|Publication number||US5675740 A|
|Application number||US 08/291,312|
|Publication date||Oct 7, 1997|
|Filing date||Aug 16, 1994|
|Priority date||Aug 14, 1992|
|Also published as||CA2104076A1, CA2104076C, DE69331297D1, DE69331297T2, EP0586129A2, EP0586129A3, EP0586129B1|
|Publication number||08291312, 291312, US 5675740 A, US 5675740A, US-A-5675740, US5675740 A, US5675740A|
|Inventors||Daniel Dean Heimsoth, Arthur McCassey II Everett, Gregory Lynn Morris, Chun-tang Milton Li|
|Original Assignee||International Business Machines Corp.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (4), Referenced by (15), Classifications (16), Legal Events (4)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This is a continuation of application Ser. No. 07/930,585 filed Aug. 14, 1992, now abandoned.
This invention relates generally to data processing systems in an interconnected environment. More particularly, it relates to an improved method for transmitting small packets of data in a data processing system in an interconnected environment.
It is becoming increasingly prevalent to couple a plurality of data processing systems in an interconnected computing environment such as a Local Area Network (LAN) or Wide Area Network (WAN). The networks are becoming increasingly complicated, with several different LAN networks of different protocols coupled together with the data processing systems from multiple vendors in the network.
To assure that different network technologies can communicate with each other, most vendors provide capability to interface according to the IEEE and International Standard Organization's standards for Local Area Networks. ISO 8802-2 (IEEE Standard 802.2-1989) Logical Link Control Protocol describes the data link layer in a Local Area Network. ISO 8802-3 (IEEE Standard 802.3-1988) describes a bus utilizing CSMA/CD as the access method. ISO 8802-4 (IEEE Standard 802.4-1985) describes a bus utilizing token passing as the access method. ISO 8802-5 (IEEE Standard 802.5-1989) describes a ring utilizing token passing as the access method. ISO 8802-7 describes the ring utilizing a slotted ring as the access method. This family of standards deals with the physical and data link layers as defined by the ISO open systems interconnection reference model.
The data link layer described in ISO 8802-2 consists of a top or logical link control (LLC) sublayer and a bottom layer or medium access control (MAC) sublayer which is defined to complete the functionality of the data link layer to connect to the physical layer. The ISO 8802-2 standard has two LLC protocols for communication between two systems in the network to satisfy a broad range of potential applications. The ISO 8802-2 LLC type 1 protocol is a connectionless protocol with minimum protocol complexity which has no guarantee of delivery to the receiving system and is described in Section 6 of the ISO standard. This mode is useful when the higher layers, e.g., applications, provide any essential recovery and sequences so they do not need replicating in the data link layer. This type of operation also is useful in applications where it is not essential to guarantee the delivery of every data packet. The ISO 8802-2 LLC type 2 protocol is a connection-based protocol for guaranteed delivery. This mode includes support of sequence delivery of data link layer units and a comprehensive set of data link layer recovery techniques. This second type of operation is described in section 7 of the ISO standard. Because many network servers and message transfer interfaces, such as IBM's LAN Server™ and NetBIOS™, call for session-oriented data transfer between two systems on a network. To track transactions for each client, they are generally forced to use a session-level protocol and the 802.2 type 2 protocol on all data transfers. While this data transfer method can be efficient for large messages, for small messages the performance is relatively poor.
It is therefore an object of the invention to increase throughput and decrease response time for transmission of small network packets.
This and other objects of the invention are accomplished by using the knowledge that a network is normally reliable. Extensions to an LAN Application and an enhanced Protocol driver which include the ISO 8802-2 protocol and the NetBIOS protocol driver will cooperate in a new form of connectionless, session-oriented communication called the Sideband. In Sideband, header information is stored and reused to increase the throughput and decrease the response time for the transmission of small network packets.
At each session start-up time, the LAN Application will communicate with the enhanced ISO 8802-2 protocol driver to determine if they both support the Sideband. Also, the requestor system on which the LAN Application and the enhanced protocol driver are resident will determine if Sideband is supported on the receiving system to which Sideband Communication will be sent. If Sideband is fully supported by both systems, Sideband will be activated for the session.
When it comes time to communicate on a session which has Sideband active, the LAN Application may request that the information is to be sent using the Sideband path. If so, enhanced protocol driver will check to see if the data meets Sideband criteria, e.g., will fit into a single packet and will attempt to send the packet Sideband if it meets the criteria. As Sideband is a connectionless medium, the additional code path needed to set up and track timers and to handle the resend attempts are saved in the protocol. If session-oriented responses are important to the LAN Application code, it will keep track of a timer which will cause the data to be resent along the non-Sideband path if a response is not received within a designated amount of time.
For further code path savings, the enhanced protocol driver code will store the header and trailer information for a session. Since the header and trailer information remains constant for all single packets sent across a session in Sideband, the time needed to follow the normal code path needed to fill in this data is eliminated.
