US 5637642 A
This invention involved the discovery of novel polymers used as adhesives and a process for their preparation. The polymers were prepared by the nucleophilic substitution, at room temperature, of PVC with substituted alkyltrialkoxysilanes, which can be cured at room temperature to give adhesion of PVC to hydrophilic substrates. These polymers are particularly useful as adhesion promoters in ion-selective electrodes. The invention also involved the application of these adhesive primers to planar electrode substrates to give greatly improved performance in the response of ion-selective electrodes.
1. A process for joining materials used in an ion selective electrode utilizing an adhesive comprising the following copolymer of polyvinylchloride and alkyltrialkoxysilane: ##STR2## where R3 is either a residue of an amino or mercapto group, R4 is an alkylene, aromatic, or any other organic group, R is any alkyl group, where the three R substituents do not need to be the same, and where x and y represent moles of monomer incorporated in the polymer and x:y represents the mole ratio of ##STR3## in the copolymer, said ratio x:y ranging from 20:1 to 500:1, said copolymer being dissolved in a suitable anhydrous solvent at a concentration between 0.1 to 10 grams of copolymer to 100 mL of solvent.
2. A process of claim 1, wherein said copolymer is dissolved in a suitable anhydrous solvent at a concentration of approximately 1 gram of copolymer to 100 mL of solvent.
3. An ion selective electrode wherein materials used to prepare said electrode are bound by an adhesive comprising the following copolymer of polyvinylchloride and alkyltrialkoxysilane: ##STR4## where R3 is either a residue of an amino or mercapto group, R4 is an alkylene, aromatic, or any other organic group, R is any alkyl group, where the three R substituents do not need to be the same, and where x and y represent moles of monomer incorporated in the polymer and x:y represents the mole ratio of ##STR5## in the copolymer, said ratio x:y ranging from 20:1 to 500:1.
4. An ion selective field effect transducer wherein materials used to prepare said transducer are bound by an adhesive comprising the following copolymer of polyvinylchloride and alkyltrialkoxysilane: ##STR6## where R3 is either a residue of an amino or mercapto group, R4 is an alkylene, aromatic, or any other organic group, R is any alkyl group, where the three R substituents do not need to be the same, and where x and y represent moles of monomer incorporated in the polymer and x:y represents the mole ratio of ##STR7## in the copolymer, said ratio x:y ranging from 20:1 to 500:1.
This application is a continuation-in-part of Ser. No. 148,806, filed Nov. 5, 1993, now abandoned, which is a continuation of Ser. No. 817,721, filed Jan. 7, 1992, now U.S. Pat. No. 5,283,288.
The reaction of nucleophiles with polyvinylchloride (PVC) is known. (Ma, S. C. et al, Anal. Chem. 60 (1988) 2293; Chenh, P. et al, Nat'l. Sci. Council Monthly, ROC (1988) 8(4) (1988) 313; Biswas, Mukul et al, Indian J. of Technol. 28 (1990) 111) However, it is not common to derivatize PVC for most applications due to the fragility of the polymer and the relative difficulty of the substitution reaction. Elevated temperatures can lead to dehydrochlorination, which is autocatalytic. The addition of nucleophiles can also catalyze this process. The resultant polymer degradation is also accelerated by light, especially when it is in solution and at elevated temperatures. The derivatization of PVC by reaction with mines is normally carried out at high temperatures (Ma; Chenh; Biswas) and/or in a nonsolvent, such as methanol (Ma; Chenh). The result, in the first case, is a PVC which is severely degraded, and, in the second case, a polymer which is only partially derivatized. In the extreme worst case, the nucleophile is simply entrapped in the polymer matrix, giving rise to an apparent substitution reaction.
PVC is used in a number of applications in which it is desirable to have adhesion between the PVC and some substrate. Generally, the adhesion is achieved by treatment of the surface in question with a silane, such as dimethyldichlorosilane. (Harrison, D. J., J. Electroanal. Chem. 202 (1986) 75; Moody, G. J. et al, Analyst 113 (1988) 1703; Petrarch Systems, "Silicon Compounds, Register and Review" (1987) 54) In such a case, the adhesion is due to hydrophobic interactions, not the formation of covalent chemical bonds. The adhesion can be somewhat improved by the use of a silane which can form hydrogen bonds with the PVC, as these interactions are stronger than simple hydrophobic interaction.
