US 563701 A
Abstract available in
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
(No Model.) 9 'sheets-sheet 2.
E. WILDER, Deod. L. WILDER, Executrix. MACHINE GUN.
No, 563,7Q1. Patented July 7, 1896.
9 Sheets-Sheet; 3.
E. WILDER, Deod.
L. WILDER, Executrx.
me mams frans co.. Pnomumo.. wAsumGcu. n c,
(No Model.) 9 Sheets-'Sheet 4.
E. WILDBR, Decd.
L.v WILDER, Executrix. MACHINE GUN.
No. 563,701. E919 Pate 1896.
' www (No Model.) 9 Sheets-Sheet 6.
B. WEBER, Ded.
L. WILDER, Executrx. MACHINE GUN.
No. 563,701. Patented July 7, 1896.
ma Nanms persas no. vnorcmwo.. wnmmou. n c.
7. t e e h S s t e e h S 9 mm 0 B D R E D L I E u d 0 M o m L. WlLDER, Executrix.A
VPatented July?, 1896.
(No Model.) 9 sheets-sheet s.
' E. WILDER, Deod.
L. WILDER, Executrix. MAGHINE GUN.
No. 563,701. Patented July 7, 18.96.
m: onlus Finns co, mormumo.. WASHINGTON nA a (No Model.) 9 Sheets-Sheet 9.
E. WILDER. Deoa. L. WLLDER, Executrix.
MAGHINE GUN.v No. 563,701. l Patented July '7, 1896.
m: Norms Pains co. moto-uno. wAsHwmoN. n. c.
Y EIIIIU VILDER, OF CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS; LAURAFTTA \VILDER,
FXEOUTRIX OF SAID ELIHU IVILDFR, DECEASED, ASSIGNOR TO H. O- MOSES, OF LYNN, MASSACHUSETTS.'
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 563,701, dated July 7', 1896. Application filed February 18, 1892. Serial No. 422,042. (No model.)
To all whom t may concern: end. Fig. 12 is an enlarged section showing Be it known that I, ELIH'U VVILDER., a citithe position of the lock, plunger, needle, and zen of the United States, residing at Cam` eXtractors. Fig. 13 shows a top View of the bridge, in the county of Middlesex and State same parts. Figs. 14:, 15, and 1G are details of Massachusetts, have invented certain new showing the construction of the cartridge 55 and useful Improvements in Machine-Guns; carriers or receivers, Fig 1l being a rear-end and I do hereby declare the following to be a view, Fig. 15 a cross-section, and Fig. 16 a full, clear, and exact description of the inlongitudinal section. 17 is a vertical vention, such as will enable others skilled in longitudinal section showing the breech of a Io the art to which it appertains to make and gun-barrel, the plunger, and a cartridge to 6o use the same. be forced by the latter into the barrel. Fig.
This invention relates to certain improve- 18 shows a detail of means for removing the ments in that class of firearms known as empty shells when the gun is in a vertical machine-guns, wherein the loaded carposition. Fig. 19 is alongitudinal section of l5 tridges are supplied fromahopper and forced one of the plungers and appurtenances, toe 65 directly into the breech end of separate bargether with anuinber of cross-sectional views rels and fired from them by the needles optaken at points indicated. Figs. 2O and 21 erated by a rotary apparatus, which appashow, respectively, an elevation and a longiratus also rotates the cartridge receivers or tudinal section of the plunger Vand needle.
2o carriers, all of which are worked by a crank- Fig. 22 shows the needle detached. Figs. 23 7o handle, as will hereinafter be more fully eX- and 2li show, respectively, an elevation and plained and pointed out. a longitudinal section of an aiming appa These improvements are made upon the ratus. Figs. and 26 are cross-sections of machine-gun patented to me in the United the same. Fig. 27 is a perspective view of z 5 States Patent Office September 26, 187 6, and the plunger and its guide. Fig. 28 is a sec- 75 numbered 182,729, andare represented by tionalized side elevation of a feed case or sheets of drawings, in which- `hopper and feed mechanism. Fig. 29 is a Figure 1 is a horizontal longitudinal secrear end elevation of said feed-case. Fig. 30 tion. Fig. 2 is a partial vertical longitudinal is a front end elevation of the saine, with a 3o section. Fig. 3 is an end view of the locksection of the feed-port of the gun. Fig. 31 8o block wheel which is seen in section in Fig. is a cross-section on line 31 31 of Fig. 29.