Sideband is dependent on a reliable network. In case the network at some points becomes unreliable, procedures are used to track the reliability of the network and to enable and disable Sideband in accordance with the reliability of the network.
FIG. 1 depicts a typical workstation which would be coupled to a network environment in accordance with the present invention.
FIG. 2 depicts a plurality of workstations in a network environment according to the present invention.
FIG. 3 depicts the code modules in the memory of a workstation using LAN Server and NetBIOS according to ISO 8802-2 and the present invention.
FIGS. 4A-C depict communication using NetBIOS session oriented, datagram and Sideband communication modes according to ISO 8802-2.
FIGS. 5A-C depict the frame header fields for Session, Datagram and Sideband communication respectively.
FIG. 6 is a flow diagram for the process for establishing the Sideband session.
FIG. 7 is a flow diagram for sending a message by Sideband.
FIG. 8 depicts Sideband communication between two workstations on the network.
FIG. 9 is a flow diagram to determine whether the network is sufficiently reliable to use Sideband
FIGS. 10A-C depict disabling and enabling Sideband across a network.
FIG. 11 shows the fields in a Network Control Block (NCB).
A representative hardware environment is depicted in FIG. 1, which illustrates a typical hardware configuration of a workstation in accordance with the subject invention having a central processing unit 10, such as a conventional microprocessor, and a number of other units interconnected via a system bus 12. The workstation shown in FIG. 1 includes a Random Access Memory (RAM) 14, Read Only Memory (ROM) 16, an I/O adapter 18 for connecting peripheral devices such as disk units 20 to the bus, a user interface adapter 22 for connecting a keyboard 24, a mouse 26, a speaker 28, a microphone 32, and/or other user interface devices such as a touch screen device (not shown) to the bus, a communication adapter 34 for connecting the workstation to a data processing network and a display adapter 36 for connecting the bus to display device 38.
The preferred embodiment of the subject invention is an IBM Personal System/2 with the IBM OS/2 operating system installed. Detailed descriptions of the hardware and software environment are provided in PS/2 Hardware Interface Technical Reference, S10G-6457, IBM Corporation (1991), and OS/2 Presentation Manager Programming, SC28-2700, IBM Corporation (1992). While the invention will be described in terms of this hardware and software, one skilled in the art will recognize that other operating systems and hardware can be supported without undue experimentation. Also resident on the computer system is the OS/2 LAN System Software support including the software making up the subject invention. The system software used in the previous release is described in the following publications available from IBM and incorporated herein by reference: IBM Operating System/2 Local Area Network Server Version 2.0 Information and Planning Guide (G236-0162); IBM Local Area Network Server Programs (Specification Sheet) (G360-2753); and IBM Local Area Network Technical Reference (SC30-3383).
Interconnected computing environments are becoming much more prevalent. Network environments are becoming more varied, consisting of different LAN technologies, multiple vendors and multiple adapters. There is also a higher performance requirement and a greater need for network management. FIG. 2 is an illustration of a typical computer network environment comprising a plurality of interconnected workstations similar to that shown in FIG. 1.
FIG. 2 illustrates a local area network 40 which is preferably a IBM Token Ring, however, it could also be an Ethernet or PC net or other LAN type system. OS/2 requester 42 communicates via LAN 40 to LAN Server server 44 for file sharing, application server database server, print server, communications server and other services. The OS/2 Requester 42 as, might be suspected, runs on the OS/2 2.0 operating system. The DOS Requester 46 communicates by means of Bridge 48 to LAN 40 to request similar services from the LAN Server server 44. The DOS Requester 46 runs on the DOS Operating System 5.0. The Bridge 48 is used to couple the DOS Requester 46 and Network Server 50 via Ethernet 51 to the LAN 40. The Netware Server 50 runs on the Novell Netware™ local area network software and provides an example of the level of integration of vendors which is possible in today's local area networks. The OS/2 SNA gateway 52 provides service to the LAN 40 via bus 54 to the other networks which operate on the SNA Protocol. Finally, powerful RISC based workstations such as the RISC System/6000 56 can also be coupled to the local area network 40.
FIG. 3 illustrates the architectural block diagram of the software applications at least a subset of which would be resident in the RAM access memory of a workstation on the LAN. Generally, this software configuration is known as the LAN adapter and Protocol Support (LAPS) consists of the network communication software necessary to support LAN connectivity. LAPS is a combination of Network Driver Interface Specification (NDIS) compliant protocol drivers, NDIS compliant network adapter drivers, Application Program Interface (API) support software, and configuration and installation software for the drivers. The IBM Network Basic Input/Output System NetBIOS) has been extended to interface to NDIS and to the 802.2 specification.