One way to get around the fairly poor adhesion obtained by these methods is to heat the PVC extensively, in the presence of a binding agent, after it has been applied to the substrate. (Chakrabarti, S. et al, U.S. Pat. No. 4,341,686) Again, this leads to degradative dehydrochlorination of the polymer. Also, the material obtained by this method is not well-defined, nor is it necessarily crosslinked throughout the polymer layer.
One area where PVC adhesion is of particular importance is in the field of ion selective electrodes (hereafter referred to as ISEs). An integral part of these electrodes are the membranes which contain the ion selective components. These membranes are most often made from highly plasticized PVC, indeed, the plasticizer content is nearly always greater than the PVC content. This fact is important, since, due to the oily nature of the plasticizers, adhesion of this membrane to any surface is extremely difficult to achieve.
Failure of the membrane to adhere to the electrode substrate can lead to shorting or shunt formation between the working electrode and the reference electrode when the entire electrode is immersed in aqueous analyte.
Another disadvantage of the highly plasticized formulations used in ISEs is their ability to flow over long periods of time. The membranes are actually a viscous liquid; storage of the electrodes can result in membranes which are not of uniform thickness. The fact that the novel polymer crosslinks upon curing prevents flow in the resulting membrane.
This invention involved the discovery of novel polymers and a process for their preparation. The polymers were prepared by the nucleophilic substitution, at room temperature, of PVC with substituted alkyltrialkoxysilanes, which can be cured at room temperature to give adhesion of PVC to hydrophilic substrates. These polymers are particularly useful as adhesion promoters in ion-selective electrodes. The invention also involved the application of these adhesive primers to planar electrode substrates to give greatly improved performance in the response of ISEs.
FIG. 1 shows the apparatus which is used for synthesizing the PVC copolymer coatings.
FIG. 2 represents constant pressure apparatus, which is used to maintain an inert atmosphere at 1 atmosphere pressure for use in the reaction.
FIGS. 3 and 4 represent different types of electrodes in which the novel adhesive is used.
This invention involved the synthesis and use of polymer coatings that chemically bond to electrodes. In the process of developing these materials, novel polymers were developed, as well as methods for preparing these polymers. In addition, novel ways of obtaining adhesive membranes for ISEs were developed.
It has long been known that silanes could be used to coat metal, glass and other surfaces that contain hydroxy groups or oxides. (Petrarch) This process, termed silanization, is used as a means of making surfaces hydrophobic and, in this case, as a means of reducing the driving force for the migration of aqueous contaminants under membranes.
By creating a polymer that would chemically adhere to the surface, a much more durable coating was made, thus extending significantly the life of electrodes. The polymer that was needed was one that would not only adhere to the electrode, but also provide the matrix necessary for ion determination. This means that the polymer adhesive material must not generate a junction potential when contacted with the ion selective membrane. The novel copolymer invented herein was found to be uniquely suited for this application because of its chemical similarity to the polymer found in the ion selective membrane. Furthermore, the novel polymers were found to greatly reduce the short formation under the membrane caused by water leakage.
The polymer invented herein was a novel compound of PVC and substituted alkyltrialkoxysilane (hereafter referred to as ATAS). The current polymer was synthesized by reacting PVC with a substituted ATAS, in the presence of a polar aprotic solvent. Reaction temperatures from 5 to 100 degrees C. were evaluated and found acceptable for this reaction, although a reaction temperature of room temperature (approximately 20 degrees C.) was found optimum. This reaction was found to work for any molecular weight PVC, namely molecular weights of 1,000 and higher. The preferred molecular weight range was found to be 10,000-100,000, while the optimum molecular weight was found to be approximately 62,000.
In general, compounds of the structure
can be used to react with the PVC, where
R1 can be an amino or mercapto group,
R2 can be an alkyl or aromatic group or any organic spacer group (for example, ethers, alkenes, ketones, esters, etc.), R can be any alkyl group, including, for example, methyl, ethyl, etc., and the three R substituents do not need to be the same.