1. Fig. 4 is a substantially vertical section Fig. is a top view of the feed-case. Fig. through one of the magazines and one of the 33 shows two feed-cases iitted together. Fig. cartridge-carriers, showing their cooperative 34E shows a top plan view of a transit for sup- 35 relation. Fig. 5 is an end view of the ap porting the gun. Fig. 35 showsaside eleva 85 paratus for operating the cartridge carriers tion of the same, partially broken away and or receivers. Fig. 5' is a detail section on with the gun mountedupon it. Fig. 3G shows line 5n 5, Fig. 5. Fig. 5b shows sideand a front elevation of these parts, represented edge views of a portion of one of a certain as broken away at some places. Figs. 37, 38,
4o set of levers seen in Fig. 5. Fig. 6 is a top 39, 40, and il()a are details of the transit, show- 9o View of the chamber where the cartridge-caring the construction of the gearing. for its riers are placed and a section of the operseveral movements. Fig. 41 is aperspectivc ative mechanism. Fig. 7 is a horizontal secview of the gun mounted on the rail of a ship. tion of the cartridge-hoppers on line a o; of Fig. 42 is a perspective view of a gun, show- 45 Fig. 8. Fig. 8 is a diagrammatic illustration ing underneath the traversing apparatus. 95 of the cartridge receivers or carriers. Figs. Figs. 4:3, 44, 45, and 46 are the several details, S) and 10 show mechanism for forcing the enlarged, of the traversing apparatus. cartridge alongthe feed case or hopper-s. Fig. A is the gun frame or stock, in which all the 11 is an end and edge view of the plate which working parts are secured. This frame is cast 5o supports the guidesof the plungers at one or forged in one piece of metal, and is made roo of such dimensions as will secure the requisite strength for the support of the gun-barrels, as well as to insure the necessary resistance to strain from constant use and field operations. The frame may also be made of separate parts and properly fastened together. This frame A has, at its rear end, a strong breeclnplate A', through which is a center hole ct for an interior operating-shaft B. Parallel with breech-plate A is a transverse plate A2, and between these plates is the space for the rotary lock block or wheel C, which is fitted to a hollow shaft B', in which works the first shaft B above mentioned. The wheel C has within it, at the rear end, a beveled gear-wheel c', and the shaft B carries a similar gear-wheel b2, and a third gear-wheel c3 meshes with both the gears c and b2 and is fastened to a crank-shaft c4, passing radially through the breech-plate and having on its outer projecting end an operatingcrank H. On the plate A2 is a notched segment O2, (detailed in Fig. 11,) having ratchet-s or cams c on the side next to the lock-wheel C and notches c2 between the cams. The cams c rise gradually from the surface of the plate to the notches c2, and the ends form perpendiculars to the plate, and these cams coact with springpressed hammers c, substantially as shown and described in my former patent above referred to the said hammers being arranged to move longitudinally in bores in the wheel C,and caused by rotation of the latter,through the means described, to ride over the cams, whereby the said hammers are retracted until they reach the high ends of the cams, when they snap past the same and through the not-ches c2, to impinge against the firingneedles g, hereinafter referred to. It is to be understood that there is but a single one of these hammers to operate against all the fir* ing-pins successively; but as I intend to discharge each barrel twice in one complete cycle of operation of the gun I have shown two hammers at diametrically opposite sides of the wheel C. The wheel carries what I term lock-blocks c5 of segmental form, which are designed to fill in the space between the plates A and A2 solidly throughout the area of the gun-barrels, so that during the firing the recoil will be carried directly back to the strong breech-plate A'. Ball-bearings c are interposed between the wheel C and the said breechplate to prevent friction in the recoil, such as to obstruct turning of the wheel. It will be understood that by each hammer c running over the inclines c the barrels are discharged successively.
In plate A2 are as many rectangular notches a2 a2 as there are gun-barrels, and said notches receive the rectangular rear ends of guides F for the plungers G, (see Figs. 19 and 27,) which are rectangular where they slide in the guides F to prevent their turning when in action. A3 is another transverse plate placed farther forward in the gun-frame and having a series of circular holes a3 to correspond withV the rectangular holes or notches a2 a2 in the plate A2 to sustain the circular bushings f on the ends of the guides.