NetBIOS function is provided by the NetBIOS box 60 and the IBM OS/2 NetBIOS Protocol driver or NetBEUI 62. The NetBIOS block 60 provides the mapping functions, mapping OS/2 application calls to the NetBEUI Protocol 62. The NetBIOS Protocol driver 62 takes the NetBEUI mapping or LAN Server or LAN Requester request and processes them according to the NetBIOS Protocol. This protocol is defined in Local Area Network Technical Reference, (SC30-3383-3).
LAN Server 64 performs file sharing, application server, database server and other similar functions for workstations coupled to the local area network. LAN Requester 66 provides the user access to the functions provided by a LAN Server 64 located at a different workstation in a local area network. RDS DOS support 70, supports database functions from the database server product part of the Extended Services for OS/2 2.0. This is a NetBIOS application and would pass its messages through NetBIOS 60 before going to the NetBIOS Protocol driver 62. NetBIOS applications 72 also pass messages directly to NetBIOS 60. There is an advantage in using NetBIOS, rather than the IEEE 802.2 Protocol driver 74 in that the LAN application can be much simpler and it not know all the protocol functions. The IEEE 802.2 Protocol driver 74 performs similar functions as the NetBIOS Protocol driver 62, but according to the IEEE 802.2 Protocol. The NetBIOS Protocol driver 62 has two protocol layers, the NetBIOS protocol layer and the 802.2 Protocol layer. The network protocol drivers 62, 74 provides the communication between an application and a network , adapter driver 92. Remote Installation Program Load (RIPL) 68 allows a remote initialization of a workstation from the server. SNA-LAN DLC 76 provides an SNA interface to the 802.2 Protocol. SQL LOO interface 78 provides a fastpath for databases to the 802.2 Protocol driver. Among the API's which utilize the SNA-LAN DLC 76 interface are the SNA gateway 80, the PPC-LU 6.2 API 82, the LU2 API 84 and the LUA API 86. Databases such as remote data services 88, can use the SQL LOO interface 78 to the 802.2 Protocol Driver 74. NDIS 90 is a standardized Medium Access Control (MAC) Interface for network adapter drivers and protocol drivers. NDIS has become an industry standard for network adapters and LAN software to communication with each other. NDIS separates protocol handling from hardware manipulation by defining functions that protocol drivers 62 and 74 and network adapter drivers 92 must provide to each other. NDIS defines specifications for network protocol drivers 62, 74, Adapter drivers 92, and the interfaces between the two and a binding process to link the protocol and adapter drivers. Network Adapter Drivers 92 provide the software interface to network adapters 94, such as the Token Ring Ethernet or PC Net Adapters.
Session, Datagram and Sideband NetBIOS data transmission examples are shown in FIGS. 4A, 4B and 4C respectively. Note that Session data transfer receives an acknowledgement response (DATA-- ACK) from the receiving node to the initial data packet (DATA-- ONLY-- LAST), whereas in the both Datagram and Sideband transfer, no acknowledgement takes place, either at the NetBIOS protocol layer or at the 802.2 protocol layer. This is due to the fact that Session transmission uses ISO 8802-2 LLC type 2 transmission services which requires an LLC response, and NetBIOS Session protocol which requires a NetBIOS response. Datagram and Sideband transfer, on the other hand, use ISO 8802-2 LLC type 1 transmission which does not require an LLC response back from the receiving node. Also, the Datagram and Sideband NetBIOS protocols do not require a NetBIOS response.
At the NetBIOS protocol level, the session is an association of facilities necessary for establishing, maintaining, performing data transfers and releasing logical connections for communications between stations. The prior art NetBIOS session protocol performed these functions exclusively on the logical link connections of ISO 8802-2 Type 2 (connection-oriented) protocol. The Sideband NetBIOS protocol allows the data transfer function of the session to be performed on ISO 8802-2 Type 1 (connectionless) protocol. LLC connectionless and connection oriented services are defined in detail in section 2.1 of the ISO 8802-2 standard.
The present invention is preferably embodied in changes to the NetBIOS Protocol Driver 62 and a NetBIOS application such as LAN Server 64 or LAN Requester 66 which make them aware of the Sideband and able to transmit data by the Sideband.
FIGS. 5A, 5B and 5C illustrate session-frame, datagram-frame and Sideband frame, header fields respectively. Both session-level and datagram transmission are known in previous versions of NetBIOS.
