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Publication numberUS5679366 A
Publication typeGrant
Application numberUS 08/484,302
Publication dateOct 21, 1997
Filing dateJun 7, 1995
Priority dateNov 13, 1992
Fee statusPaid
Also published asEP0668721A1, EP0668721A4, US5476662, US5626858, WO1994010840A1
Publication number08484302, 484302, US 5679366 A, US 5679366A, US-A-5679366, US5679366 A, US5679366A
InventorsKolazi S. Narayanan, Ratan K. Chaudhuri
Original AssigneeIsp Investments Inc.
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Insertion complex; hydrogen bonding
US 5679366 A
Abstract
Various liquid or low melting pesticide and herbicide formulations, previously formulated with organic solvents, are combined with a polymer in solution and co-precipitated to form a polymer complex which captures the pesticide or herbicide yet exists as a solid at ambient conditions. By preparing the pesticide or herbicide formulation as a solid complex, storage and handling of the formulation is possible without the potential for organic solvent emission. When the solid polymer complex is placed in water, a stable aqueous dispersion of the pesticide or herbicide is achieved as the polymer inhibits flocculation, with approximately 100% recovery of the pesticide or herbicide.
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Claims(6)
We claim:
1. A solid insertion complex of a polymer and an active ingredient comprising a polymer having acid groups in a polymer matrix thereof for forming an insertion complex via hydrogen bonding with the active ingredient, the polymer and active ingredient each being dissolved in a solvent and co-precipitated as a solid insertion complex having from 10 to 90 percent by weight active ingredient, the active ingredient being dispersible into a stable emulsion in water, the active ingredient being a member of the chloroacetanilide family having the following formula: ##STR4## where R1, R2, R3 and R4 are hydrogen or C1 -C4 alkyl, and n is 0-2, and the polymer is a polyacid having the following formula: ##STR5## where R is H, C1 -C18 alkyl, C1 -C18 alkoxy or aryl; R' is H or C1 -C4 alkyl; X is H, COOH, COOR1, NHR1 or N(R1)2, R1, being H or C1 -C18 alkyl; ##STR6## R2 being H or C1 -C18 alkyl and n3 being 2-4; n1 is 0-10,000; and n2 is 100-10,000.
2. The complex of claim 1 wherein the polymer is selected from the group consisting of a maleic acid-methylvinylether alternating copolymer, a maleic acid butylvinylether copolymer, polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylate, and pyrollidonylethyl-maleamide-methylvinylether-maleic acid copolymer.
3. The complex of claim 1 wherein the polyacid has R being OCH3, X being COOH, Y being OH, R1 being H and n1 equals n2 equals 1400.
4. The complex of claim 1 wherein the ratio of active ingredient to polymer is from 30-90% pesticide.
5. The complex of claim 1 wherein the ratio of active ingredient to polymer is from 40-60% pesticide.
6. The complex of claim 1 wherein the active ingredient is from the group consisting of metolachlor, acetochlor, pretilachlor, dimethachlor, alachlor and butachlor.
Description
CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

This application is a continuation in part of application Ser. No. 07/975,812, filed Nov. 13, 1992, now U.S. Pat. No. 5,476,662. This application is also related to application Ser. No. 08/476,337, filed Jun. 7, 1995, pending, which is a divisional of application Ser. No. 07/975,812.

TECHNICAL FIELD

This invention relates to pesticides and herbicides which form complexes with a polymer for storage and handling as a solid, the pesticides and herbicides instantly dispersable into a stable emulsion when added to water.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Various pesticides and herbicides are available in liquid form such as various members of the chloroacetanilide family including metolachlor, acetochlor, pretilachlor, dimethachlor, alachlor and butachlor, which exist as oily liquids or low melting solids at ambient conditions. Such materials are usually formulated and applied in combination with various organic solvents.

With increased attention to lowering solvent emissions and to ease handling requirements, it is preferred to use pesticides and herbicides which may be handled in solid form for storage and transport. It is also desirable to provide a solid pesticide or herbicide which may be dissolved, rather than in an organic solvent, in water at the time of application. To be successful, the material must form a uniform dispersion to assure even application and maintain a stable emulsion for a time sufficient to complete the application. However, many pesticides and herbicides such as members of the chloroacetanilide family, are not considered suitable for use in a solid form, nor for preparation as aqueous emulsions.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

It is an object of the present invention to provide a polymer capable of complexing with a pesticide or herbicide to form a solid material for storage and handling.

It is a further object to provide a polymer complex of a pesticide or herbicide which, when added to water, forms an instant dispersion of the pesticide or herbicide into a stable emulsion, with nearly complete recovery of the pesticide or herbicide.