There is, in advance of plate A3, a plate A, which is cast or forged solid with the gunframe A, and into which are removably secured the breech ends of the gun-barrels I, in exact line with the centers of the rectangular notches a2 a2 in plate A2 and the circular holes a2 a3 in plate A2.
A5 is a front plate of the gun-frame A, and may be cast or forged solid with it, and in which the front ends of the gun-barrels are sustained.
That part of the gun-frame A extending from the rear end or breech plate A to plate A3 is a hollow semicylinder-z'- e., the shell is only a half-ring on the under/side, forming, from the breech-plate A to plate A2, one piece of metal, cast or forged whole, and which is continued on each side to the front end plate A5, of sufficient depth to make the whole frame substantial. All these parts may be made separate and securely fastened together. The top of the gun-frame from A to A3 is covered by a removable cap.
For the purpose and convenience of fitting all the various parts of the gun, the plates A2 and A3 are made separately from the frame, and are properly fitted in grooves in the sides of the frame A, but may be cast with it. All the other plates and sides are made in one piece with the frame A.
The plungers G are reciprocated in their guides F in substantially the same manner as shown and described in my former patent referred to, the hollow shaft B carrying between the plates A2 and A3 a cam-wheel E, whose groove g2 receives and coacts with projections g2 on the plungers. On each side of the circular part of the plunger G is secured a metal spring-piece J, (see Figs. 12, 13, and 17,) extending forward somewhat beyond the end of the plunger and having notches j just deep enough to catch the bead on the head of the cartridge K, (see Fig. 12,) the projecting ends beyond being beveled inside to slide readily over the bead of the cartridge when the plunger G is forced forward. The end of the barrel is slightly recessed, as shown at j', to receive the ends of the extractors J. The extractors are opened by coaction of inside bevelsj", somewhat back from their ends,with stationary pins f.
The shaft B, hereinbefore referred to, is extended forward through the plate A3 and carries a small cog-wheel b beyond the outer side of the plate A3, which meshes with a similar cog-wheel d on the hollow side of a wheel D, journaled on a shaft CZ, extending from plate A3 and through plate A4 and screwed up by the nut a outside of plate A4. On the periphery of the wheel D there is a suitable number of cogs t2 i212, placed in groups, opposite to each other, for the purpose of engaging with the groups of cogs t" t" t" on the ends of the cartridge-receivers I, Fig. 5.V
The cartridge-receivers (here shown as five in number, corresponding with the number of barrels) are arranged around the upper side of the wheel D and centrally journaled on studs projecting from the plate A3. Each receiver has five places t9 (see Figs. 14 to 16) for cartridges, which are dropped into it, one at a time, from the cartridge case or hoppers L, as seen in dotted lines, Fig. 5. One end of these cartridgereceivers is divided into ten equal sections. Five of them, alternately, have the same number of cogs 'L as there are cogs i3 in the groups on the peripheryT of the wheel D, and which mesh with them. Between these cogged spaces on the receivers there are blank spaces @'10, having the 'curvature of the circumference of wheel D, so that when D is rotating, and its cogs not 'meshed with the cogs of the receivers, the receivers cannot rotate until the iirst cog t of the wheel D carries the receiver into gear, when it will only rotate the given distance of the cogs. The time of the rest of each receiver is sufcient to allow the cartridge by action of the plunger to be forced into the barrel and iired and then extracted, all of ,which must take place before another movement of the receiver. The cog fi is a lug which extends only half-way of the face of the periphery of wheel D, and on each receiver there are live lugs t4, with which t engages as wheel D rotates. The plungers G pass into and through the recesses of the receivers to force the cartridges into the barrels. The openings in the receivers through which the plungers pass have side recesses ,75 to accommodate the extractors J, and stop-pins f3 project into the openings and are accommodated in grooves in the plungers, said pins acting to prevent the cartridges from being withdrawn too far when extracted.
Itmay be well to here state briefly the general operation of the parts of the machine thus far described.