NetBIOS session-level data transfer uses NetBIOS send and receive commands for guaranteed delivery of messages. It uses NetBIOS I-frame headers on 802.2 type 2 I-frames for guaranteed delivery. The SESSION Frame Header Fields as shown in FIG. 5A are as follows:
______________________________________MAC header Varies with LAN type (IEEE 802.5, 802.3 etc.LLC header FO FO XX YY ! A normal IEEE 802.2 Iframe, type 2, LLC header.(the remaining fields are in the format of a normalNetBIOS I-frame header.)NetBIOS Header Length 0E 00 ! Specifies a 14-byte NetBIOS header.NetBIOS Signature FF EF ! Identifies the frame as a NetBIOS frame.Command Code 15/16 ! Data -First-Middle or Data-Only-Last Command.DATA1 No-Ack and Receive - Continue Flags.DATA2 Resynk IndicatorXmit Correlator Piggyback Ack Correlator or 0(not used)Rcv Correlator 2-Byte Correlator from Sender, Used For AcknowledgeDestination LSN session-specific ! 1-byte destination session number.Source LSN session-specific ! 1-byte source session number______________________________________
NetBIOS datagram traffic uses NetBIOS datagraphy and broadcast datagram commands to send non-guaranteed messages, it uses NetBIOS datagram UI headers on top of 802.2 type 1 UI frames. The DATAGRAM Frame Header Fields as shown in FIG. 5B are as follows:
______________________________________MAC Varies with LAN type (IEEE 802.5, 802.3 etc.)LLC header FO FO 03 ! A normal IEEE 802.2 UI frame LLC header, type I.NetBIOS Header 2C 00 ! Specifies a 44-byte NetBIOSLength header.NetBIOS FF EF ! Identifies the frame as aSignature NetBIOS frame.Command Code 8, 9 ! Data-Only-Last command. Indicates the frame is the last piece of the SEND.DATA1 00 ! Set to 0 but not used by the receiver.DATA2 00 ! Set to 0 but not used by the receiver.Xmit 00 00 ! Set to 0 but not used byCorrelator the receiver.Rcv Correlator 00 00 ! Set to 0 but not used by the receiver.Destination 16-Byte Name of Receiver sessionName number.!Source Name 16-Byte Name of Sender session number!______________________________________
Sideband uses Sideband sends and normal session receive commands to send non-guaranteed, session-oriented data. Sideband uses a NetBIOS I-frame header on top of an 802.2 UI frame on 802.2 type 1 frame with a special field to indicate that it is a Sideband message. The SIDEBAND Frame Header Fields as shown in FIG. 5C as follows:
______________________________________MAC header Varies with LAN type (IEEE 802.5, 802.3 etc.)LLC header FO FO 03 ! A normal IEEE 802.2 UI frame, type 1, LLC header.!SB Signature OF! A one-byte signature value which can be checked by the receiving NetBIOS protocol to identify the received frame as a Sideband frame.(The remaining fields are in the format of a normalNetBIOS I-frame header.)NetBIOS Header 00 00 ! Specifies a 14-byteLength NetBIOS header.NetBIOS Signature EF EF ! Identifies the frame as a NetBIOS frame.Command Code 16 ! Data-Only-Last command. Indicates the frame is the last piece of the SEND.DATA1 00 00 ! Set to 0 but not used by the receiver.DATA2 00 00 ! Set to 0 but not used by the receiver.Xmit correlator 00 00 ! Set to 0 but not used by the receiver.Rcv Correlator 00 00 ! Set to 0 but not used by the receiver.Destination LSN session-specific ! 1-byte destination session numberSource LSN session-secific! 1-byte source session number.______________________________________
FIG. 6 is a flow diagram for the process for establishing the Sideband session. The process begins step 100 where NetBIOS is called by a NetBIOS application to establish a session using Sideband. The command to establish a session can either be a Sideband listen or a Sideband call. Next, a test is performed to determine whether a Sideband is enabled locally in step 102. If not, a normal NetBIOS session is established and an error code is returned to the calling application in step 104. To establish a normal NetBIOS session, the procedures outlined in Chapter 5 of the LAN Technical Reference (SC30-3383) are followed. If Sideband is enabled locally, the NetBIOS session is initiated. Sideband support is negotiated in Step 106. Establishing a Sideband session is similar to establishing a normal NetBIOS Session in step 104, except that an additional negotiation on a single bit is required for Sideband support. Next, a test is performed to determined whether Sideband is supported remotely in Step 108. If not, the normal NetBIOS session is established in Step 104. If it is supported remotely, the Sideband session control block is built with a connectionless header in steps 110 and 112. First, a Medium Access Control (MAC) layer and LCC layer UI Type 1 header and the new Sideband header for that session are built in step 110. Next in step 112, the NDIS frame descriptor is built with immediate data pointers set to the pre-built header built in the previous step.
Sideband availability can be determined on both ends of a session which is being established. Three methods were discussed to handle this, two of the methods being implemented by the NetBIOS protocol driver, and the third would have to be done by LAN Server. The first method is for the NetBIOS protocol driver code to determine availability at CALL/LISTEN time of the session setup using a new bit, and then to pass the new bit to LAN Server using a return code. Most of the new coding would be in NetBIOS, LAN Server would merely add the code needed to handle the new return code. The second method would be to use a SESSION-- ALIVE call, and if a response is received, then Sideband is available. The third method is for LAN Server to use a new SMB protocol to handle the Sideband availability determinations.
