mirror system|
|US8797627||Dec 17, 2012||Aug 5, 2014||Donnelly Corporation||Exterior rearview mirror assembly|
|US8833987||Oct 8, 2012||Sep 16, 2014||Donnelly Corporation||Mirror reflective element sub-assembly for exterior rearview mirror of a vehicle|
|US8840295||Jul 25, 2012||Sep 23, 2014||Empire Technology Development Llc||Backlight system|
|US8842176||Jan 15, 2010||Sep 23, 2014||Donnelly Corporation||Automatic vehicle exterior light control|
|US8884788||Aug 30, 2013||Nov 11, 2014||Donnelly Corporation||Automotive communication system|
|US8908039||Jun 4, 2012||Dec 9, 2014||Donnelly Corporation||Vehicular video mirror system|
|US9014966||Mar 14, 2014||Apr 21, 2015||Magna Electronics Inc.||Driver assist system for vehicle|
|US9019090||Mar 17, 2009||Apr 28, 2015||Magna Electronics Inc.||Vision system for vehicle|
|US9019091||Mar 17, 2011||Apr 28, 2015||Donnelly Corporation||Interior rearview mirror system|
|US9045091||Sep 15, 2014||Jun 2, 2015||Donnelly Corporation||Mirror reflective element sub-assembly for exterior rearview mirror of a vehicle|
|US9073491||Aug 4, 2014||Jul 7, 2015||Donnelly Corporation||Exterior rearview mirror assembly|
|US9075177||Jan 4, 2011||Jul 7, 2015||Avery Dennison Corporation||Light enhancing structures with a plurality of arrays of elongate features|
|US9090211||May 19, 2014||Jul 28, 2015||Donnelly Corporation||Variable reflectance mirror reflective element for exterior mirror assembly|
|US9164225||Jun 14, 2012||Oct 20, 2015||Empire Technology Development Llc||Light guide structures and display devices|
|US9207390||Jun 14, 2012||Dec 8, 2015||Empire Technology Development Llc||Light guide structures and display devices|
|US9221399||Nov 7, 2014||Dec 29, 2015||Magna Mirrors Of America, Inc.||Automotive communication system|
|US9278654||Apr 20, 2012||Mar 8, 2016||Donnelly Corporation||Interior rearview mirror system for vehicle|
|US9315151||Apr 3, 2015||Apr 19, 2016||Magna Electronics Inc.||Driver assist system for vehicle|
|US9341914||Jul 27, 2015||May 17, 2016||Donnelly Corporation||Variable reflectance mirror reflective element for exterior mirror assembly|
|US9352623||Feb 17, 2014||May 31, 2016||Magna Electronics Inc.||Trailer hitching aid system for vehicle|
|US9376061||Apr 23, 2015||Jun 28, 2016||Donnelly Corporation||Accessory system of a vehicle|
|US9481306||Dec 16, 2015||Nov 1, 2016||Donnelly Corporation||Automotive communication system|
|US9487144||Oct 14, 2009||Nov 8, 2016||Magna Mirrors Of America, Inc.||Interior mirror assembly with display|
|US9545883||Jul 6, 2015||Jan 17, 2017||Donnelly Corporation||Exterior rearview mirror assembly|
|US9557584||Aug 12, 2013||Jan 31, 2017||Donnelly Corporation||Rearview mirror assembly for vehicle|
|US9694749||May 23, 2016||Jul 4, 2017||Magna Electronics Inc.||Trailer hitching aid system for vehicle|
|US9694753||Jun 1, 2015||Jul 4, 2017||Magna Mirrors Of America, Inc.||Mirror reflective element sub-assembly for exterior rearview mirror of a vehicle|
|US9758102||Jun 30, 2017||Sep 12, 2017||Magna Mirrors Of America, Inc.||Mirror reflective element sub-assembly for exterior rearview mirror of a vehicle|
|US20010035853 *||Apr 19, 2001||Nov 1, 2001||U.S. Philips Corporation||Assembly of a display device and an illumination system|
|US20020130986 *||May 9, 2002||Sep 19, 2002||Richard Fred Vincent||Front illuminator for a liquid crystal display and method of making same|
|US20030076237 *||Nov 12, 2002||Apr 24, 2003||Simon Blumel||Signaling device for traffic signals|
|US20030147032 *||Jun 28, 2002||Aug 7, 2003||Park Moo Yeol||Ultraviolet irradiating device and method of manufacturing liquid crystal display device using the same|
|US20030206256 *||May 6, 2002||Nov 6, 2003||Drain Kieran F.||Display device with backlight|
|US20040114067 *||Jan 31, 2002||Jun 17, 2004||Kyoichi Kubomura||Lightguide plate and lighting unit|
|US20040207605 *||Apr 15, 2003||Oct 21, 2004||Mackey Bob Lee||Methods and systems for changing the appearance of a position sensor with a light effect|
|US20040264160 *||Jun 25, 2003||Dec 30, 2004||Craig Bienick||Illuminated shelf|
|US20050088403 *||Nov 17, 2004||Apr 28, 2005||Semiconductor Energy Laboratory Co., Ltd.||Electronic device with liquid crystal display|
|US20050088583 *||Sep 13, 2004||Apr 28, 2005||Enplas Corporation||Surface light source device of side light type and liquid crystal display|
|US20050099822 *||Sep 27, 2004||May 12, 2005||Choi Yun H.||Backlight assembly of liquid crystal display|