As wheel D is made to revolve, and as cogs t3 on the samecome into mesh with the 'cogs "L" on the receiver I, the latter is carried around just far enough for the cartridge, which has been dropped into its top recess, to be brought immediately in line with the gun-barrel, and then by the action of the cam-wheel E the plunger G immediately forces the cartridge into the chamber of the barrel, and j ust so soon as the cartridge is forced home the lock-bolt or hammer c, which had been forced back against its spring by the cam d, is released by reason of its passing the end of said cam, and the lock-bolt is thrown with great force against the needle g, and the latter is driven upon the cartridge-cap and the same is exploded. The cam-wheel E then withdraws the plunger G,and with itthe empty cartridgeshell, into its receiver, and by another revolution of the latter the shell is carried to the under side and drops out by gravity, while another cartridge is moved to its proper place in rear of the gun-barrel. The extractors release their hold in the shell when it has been drawn into the receiver, and then continue backward out of the receiver, in order not to obstruct rotation of the latter.
The diagram shown in Fig. 8 illustrates the relation of the centers of the wheel D and the main shaft, the former being a little below and to the left of the center of the latter. The centers of the several receivers are all embraced in a circle described about the center of the wheelD, (designated as dX,') and to make this clear I have dotted in the circle and drawn radii in fulllines. The center of the main shaft (designated as bx) is the center of the circle embracing the centers of the corresponding chambers of the receivers alining with the gun-barrels, and I have drawn radii in dotted lines of this circle. Thus, when the wheel D imparts movement to the several receivers, it causes them to carry the cartridges received on top downward to their true positions of alinement with the barrels.
Vhen the gun' is used in a vertical position, pointing downward, means are provided for preventing the empty shells from dropping endwise out of the receivers and for ejectin g them sidewise. Ihave illustrated in Figs. 5, 5, 5b, and 6, and Figs. 16 and 18 means for accomplishing the above-stated objects. Referring iirst to Figs. 5 to 6, it .will be observed that the wheel D carries a pair of disks M and M', having cam projections m and m. Curved levers la are pivoted to the plate A4 and extend between said plate and the receivers, and at their inner ends have lshort divergent arms 7c' 7c to coact with the cam projections m and m. Vhen the exploded shell is withdrawn into the receiver, it is apparent that with the gun pointing downward said shell would drop back into the barrel when released without some provision to prevent. Then the tiring takes place, the lever 7c stands clear of the barrel and the alining chamber of the receiver, but when the empty shell is withdrawn into the receiver the lever is moved over in front of it by the action of the cam projection m against the arm 71;". The action of the cam projection m against the other lever-arm 7s again moves the lever to one side of the barrel. The cams will be properly timed to bring about these operations, and it will be seen that they act successively on the different levers.
For the purpose of ejectin g the empty shells, there are fastened to the plate A4 a number of abutment-lingers m, which stand in position to meet the shells as they are carried around by the receivers, the latter being slotted, as shown at m" in Fig. 16, to accommodate the fingers. There are preferably two of these abutment-fingers for each receiver, and theyare screwed onto a stud m4, (see Fig. 1S,). which stud screws into `the plate A4.
Referring next t0 the feed mechanismdetailed in Figs. 9 and 10 and Figs. 2S tof33,
the letter L designates a casing, 'preferably made in two parts, between which is left a slot Z for a purpose to be presently explained, and in which are also provided grooves Z for receiving the iiange Z of the cartridge. The two sections of the case L are fastened at their ends to integral pieces Ll and L, with grooves registering with those of the case. The cartridges K are stacked in the case with their Iianges engaged with the grooves Z', and when the case stands upright they feed by gravity into the receivers. The hopper or feed-case slides into the feed-port O of the gun, and is held in by means of a spring-catch O', which snaps over a catch O on the side of the casing of the feed-port.
On the back of the case L is an apparatus f or forcing the cartridges down when the case is on or near a horizontal line. In Figs. 9 and lO, Sheet No. 2, is shown, enlarged, the notched bar "VV, on which is a sliding box WV', having a bifurcated spring-controlled pawl w. The lower end is to feed down the cartridges, as in Fig. 28. On the rod WV is also another sliding box WV, having a spring-controlled pawl -w/, arranged in present case for convenience transversely to the other pawl. Between these two boxes is a coiled spring Two feed-cases may be made to t together end to end, as illustrated in Fig. 33, where a longer case is desired, to accommodate a greater number of cartridges in line.