Once the Sideband session is established and the Sideband message header is built, NetBIOS is ready to issue a Sideband send command. The process flow for a Sideband Send is illustrated in the flow diagram in FIG. 7. NetBIOS is called by a NetBIOS application to issue a Sideband send command in step 120. Next, a test is performed to determine whether Sideband is active in this session in Step 122. If not, the Sideband send request is rerouted to a non-Sideband send path in step 124. A save return code is saved so that when the response to the initial message is made, the save return code is returned to indicate that the send request was sent on a non-Sideband path. If Sideband is active on the session, a second test is performed to determine whether the message will fit in one frame in Step 126. If not, the message is rerouted to a non-Sideband send as described in step 124. If the message does fit in one frame, the pre-built Sideband headers as described in Steps 110 and 112 in FIG. 6, are used to issue the frames to the lower level, for example, the NDIS level. Finally, a completion code is returned to LAN Application which requested the Sideband Send in Step 130.
In the preferred embodiment, the network only uses Sideband if the data packet is small, i.e., it fits in one Medium Access Control (MAC) frame. The MAC frames are used to communicate off the LAN and are described in the ISO 8802-3, 8802-4, 8802-5, 8802-7 standards. This determination could be made by either an application such as the LAN Server code or by the NetBIOS protocol driver code as modified for the invention. For the LAN Server code to determine the size of the data packet, an interface is established by which the NetBIOS protocol driver would return the maximum space available for data in a network packet. LAN Server code would then subtract from this amount however much space is needed for the SMB and other header information, and then determine if the data to be sent would fit in the remaining storage space. Alternatively and preferably, the enhanced NetBIOS protocol driver code determines the size of the data packet. This eliminates the need for the interface to the LAN Server. It also reduces the decision path to be limited to one place (in the NetBIOS protocol driver) as opposed to at least two places (in the Ring O Server and in the Redirector) which would be necessary in the LAN Server code.
According to the flow diagram, if enhanced NetBIOS determines the data will not fit into a single packet, and it had been asked to send the data on the Sideband path, then it will return an error saying the data did not fit in a single buffer. It will then transfer the data along the non-SB path.
If LAN Server code requests that a piece of data be sent along the Sideband path by the NetBIOS protocol driver, and it is then not sent Sideband, then the NetBIOS protocol driver will notify the sending system and then send the data packet non-Sideband. Three return codes are used to indicate why the data was not sent Sideband. The first will handle the case that Sideband was active, but the data to be sent did not fit into a single MAC packet (SB-- ERR-- DATA-- TOO-- LARGE), and the second is for the case that Sideband has been disabled (SB-- ERR-- SB-- DISABLED). The third return code indicates that the MAC layer cannot accept the frame immediately (SB-- ERR-- MAC-- FULL).
A NetBIOS application which is aware of Sideband such as LAN Server must be able choose when to send a particular data packet using Sideband and will have a means of indicating to the NetBIOS protocol driver which protocol it would like to have used. There are at least three methods for complying with this requirement:
First and preferably, a new set of different command codes indicate to NetBIOS protocol driver that Sideband should be used are defined. New command codes require the use of five new Network Control Blocks (NCBs), which both LAN Server and NetBIOS protocol driver handle NCB are discussed Chapter 4 of the LAN Technical Reference. To implement the new command codes without adding a test in each code path, a mapping table was created. Before each send of an NCB, the SB-- ENABLED flag is checked, and if it is set, the code executes a few instructions to do the mapping. Checking the flag requires a little more memory (2-4 bytes per non-SB command), but would require minimal extra code path.
Second, a unique entry point and interface could be defined from LAN Server to NetBIOS protocol driver. This option is less preferred if the LAN Server and Net BIOS code would therefore require significant code changes in both the LAN Server and NetBIOS protocol driver code.
Third, a register value as a flag for LAN Server to indicate to NetBIOS protocol driver that Sideband is to be used for this request could be defined. This would seem to be the easiest method to implement. The only changes to the LAN Server code path would be to check if Sideband was enabled and to set this register appropriately at the time the NCB command is submitted to NetBIOS protocol driver. The same entry points and command codes will be able to be used without alteration. However, one problem with this would be the possibility of other programs writing to this interface which did know about Sideband and which did not set or clear this register properly. This could cause unpredictable results. A partial answer to other programs writing to the interface is that NetBIOS protocol driver will have some indicator to show that Sideband is active and will only check this register if the indicator is set. Any session is owned by a application which does not know about Sideband will not have this indicator set, since it would not have been able to set up Sideband at session set up time.