It was found that the molar ratio of PVC to ATAS in the reaction could vary from 100:1 to 1:10, with the preferred ratio being between 20:1 and 1:3. The optimum ratio was found to be approximately 5:1.
Once the reaction between PVC and ATAS occurs, compounds having the formula ##STR1## are formed. In these copolymers, R3 is a residue of either an amino or mercapto group,
R4 is an alkylene, aromatic, or any organic spacer group, and
R is any alkyl group, where the three R substituents do not need to be the same.
The copolymer has been found to perform satisfactorily when the ratio of y:x (where y and x represent the moles of monomer) varies from 1:20 to 1:500. The preferred ratio was found to be 1:100 to 1:200, while the optimum ratio was found to be approximately 1:170 (or approximately 0.6%).
The preferred aprotic solvent used in the synthesis of PVC-silane is hexamethylphosphoramide (HMPA). Examples of other suitable solvents include, but are not limited to, dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO); 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone; 1,3-dimethyl-3,4,5,6-tetrahydro-2(1H)-pyrimidinone; 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone; 1,3-dimethyl-2-imidazolidinone; N,N-dimethylformamide; and N,N-dimethylacetamide. These solvents must be scrupulously cleaned and dried in order to remove any traces of water and/or basic moieties and other impurities. The PVC is soluble in HMPA but not in DMSO. Thus, the reaction may be carried out as a one- or two-phase process.
It is desirable that the reaction take place at room temperature, to avoid degradation of the PVC. Second, the reaction is carried out under a blanket of dry, inert gas, preferably nitrogen or argon, to prevent oxidation of the polymer. Third, the system is also kept free from light to prevent photodegradation of the polymer during the reaction. Fourth, the system must be scrupulously dried to avoid premature curing of the product. The first three of these precautions have been found to prevent discoloration due to conjugated alkene formation, as all three or any combination of them catalyze dehydrochlorination in PVC.
In Chakrabarti, a PVC and substituted ATAS were mixed at the point of application, then heated to 80 degrees C. to provide an adhesive for attaching cover layers of cellular and non-cellular polyurethane layers. The product was not isolated or identified. The instant polymer is an isolated and distinct chemical species of known composition. The method of adhesion in Chakrabarti depends on the migration of the silane to the surface of the polymer, where it is cured at elevated temperatures. One advantage of the instant polymer is that the siloxane groups are dispersed throughout the polymer film. This gives rise to a uniformly crosslinked system upon curing, giving strength through the whole polymer layer, rather than just at the surface. In addition, the instant polymer is much more flexible, giving the possibility of application under a variety of conditions, and room temperature curing. This property is particularly important for use in ISEs, since the electrochemistry is very sensitive to the polymer matrix; only minimal variation from the parent PVC can be made without significantly affecting performance.
In using the novel polymers to coat substrates, between 0.1 and 10% by weight solutions of the substituted PVC in volatile solvents, for example anhydrous tetrahydrofuran, are prepared. Optimum concentration was approximately 1% by weight. The substrates were coated to give layers of from 0.1 to 10 microns thick, preferably 1 micron in thickness. Cure times varied from 2 to 24 hours, depending upon the curing temperature, which could range from below room temperature (as low as approximately 0 C.) up to approximately 100 curing was room temperature. Adhesion was improved by soaking the coated substrate in water for 5 minutes prior to curing.
Analysis of variations of the instant polymer showed that, with the optimal-performing polymer, 0.5-0.6% of the chlorines of the PVC was reacted with the silane. Somewhat less preferred, but still very good, performance was found for substitution ranging from 0.15-4.5%. Other percent substitutions, from 0.05% up to the point where the polymer fails to behave as PVC (which is determined by the particular application), have also been found to perform satisfactorily. The reaction of PVC with ATAS releases, as a by-product, both hydrogen and chloride ions. It is useful to add a proton scavenger to the system, to remove the hydrogen which is released (along with the chlorine) when the PVC reacts with the ATAS. The amount of proton scavenger needed is dependent on the amount of substitution which is obtained. Ratios of moles of scavenger to moles of total chlorine in PVC starting material have been investigated, and acceptable performance has been found when the ratios range between 1:100 and 10:1. Preferred ratios have been found to range between 1:20 and 10:1. Optimum performance has been found when the ratio is approximately 1:10.