The manner of mounting the gun is illustrated in Figs. 34 to 4l. The base-standard maybe in the form shown in Figs. 35 and 36, where it is designated Z, and it is designed to rest upon any suitable support, as the deck of a vessel, or it maybe in the form shown in Fig. 4l, where it is designated Z, and designed for application to the rail of a ship.` The top of the standard is formed with a semicircular guideway Z, which receives a segmental rack N, engaged by a worm n, incased in a suitable box a2 and operated by a handle n, on its stem o. A set-screw q, entered through the side of the guideway Z, is designed to bear against the segment and lock it at different positions.
A transit bed-plate N has trunnions N journaled in the top ends of the segment N and carrying a segmental rack P, engaged by a worm Q, journaled in suitable supports on the segment N and having a stem o2 and handle Q. A set-screw q" is provided to hold the segment P at different adjustments, said screw being entered through a part of the segment N to bear against the segment P. A transit-plate S is centered on a conical stud R, rising from the center of the bed-plate N', and maybe set at different positions of rotary adjustment by means of a t-humb-nut s', screwing on a headed bolt s, which engages a groove 3"/ in the bed-plate P, said groove being T-shaped in cross-section. Arms s, rising from the plate S, have bearings S2 at the top, receiving trunnions T on the gun-frame A.
It will be readily understood that by means `movement in either direction.
of the above-described mechanism any adjustment of the gun desired can be had.
The means employed to secure the aim by turning the gun on its trunnions T are of the following description, reference being had more particularly to Figs. 23, 24, 35, and 4l. There is pivotally connected with the gunsupporting arms s a rod U, which, throughout the greater portion of its length, is grooved or slotted, as shown at U', to receive a bar T", serrated along the outer edge to form portions of screw-threads. Said baris connected with the rod U by radius-links t4, and is pressed outward by springs u, fastened to the bottom of the groove. The outer end of the rod U is enlarged to form a handle or knob, and the end of the serrated bar extends so that in grasping the rod said bar may be pressed inward. The bar may be locked in its outer position by means of a set-screw 5, entered through the end of the rod.
There is pivotally connected with the gunframe on its under side a bushing V, in which is journaled an internally-screw-threaded sleeve V for engagement with the serrated bar T", the rod and bar passing through the sleeve The sleeve V has a knurled head by which to turn it and thereby distend or contract the connection between the gun and its support, so as to bring the gun into aiming position. It will be readily seen that the rod is so adjustable in the sleeve as to accommodate any position to which the gun may be tilted, and the interlocking of the serrated bar and the sleeve will hold the gun against These parts can be readily unlocked by pressing in the bar T'.
In Figs. 42 to 46 I illustrate means whereby the gun may be caused to sweep through any angle desired, said means operated by the crank-handle H, hereinbefore referred to as being the means for operating the other parts of the gun. A train of gearing 2 3 4 5 is suitably mounted on the gunframe A, in connection with the crank II, and the gear 5 is formed in one side with a heart-shaped cam-groove 6, occupied by a roller on the end of a bar 7, fitted to slide through a guide 8, suitably supported on the gun-frame. The bar 7 is jointed to the upper end of a lever 9, which is adjustably pivoted to a rigid arm 13, depending from the gun. Said pendent arm is slotted, as shown at 14, to receive through it a headed bolt l5, whose outer end receives a thumb-nut 19, having a reduced rounded portion 17, constituting the pivot and surrounded by a block or box l2, which fits a slot in the lever 9 and is longitudinally adjustable therein. It will now be seen that by loosening the thumb-nut l5 and then moving it lengthwise of the lever, the pivot of the latter is changed and may be fixed at any adjustment by tightening the said thumb-nut. The lower end of the lever is formed as a ball lO, which engages a socket in one end of a curved arm ll, which at its IOO IIO
opposite end is fastened on the stud R by means of a clamping-nut 22. This end of the curved arm being fixed, it will be seen that turning of the crank H will have the effect of swinging the gun horizontally. Adjustment of the pivot 0f lever 9 determines Jthe extent of swing. The heart-shaped cam produces movement first in one direction and then in the opposite direction in the slide 7, which transmits motion to the lever. The lower end of the latter being engaged with a fixed support, the gun will of necessity be turned by the pressing'of the bolt 15 against the sides of the slot 14, which is made in a part of the gun-frame.