FIG. 8 depicts Sideband session set-up and message passing between workstations A and B according to the present invention. Both workstations A and B have installed NetBIOS and a NetBIOS application such as LAN Server which are modified to handle Sideband. First, at workstation A, the NetBIOS application initiates a listen Sideband command request for any caller to set-up a session. This indicates that the NetBIOS application is ready to accept a transmission from any caller on Sideband. Next, the NetBIOS application at workstation B will issue a Sideband call. The Sideband call will result in the normal session initialization sequence where a frame will flow from workstation B to workstation A to request establishing call. Since the listen command has been issued for Sideband at workstation A, the negotiation will take place indicating that Sideband is supported on both sides of the session. Both workstation A and workstation B at the completion of the negotiation will build a session control block containing the Sideband connectionless headers. On workstation A, the Sideband listen will complete and on workstation B will complete the Sideband call, both of which will indicate to the NetBIOS application that a session has been established with Sideband support by using a return field in a NCB.
Next, FIG. 8 illustrates Sideband data transfer workstation A will issue a receive any which will enable it to receive Sideband or non-Sideband messages. Workstation B issues a Sideband send command, on the established session on workstation A the NetBIOS Protocol driver decides that the data fits into one frame and it is on a session that supports Sideband, so the Sideband frame is sent from workstation B to workstation A. At the same time on workstation B, the Sideband send is completed back to the NetBIOS application with an indication that the data was sent on Sideband. On workstation A, the Sideband frame is received and used to complete the receive any command back to the NetBIOS application on workstation A. The receive any command will preferably have a completion code indicating that the data was received on a Sideband frame.
Next, on workstation B, another Sideband send is issued to NetBIOS. In this case, the decision is made that this data does not fit in one frame, and this send is rerouted internally in NetBIOS through the normal non-Sideband send path. Non-Sideband paths generally break the message into separate frames and send the frames on non-Sideband frames to workstation A. Workstation A receives these non-Sideband frames then completes a receive any to the NetBIOS application in workstation A with a return code indicating that the data was not received in non-Sideband frames. The NetBIOS Protocol in workstation A then builds an acknowledgement frame for this non-Sideband message and sends it to workstation B. On Workstation B, the NetBIOS Protocol receives the acknowledgement and completes the Sideband send to the NetBIOS application on workstation B with an indication that the data did not flow Sideband but that the send was successful on non-Sideband.
Once the Sideband control block of connectionless header is built, it is used throughout the session for Sideband data transfer. This is different from the other NetBIOS prior art transfer methods. In session-oriented data transfer, some of the header could be preserved but, as some header parameters varied with every frame of data, the header would have to be rebuilt with every frame. In datagram data transfer, no header was saved, so the header would also need to be rebuilt with a new datagram. By limiting the amount of information that can be sent Sideband to a data packet that will fit in one frame, the pre-built connectionless header can be preserved throughout the session. If Sideband transmission were allowed on a data packet which would span two or more frames, some alternate means other than header parameters of piecing data packets together must be devised.
In the preferred embodiment, a Sideband request does not require a Sideband response; the converse is also true, a Sideband response may be sent for a non-SB request. There may be some situations in which a response is forced to use non-SB mode when a request has been sent non-SB. If true, the receiver must know if a data packet has been sent non-SB or Sideband and to have a way to let the LAN Server code in the receiving machine know which way the data packet was sent. If the system keeps track of whether Sideband is enabled between the redirector and server code, it allows the requesting machine to control when the responding system uses Sideband without an explicit enable/disable mechanism.
In the preferred embodiment, Sideband receives are transparent to the LAN Application. A Receive or Receive Any completion may be satisfied by a Sideband or a non-SB message, and the LAN Application does not necessarily need to know which type of message it was. In other words, any Receive or Receive Any commands which are posted will take any message that is received by NetBIOS protocol driver regardless of whether it came across Sideband or not.
It is useful to have a means for NetBIOS protocol driver to indicate to the LAN Application code on which path the data was received i.e., whether it was sent Sideband or not. This signalling could be handled by a register, some bit being set, or by a different return code.
FIG. 9 is a flow diagram of the procedure to determine whether the network is sufficiently reliable to use Sideband. The determination of reliability is made by a particular NetBIOS application. The fact that Sideband does not guarantee delivery of the message will affect different applications differently. For example, a multimedia application in which a high rate of data transfer in depicting full motion video may be relatively unsusceptible to data loss. If a particular frame, say one frame in thirty is missing, it may not be visually perceptible. Even if the frame is missed, it may be no more than a blink on the screen. Nonetheless, for some session-oriented applications, it will make a great deal of difference whether the message was sent and received.