The reaction by-product, hydrochloric acid (HCl), may be removed by reaction with hindered bases such as 2,6-di-tert-butylpyridine, diazobicyclo compounds, such as 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane, 1,5-diazabicyclo[4.3.0]non-5-ene, 1,8-diazabicyclo [5.4.0]undec-7-ene, or by tertiary amines such as tridodecylamine; N,N-diisopropylethylamine or di-tert-butylethylamine ethyl amine. In addition, the HCl may be removed by reaction with the excess substituted ATAS, since there is a large excess of this compound in the reaction.
The instant polymers and processes are useful primarily as adhesion promoters in ion selective and planar electrodes. It should be emphasized that the instant coating techniques are primarily useful for electrodes made of glass or aluminum or other metals/metal oxides. However, they are also usable on any materials that have hydroxyl or other groups that can react with the substituted ATAS.
The polymer materials and techniques disclosed herein also have applicability in various other areas. For example, the materials and processes have applicability in the adhesive area.
The following examples describe various aspects of the synthesis and use of the novel polymers described herein, but are not intended to limit the usefulness of the newly invented materials or processes.
The apparatus used to synthesize the PVC copolymer coatings is shown in FIG. 1. 1 is a powder addition funnel. 2 is a pressure equalizing addition funnel. 3 is a sampling and draw-off tube with a 3-way stopcock. 4 is a 3-neck roundbottom flask. 5 is a side-arm Erlenmeyer flask containing precipitation solvent. 13 represent stirrers.
FIG. 2 represents the constant pressure apparatus, which is used to produce an inert atmosphere at 1 atmosphere pressure for use in the reaction. 6 is an Erlenmeyer flask with a 2-hole rubber stopper (20), having a mercury resevoir (7). One opening is connected to the atmosphere (18), while the other (19) is connected to the rest of the system. 8 is a side-arm flask, containing potassium hydroxide pellets (9), covered with glass wool (10). The side arm is connected to a vacuum line (11), while the outlet of this flask is connected via a three-way stopcock (21) to either the balance of the system or an inert gas (12). To obtain a constant pressure, inert gas environment, the constant pressure system is introduced to vacuum through line 11 to remove all gases from the system. Line 11 is then sealed and line 12 opened to introduce argon (or another inert gas) to the system until the pressure is again at equilibrium with the atmosphere. This procedure is repeated two additional times to insure removal of all oxygen from the system. The outlet. 14 is then connected to the appropriate inlet to the reaction system (15, 16, or 17) without opening the system to the atmosphere.
All glassware used in the reaction is coated with black plastic to exclude light during the reaction. The reaction is maintained under a blanket of argon (or other inert gas) at atmospheric pressure. Initially, the system is set up with a measured amount of PVC in the powder funnel and a measured amount of the substituted ATAS in the addition funnel. A proton scavenger can be added to the addition funnel as well. The solvent for the reaction is present in the desired amount in the round bottom flask.
The solvent is purified to remove amines. It is refluxed in the presence of 4-nitrophenyl hippuric acid ester for 24 hours. The mixture is cooled and pure solvent isolated by distillation in vacuo. The distillate is stirred at 50 24 hours. The solvent is isolated by distillation in vacuo, and the process is repeated to give clean, dry solvent for the reaction.