The following is claimed as new:
1. In-a machine-gun, the combination of a main or driving shaft, a mutilated gear-wheel journaled eccentrically to said shaft, gearing connecting the shaft and wheel, rotary cartridge-carriers having mutilated gears to mesh with the said wheel, and gun-barrels in the arc of a circle concentric with the driving-shaft.
2. In amachine-gun, the combination with a series of barrels arranged circularly, plungcrs to charge the barrels, and means for advancing and retracting the plungers, of a series of rotary cartridge-carriers each having a number of cartridge-holdin g recesses through which the plungers pass, and means for turning said carriers successively step by step to bring the cartridges in line with the barrels and the plungers.
3. In a machine-gun, the combination of driving-shaft journaled in the gun-frame and carryin ga bevel-gear at the outer end, a tubular shaft around the drivin g-shaft and carrying a bevel-gear in juxtarelation to that on the latter, an operating crank-shaft carrying a bevel-gear in mesh with the bevel-gears on the two shafts, charging and iirin g devices operatively connected with the tubular shaft, and cartridge-carriers operatively connected with the drivin g-shaft.
4. In a machine-gun, the combination with a mutilated gear-wheel and means for continuously turning the same, the said wheelhaving smooth peripheral portions at the height of the teeth: of rotary cartridge-carriers arranged in the arc of a circle around the said wheel and each having a plurality of cog-sections for engagement with those of the wheel, and concave blank spaces between the cogsections for engagement of the high peripheral portions of the wheel for locking purposes, substantially as described.
5. In a machine-gun, the combination with the gun-barrel, the rotary cartridge receivers, and means for intermittently turning the latter; of closures for the cartridge-holding chambers of the receivers, and means for moving said closures alternately into and out of closing position, substantially as and for the purpose described.
(3. In a machine-gun, the combination with the gun-barrels, the rotary cartridge-carriers,
and means for intermittently turning the latter: of levers interposed between the carriers and the barrels, and devices connected with 'the carrier-turning means, for vibrating said `levers to close and open communication bevof a set of levers interposed between the carriers and the barrels and having divergent arms at their inner ends, and cam-disks on the mutilated gear-wheel and coacting with said levers to vibrate the same, for the purpose described.
S. In a machine-gun, the combination of a plunger for charging the barrel; springtongues fastened at one end to said plunger and having catches at the opposite end adapted to take over the iiange of the cartridge and beveled on the outer side, said tongues having inner bevels extending oppositely to the catch-bevels; and fixed abutments located between the tongues and the plunger for said inner bevels to encounter when the plunger is retracted.
9. In a machine-gun, the combination with a suitably-formed feed case or hopper, of means for feeding the cartridges therein, said means comprising a ratchet-bar, a pair of slides thereon, pawls on the slides, one to engage the ratchet-teeth and the other to engage the cartridges, and a spring between the slides.
10. In a machine-gun, the combination with a suitable support, and a gun-frame journaled therein; of an internally-screw-threaded sleeve journaled in a bearing pivotally connected with the gun-frame, and a rod pivotally connected with the gun-support and having a screw-like section passing through the sleeve and movable into and out of engagement with the screw-threads thereof.
1l. In a machine-gun, the combination with a suitable support and gun-frame journaled therein: of a rod jointed to the support and longitudinally grooved, a bar iitting said groove and having a screw-cut outer edge, radius-links connecting said bar with the rod, springs pressing the bar outward, and an intern ally-screw-threaded sleeve pivotally connected with the gun-frame and embracing the rod and bar.
12. The combination with the gun-frame mounted to swing horizontally, and the crankhandle of the firing mechanism; of a lever on the gun-frame and engaged at one end with a fixed support, and connections between said lever and the said Iiring-crank whereby the lever is moved during the iirin g and the gun thereby caused to swing laterally substantially as described.
13. The combination with the gun-frame mounted to swing horizontally, and the crankhandle of the firing mechanism; of a lever on the gun-frame having an adjustable pivot and IOO said lever, and a train of gearing connected with the operating-crank and having associated with it a earn in engagement with the said slide, for the purpose described.
In testimony whereof I affix my signature in presence of two witnesses.
JOSEPH SMALL, H. GATES ONEAL.