One example of a session-oriented program which depends on the receipt of messages is the LAN Server Redirector program depicted in FIG. 9 on workstation A. After LAN Redirector sends out a Sideband message in Step 200 via NetBIOS, the frame gets lost either on its way to the workstation B where the LAN Server server is resident or after LAN Server sends the response back to workstations A in step 202. The LAN Server Redirector waits for the SMB command response from LAN server server with a particular time out in step 204. If no response is received within the specified period, time-out occurs and the message is resent. The re-try of the send may be in Sideband or it may be preferred in non-Sideband as the particular message apparently did not reach its destination in Sideband. Meanwhile, in Step 208, a count is kept of the number of Sideband failures in the session. Once there have been too many Sideband failures, according a predetermined number of failures within a certain period of time in Step 210, the Sideband is disabled on the session to the server, in Step 212. A command is issued in Step 214 that Sideband should be disabled on the session in workstation B. Also, the SMB command is sent via a non-Sideband send and Step 216 In Step 218 the Sideband disable is propagated throughout the network and all nodes stop sending Sideband messages to the server. If there have not been too many Sideband failures, the server continues to use Sideband in Step 220.
As illustrated in FIG. 9, certain NetBIOS applications expect an SMB response generated by another NetBIOS application to their SMB command. In the prior art session-oriented communication, the application would also receive an LCC 2 response and a NetBIOS response, resulting in three responses where one response would do.
In one preferred embodiment, Sideband will be enabled and disabled by the LAN Server or other Sideband-aware LAN application. If Sideband is enabled or disabled on the sending system, the LAN application will also issue messages to enable or disable Sideband on the receiving workstation. FIGS. 10A-10C illustrate the machine states in the process flow in FIG. 9 when each machine will notify the NetBIOS protocol driver on the same system and the LAN Server code on the other system of any changes in enable or disable status of the Sideband code. Also the NetBIOS protocol driver on one system will notify the NetBIOS protocol driver on the other machine of changes in the enable or disable status of the Sideband code.
Once the requester machine determines that Sideband must be disabled, it will inform the NetBIOS protocol driver on the local machine, in this case the requester machine and then the NetBIOS protocol driver on the local machine will notify the NetBIOS protocol driver on the remote machine, in this case the server machine. The state at this point is illustrated in FIG. 10A.
The LAN Server Code at the requester machine and the NetBIOS protocol driver at both the requester and server machines now know that Sideband has been disabled. There is no mechanism for the NetBIOS protocol driver to directly indicate to LAN Server on the server machine that Sideband has been disabled. This information will be acquired by the LAN Server code, however, the next time it attempts to send using Sideband. At this time, the NetBIOS protocol driver will return the error SB-- ERR-- SB-- DISABLED, which will be the LAN Server code's indication to disable Sideband on the server machine. The NetBIOS protocol driver will then send the data along the non-SB path. The state after the transaction occurs is illustrated in FIG. 10B.
The method for indicating that Sideband has been re-enabled is similar. Once it has been determined that the link is reliable enough to resume using Sideband, the LAN Server code on the requester machine will inform the NetBIOS protocol driver on the local machine, and then the NetBIOS protocol driver on the local machine will notify the NetBIOS protocol driver on the remote machine. The state at this point is illustrated in FIG. 10C.
The next time that the NetBIOS protocol driver on the server machine receives a Sideband packet from the requester machine, the NetBIOS protocol driver will notify the LAN Server code on the server machine by setting the indicator to indicate that this packet was received on the Sideband path. This will be the LAN Server code's indication that the requester LAN Server code has re-enabled Sideband and that it is now permitted to set the SB-- ENABLED indicator on the server machine and to start using Sideband again.
There are several ways for NetBIOS to notify the LAN Server code that Sideband is enabled again. First, NetBIOS protocol driver will change a return code on a return from a receive or receive any command (RCV/RCV-- ANY) to indicate that the data was a Sideband receive or not. Second, a bit or flag can be set in the NCB on an SB transfer. Third, NetBIOS protocol driver would actively send a message that Sideband has been re-enabled. Fourth, NetBIOS protocol driver could provide a Query-- SB NCB for LAN Server to periodically check. Fifth, LAN Server can continue to try Sideband until it stops getting SB-- ERR-- SB-- DISABLED return codes and proceeding as in to send Sideband.
There are also two ways to keep track of whether Sideband is enabled between redirector and server code. First, RO Server gets a NCBDone call and handles and passes the NCB a one call on to the redirector code. It may only be necessary for the RO Server to pass this NCB along to the redirector code if there are some data structures that only are allocated when Sideband is enabled or if there is an action which the redirector needs to do immediately upon enabling of Sideband. Second, the R0 Server could set a flag in the NBI structure to indicate Sideband enabled.
If a Sideband message is sent after Sideband has been disabled at the NetBIOS protocol driver level, the NetBIOS protocol driver will flow the message non-SB, but will return a return code/flag/indicator which will signal that it has been sent non-SB.
This case could occur when the first step of the disabling process described above has occurred, but not the second step. If a Sideband message is not successfully received and responded to in a designated amount of time, then LAN Server will be generally responsible for re-sending the message along the non-SB path. LAN Server has error handling code to manage a situation when a response is not received after a message has been sent on the Sideband path. Timers are set for each NCB sent on the Sideband path. LAN Server then checks for a response. If no response is sent within a designated amount of time, then the LAN Server code is responsible for re-sending the NCB along the non-SB path.