Polyvinylchloride, (5 gm, 0.08 mol) is added slowly and with rapid stirring to 100 ml of HMPA. The HMPA has been previously exhaustively purified as described above. The solution is stirred for 24 hours (a previously determined amount of time) at room temperature to insure that all PVC is dissolved in the solvent. After this time, aminopropyltriethoxysilane, (3.6 gm, 0.016 mol) is added to the rapidly stirred reaction dropwise. The solution is stirred under these conditions for 48 hours. It is purified by addition, still under the inert atmosphere, to 2 liters of dried and distilled methanol. The solid polymer is filtered off, under an inert atmosphere, then redissolved into scrupulously dried tetrahydrofuran and precipitated into hexane. Note that the polymer continues to be kept under an inert atmosphere. The filtration, dissolution, and precipitation into hexane is repeated once more. The process yields approximately 80% of the theoretical amount of the product, with a substitution (i.e. ratio of silicon to chlorine) of 0.6%. It should be stressed that any introduction of water at any stage in this process will lead to premature curing of the polymer, rendering it insoluble and useless for further processes.
A process similar to that used in Example 1 was used, except that other polar aprotic solvents were substituted for the HMPA. The solvents used were 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone; 1,3-dimethyl-3,4,5,6-tetrahydro-2(1H)-pyrimidinone; 1,3-dimethyl-2-imidazolidinone; N,N-dimethylformamide, and dimethylsulfoxide. The results were as follows:
______________________________________Solvent % substitution______________________________________hexamethylphosphoramide 0.60-0.791,3-dimethyl-2-imidazolidinone 0.781,3-dimethyl-3,4,5,6-tetrahydro-2 (1H)- 1.5pyrimidinonedimethylsulfoxide 0.171-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone 4.5______________________________________
A process similar to that used in Example 1 was used, except that different silanes were substituted for aminopropyltriethoxy silane. The silanes used were aminopropyltrimethoxy silane and mercaptopropyltriethoxy silane.
A process similar to that used in Example 1 was used, except that proton scavengers were added. The following proton scavengers were used: 2,6-di-t-butylpyridine,
It should be noted that the addition of these scavengers is particularly important in reactions involving mercaptosilanes.
The scavengers served to remove HCl, which could cause dehydrochlorination.
A process similar to that used in Example 1 was used except that differing amounts of substituted ATAS were used. The results are shown below.
______________________________________Moles ATAS Moles PVC Reaction Time (min.) Substitution______________________________________1 1 24 0.630.2 1 48 0.603 1 24 1.5______________________________________
The novel polymers described above were analyzed using the following techniques. Percent substitution was determined by elemental analysis, using the ratio of nitrogen and/or silicon to chlorine found in the product. The thoroughness of the removal of solvent was also determined by elemental analysis, using the ratio of silicon to nitrogen, with complete removal being achieved when the ratio is 1:1. FTIR analysis was also used to confirm complete removal of solvent. Results of typical analyses are shown below.
______________________________________Elemental AnalysisElement Percent Found______________________________________Carbon 38.84Hydrogen 4.91Nitrogen 0.12Chlorine 53.45Silicon 0.24______________________________________
The application method used to coat planar substrates with the substituted PVC is as follows:
The substituted PVC is dissolved in anhydrous tetrahydrofuran to give a 1% by weight solution. To minimize water contamination and premature polymer reaction, the solution is mixed in a dry glove box and stored in a presilanized bottle with a septum cap. The substrate is cleaned prior to coating with techniques suitable for removing surface particulates and organic contamination (grease). The preferred method used was a water rinse, N2 purge to dry, and plasma etching (3 min. Oxygen and 5 min. Argon cycle used at 300 watts). Upon removal from the plasma etcher, the substrates were spin coated with the substituted PVC solution to give a layer approximately 1 micron thick. The cure is affected at room temperature at high humidity over a 24-hour period.
An application method similar to that used in Example 7 except that the coated substrates were cured at 80 cure time was at the expense of increased degradation of PVC.
An application method similar to that used in Example 7 and Example 8 except that non-planar substrates are coated using techniques suitable for their geometries, such as, dip coating and spray coating.
The polymer prepared in Example 1, above, was dissolved in anhydrous tetrahydrofuran to give a 1% (wt./vol.) solution and was utilized as an adhesive (also referred to as adhesive primer layer in the application) for an electrode via an extension of the method discussed in Example 7. (The polymer prepared in Example 1 is referred to as Sil PVC below.) Alternative solvents for the Sil PVC are those solvents in which PVC is soluble.