|US20050174509 *||Dec 10, 2004||Aug 11, 2005||Yutaka Sawayama||Front illuminating device and a reflection-type liquid crystal display using such adevice|
|US20060087743 *||Jul 20, 2005||Apr 27, 2006||Lg Electronics Inc.||Backlight assembly of liquid crystal display|
|US20060132453 *||Mar 12, 2004||Jun 22, 2006||3M Innovative Properties Company||Frontlit illuminated touch panel|
|US20060139917 *||Feb 23, 2006||Jun 29, 2006||Element Labs, Inc.||Light emitting diode (LED) picture element|
|US20060250818 *||Aug 13, 2004||Nov 9, 2006||Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.||Backlight device|
|US20070035843 *||Nov 8, 2006||Feb 15, 2007||Optical Research Associates||Optical apparatus with flipped compound prism structures|
|US20070086086 *||Nov 8, 2006||Apr 19, 2007||Optical Research Associates||Light enhancing structures with three or more arrays of elongate features|
|US20070086207 *||Nov 8, 2006||Apr 19, 2007||Optical Research Associates||Display systems including light enhancing structures with arrays of elongate features|
|US20070091616 *||Nov 8, 2006||Apr 26, 2007||Optical Research Associates||Light enhancing structures with multiple arrays of elongate features of varying characteristics|
|US20070091617 *||Nov 8, 2006||Apr 26, 2007||Optical Research Associates||Light enhancing structures with a plurality of arrays of elongate features|
|US20070189701 *||Feb 10, 2006||Aug 16, 2007||Chakmakjian Stephen H||Optical devices for guiding illumination|
|US20080192026 *||Apr 10, 2008||Aug 14, 2008||Synaptics Incorporated||Methods and systems for changing the appearance of a position sensor with a light effect|
|US20080211281 *||May 12, 2008||Sep 4, 2008||Bae Industries, Inc.||Inertial latch assembly such as incorporated into a rear row pivoting seat bottom including a slotted inertial lock plate with resistive support in both design and upright positions|
|US20080266389 *||May 9, 2008||Oct 30, 2008||Donnelly Corporation||Vehicular video mirror system|
|US20090046218 *||Oct 10, 2008||Feb 19, 2009||Semiconductor Energy Laboratory Co., Ltd.||Electronic device with liquid crystal display|
|US20090058795 *||Oct 10, 2008||Mar 5, 2009||Semiconductor Energy Laboratory Co., Ltd.||Electronic device with liquid crystal display|
|US20090067032 *||Nov 10, 2008||Mar 12, 2009||Donnelly Corporation||Vehicular signal mirror|
|US20090243824 *||Mar 30, 2009||Oct 1, 2009||Magna Mirrors Of America, Inc.||Interior rearview mirror system|
|US20090297113 *||Jul 27, 2009||Dec 3, 2009||Chakmakjian Stephen H||Optical devices for guiding illumination|
|US20100027288 *||Jul 27, 2009||Feb 4, 2010||Chakmakjian Stephen H||Optical Devices for guiding illumination|
|US20100046059 *||Sep 8, 2009||Feb 25, 2010||Donnelly Corporation||Interior rearview mirror system for a vehicle|
|US20100053497 *||Mar 18, 2008||Mar 4, 2010||Takayuki Nagata||Surface illumination device and liquid crystal display using the same|
|US20100053723 *||Nov 9, 2009||Mar 4, 2010||Donnelly Corporation||Exterior reflective mirror element for a vehicular rearview mirror assembly|
|US20100117815 *||Jan 19, 2010||May 13, 2010||Donnelly Corporation||Interior mirror system|
|US20100135038 *||Nov 30, 2009||Jun 3, 2010||Handschy Mark A||Frontlights for reflective displays|
|US20100195226 *||Apr 13, 2010||Aug 5, 2010||Donnelly Corporation||Accessory system suitable for use in a vehicle|
|CN100414327C||Aug 13, 2004||Aug 27, 2008||统宝香港控股有限公司||Backlight device|
|EP0924549B1 *||Dec 14, 1998||May 11, 2005||Minebea Co., Ltd.||Transparent and spread illuminating apparatus|
|WO2004055583A1 *||Dec 17, 2002||Jul 1, 2004||Quanta Display Inc.||Front-lit display system|
|WO2005017581A2 *||Aug 13, 2004||Feb 24, 2005||Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.||Backlight device|
|WO2005017581A3 *||Aug 13, 2004||May 19, 2005||Koninkl Philips Electronics Nv||Backlight device|
|U.S. Classification||349/57, 385/36, 349/63, 349/62, 359/625, 349/61|
|International Classification||G02B6/00, F21V8/00, G02B6/04, G02B5/02, F21V5/02, G02F1/13357, G02F1/1335, G09F13/04|
|Cooperative Classification||G02B5/0242, G02B6/0048, G02B6/0028, G02B5/0284, F21V5/02, G02F1/133504, G02F2001/133616, G02B6/0038, G02B6/0001, G09F13/0409|
|European Classification||G02B5/02D4P, G02B5/02U4, F21V5/02, G02B6/00L6I8G, G02B6/00L6O4G, G02B6/00L6O4S4S, G02F1/1335D, G09F13/04C|
|Jun 29, 2000||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4
|Sep 7, 2004||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 8
|Sep 4, 2008||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 12
|Sep 8, 2008||REMI||Maintenance fee reminder mailed|