When too many failures have occurred on a Sideband session, Sideband will be disabled. LAN Server code is able to keep track of the information about how many packets which were originally sent Sideband had to be resent, and use this info as the basis for the determination that too many failures have occurred using Sideband. In this way calls are not necessary to NetBIOS protocol driver but would require new data structures to keep track of failures on Sideband.
Once it has been decided that Sideband should be disabled, the process described in the discussion above will be implemented to pass the word that Sideband has been disabled.
At some point, Sideband may eventually be re-enabled after being disabled. Generally, LAN Server will also be responsible for the determination when the network is reliable enough to begin using Sideband again. Once this has been decided, the LAN Server code will initiate the enabling process described in the discussion above to start using Sideband again.
LAN Server or another Sideband aware LAN application will set up a table which will contain the NCB control block to use when Sideband is activated. Most of these NCB codes will be the same as the non-SB codes, but the sends will not be the same. It will take 128 bytes to store this table to take into account all possible NCB command codes. When the NCB is about to be sent to NetBIOS protocol driver in SpecSendSMB in \21\redir\netmpx.asm a test will determine if Sideband is active, and if it is, convert the code to the Sideband code.
The new NCB Codes to be used are:
______________________________________NCB.SEND.SB 0×50NCB.CHAIN.SEND.SB 0×51NCB.SEND.NOACK.SB 0×52NCB.CHAIN.SEND.NOACK.SB 0×53NCB.SENDRCV.SB 0×54NCB.CALL.SB 0×56NCB.LISTEN.SB 0×57NCB.CONTROL.SB 0×55______________________________________
The fields in an NCB are shown in FIG. 11 and discussed in detail in Chapter four of the LAN Technical Reference (SC30-3383) cited above. All of the Sideband NCBs correspond to their non-Sideband counterparts in that the calling conventions and structures are the same. The return structures are also identical with the following exceptions:
For all SEND's, the Receive Timeout field of the NCB structure will contain the Sideband return code as explained below.
For all RECEIVE's the Send Timeout field of the NCB structure will contain the Sideband return code.
The Sideband return code can have the following values.
______________________________________0 Means the frame was sent or received via the Sideband path.1 Means Sideband was disabled for the session.2 Means the user had requested a Sideband send or receive, but a non-Sideband send or receive was executed because the data did not fit into a single frame.3 Means the user had requested a Sideband send or receive, but a non-Sideband send or receive was executed because the MAC Queue was full.______________________________________
Below is a list of the SMB commands noting which are preferably used in LAN Server code in Sideband. Other SMB commands will be sent in the future.
______________________________________SMB OK for Sideband______________________________________SMBmkdirSMBrmdirSMBopenSMBcreateSMBcloseSMBflushSMBunlinkSMBmvSMBgetatr YesSMBsetatr YesSMBread YesSMBwrite YesSMBlockSMBunlockSMBctempSMBmknewSMBchkpth YesSMBexitSMBlseek YesSMBtconSMBtdisSMBnegprotSMBdskattr YesSMBsearchSMBsplopenSMBsplwrSMBsplcloseSMBsplretqSMBlockreadSMBwriteunlockSMBreadBrawSMBreadBmpxSMBreadBsSMBwriteBrawSMBwriteBmpxSMBwriteBsSMBwriteCSMBsetattrE YesSMBgetattrE YesSMBlockingXSMBtransSMBtranssSMBioctlSMBioctlsSMBcopySMBmoveSMBechoSMBwritecloseSMBopenXSMBreadX YesSMBwriteX YesSMBcloseTDSMBtrans2SMBtranss2SMBfindcloseSMBfindncloseSMBSessSetupSMBulogoffSMBTConXSMBfindSMBfuniqueSMBfcloseSMBf2close______________________________________
While the invention has been described with respect to particular embodiments above, it will be understood by those skilled in the art that modifications may be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention. These embodiments are for purposes of example and illustration only and are not to be taken to limit the scope of the invention narrower than the scope of the appended claims.
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|U.S. Classification||709/228, 370/466, 709/230, 370/468, 370/469|
|International Classification||H04L29/08, G06F13/00, H04L29/06|
|Cooperative Classification||H04L69/22, H04L69/326, H04L69/18, H04L69/24|
|European Classification||H04L29/08A4, H04L29/06K, H04L29/06P, H04L29/06N|
|Jan 8, 2001||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4
|Apr 27, 2005||REMI||Maintenance fee reminder mailed|
|Oct 7, 2005||LAPS||Lapse for failure to pay maintenance fees|
|Dec 6, 2005||FP||Expired due to failure to pay maintenance fee|
Effective date: 20051007