A 2 substrate. The wafer was screen printed with silver and gold inks to provide a plurality of sensing areas and contacts to the electronics using conventional thick film technology. The wafer was then electrochemically plated in a 0.1M salt solution (ex. KCl) at a constant current of approximately 50 μA (micro amps) to 150 μA per electrode for a 10 minute period. The wafer was rinsed with DI H2O and allowed to air dry. The polymer solution described above was then applied as an adhesion layer. This layer was spuncast from the 1% solution (wt./vol.) of Sil PVC in THF (anhydrous, 99.9% inhibited with 0.025% BHT with <0.005% water). The 1% solution was prepared in an inert atmosphere dry box where the Sil PVC material was stored. An amount was weighed into a silanzed glass bottle. A stir bar was placed in the bottle. An amount of THF was then removed from its container using a volumetric pipet and dispensed into the silanzed glass bottle containing the Sil PVC. The cap which consists of a teflon septum seal was securely placed on the bottle and the mixture was stirred 2-3 hours or until complete dissolution of the Sil PVC material occurs. The Sil PVC was spuncast onto the wafer by dispensing 2 ml onto the wafer that had been placed on the spincoater. The wafer should be completely covered with the Sil PVC solution before spinning. A cover was then placed over the spin pot and the solution was allowed to sit for 30 seconds. The spinner was then turned on, and the wafer was spun at 4000 RPM for 30 seconds. The wafer was removed from the spinner and cured over a 24 hour period at room temperature; alternatively, the cure could be affected by placing the wafer in an oven at 80 final ion selective membrane containing PVC, plasticizer, ionophore, and lipophilic salt, as discussed in Meyerhoff, M. E. et al, 25 Advances in Clin. Chem., 1-47 (1986) was then cast over the Sil PVC adhesion layer. A variation of this application is the use of the adhesive in an ion selective field effect transducer (ISFET).
The resulting electrode is shown in FIG. 3. 22 is the aluminum oxide substrate (an electrically non-conductive substrate), 23 is the Sil PVC adhesion layer, 24 is the redox couple (for example, a silver/silver chloride electrode), and 25 is the ion selective membrane.
A similar approach has been used to provide adhesion between ion selective membranes and solid internal contacts (or material for establishing solid state contact) as disclosed in European application Publication No. 0 643 299 A1. This electrode is shown in FIG. 4, where 26 is the aluminum oxide substrate, 29 is the Sil PVC adhesion layer, 28 is the silver/silver chloride electrode, 30 is the ion selective membrane, and 27 is the solid internal contact.
The technique of Example 7 was used to demonstrate the adhesive properties of the copolymer invented herein. The Sil PVC was dissolved in a suitable anhydrous solvent to give a solution of between 0.1 and 10% wt./vol. (The preferred concentration is about 1% weight/volume.) Suitable anhydrous solvents include all of those in which PVC is soluble, for example, tetrahydrofuran, toluene, methylethyl ketone, cyclopentanone, xylene, methylene chloride, cyclohexanone, and dioxane. This material was found to be a good adhesive for surfaces having available hydoxyl functionality, including, but not limited to, ceramic, paper, and cotton fabrics.
To evaluate adhesive properties on ceramic, the following experiment was undertaken. A layer of the Sil PVC solution was applied to a ceramic wafer using a brush, spin coater, or comparable technique. A second ceramic wafer was brought into contact with the adhesive already applied to the first wafer. The wafers were pressed together and allowed to cure for 24 hours at room temperature. Three controls were prepared, the first composed of PVC (Fluka, High Molecular Weight, Catalogue No. 81387) in the same solvent and concentration as the Sil PVC, the second composed of Pentel Roll 'n Glue Quick Dry Liquid Adhesive, and the third composed of distilled, deionized water. It was found that the Sil PVC performed approximately the same as the second product in its response to a pull test. Both the second product and the Sil PVC gave better adhesion than PVC or water.
Adhesive properties on paper were also evaluated using a similar procedure, with controls being the second product (Pentel) and water. Here also the Sil PVC was found to be equivalent to the second product in its response to the pull test.