These and other objects of the present invention are achieved by providing a complex of a polymer and a pesticide or herbicide formulation comprising 10 to 90% by weight pesticide or herbicide coprecipitated with the polymer from a solvent. The complex is instantly dispersable into a stable emulsion in water with substantially complete recovery of the pesticide or herbicide. Preferably, the complex is prepared by providing a maleic acid-methylvinylether alternating copolymer, dissolving the copolymer in a solvent, adding a pesticide or herbicide thereto and co-precipitating to form a solid complex of the polymer and pesticide or herbicide. It has been discovered that the precipitated polymer complex is a solid which captures the pesticide or herbicide, with the solid easily handled using standard solids handling techniques. When added to water, the complex forms an instant dispersion of the pesticide or herbicide into a stable emulsion, with approximately 100% recovery, without the addition of other surfactants.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is a graph showing recovery of an active ingredient after dispersion in a standing sample.

FIG. 2 is a graph showing recovery of an active ingredient after dispersion in a mildly stirred sample.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

According to the invention, a polymer and a liquid or low melting pesticide or herbicide formulation are combined and co-precipitated from a solvent as a polymer complex. The polymer is preferably a polyacid of the following formula I: ##STR1## where R is H, C1 -C18 alkyl, C1 -C18 alkoxy or aryl; R' is H or C1 -C4 alkyl; X is H, COOH, COOR1, NHR1 or N(R1)2, R1, being H or C1 -C18 alkyl; ##STR2## R2 being H or C1 -C18 alkyl and n3 being 2-4; n1 is 0-10,000; and, n2 is 100-10,000. Preferably, n1 equals n2 equals 500-3000. In one preferred embodiment of the invention, R is OCH3, X is COOH, Y is OH, R' is H, n1 =n2 =1400, which is a commercially available polymer known as Gantrez S-95 polymer manufactured by ISP Corporation. However other copolymers may be used.

The pesticide or herbicide should have a molecular geometry such that the molecule can form an insertion complex via hydrogen bonding with the acid groups (C(O)OH) in the polymer matrix. The bond is sufficiently strong to hold the molecule in a bound form to produce a stable emulsion forming conformation after contact with water. In essence, it is believed that electrostatic dispersions are formed where the London-Vander Waals force is overcome by an electrical double layer effect about the particles which prevents flocculation. This is believed to be accomplished by orientation of the hydrophilic part of the bound polymer molecule complex into the water and the hydrophobic part of the polymer molecule complex curved in away from the water. Thus, not only does the solid polymer complex provide a means for storage and handling without organic solvents, but the polymer also promotes stability of the pesticide or herbicide when added to water.

Among the pesticide and herbicide compounds usable in the invention, those preferred are chloroacetanilides having the following formula II: ##STR3## where R1, R2, R3 and R4 are hydrogen or C1 -C4 alkyl and n is 0-2. Of course, other pesticides and herbicides having a geometry suitable for forming the polymer complex may be used in the present invention and this invention is not limited to the compounds of Formula II.

In particular, the chloroacetanilides of Table I may be used in the present invention.

              TABLE I______________________________________Metola   Acetoc   Pretila  Dimetha Ala   Butachlor    hlor     chlor    chlor   chlor chlor______________________________________R1    Me       Me       Me     Me      ET    ETR2    ET       ET       Me     Me      ET    ETR3    Me       H        H      H       H     HR4    Me       ET       Pr     Me      Me    Bun   1        0        2      2       1     1______________________________________

The pesticides or herbicides, hereinafter termed active ingredients ("A.I."), to polymer ratio by weight is in the range of 0.1:0.9 to 0.9:0.1, and preferably, the ratios are in the range of 0.3:0.7 to 0.7:0.3, and most preferably, 0.4:0.6 to 0.6:0.4.

The complexes of the invention may be formed by mixing the active ingredient and polymer in a solvent, such as alcohol, heating the mixture for a time sufficient to dissolve the polymer and then evaporating the solvent to precipitate a solid polymer/active ingredient complex, with the AI captured by the polymer. Preferably, the solvent is recovered and reused. Alternatively, the active ingredient is prepared as a suspension, added to an aqueous solution of the polymer, with agitation and possibly addition of an emulsifying agent. A solid complex is obtained by separation, preferably by freeze or spray drying. Such a process avoids organic solvents entirely.

EXAMPLE I

30 grams of metolachlor and 30 grams of Gantrez S-95 polymer were mixed in 200 milliliters of ethanol, to provide a 50-50 ratio active ingredient to polymer. The solution was heated to about 50 C. and agitated for 4-6 hours. The ethanol was then stripped off under reduced pressure, keeping the temperature below 40 C., causing precipitation of a solid, having a weight of about 58 grams. The solid was analyzed by ultraviolet techniques and found to contain 48% metolachlor.

EXAMPLE II

1 gram of the solid complex of example I was added to 50 milliliters of hard water (342 ppm as CaCO3) to provide a 1% concentration of metolachlor, with the mixture then inverted 20 times. The solid instantly dispersed to form an emulsion. The concentration of metolachlor was monitored by UV absorbance measurements from aliquots diluted in ethanol on both standing samples and on mildly stirred samples, over 24 hours. The percent recovery on the standing samples was 97-100% at 25% and 50% in depth, from the top, showing excellent homogeneity of the dispersion, as shown in FIG. 1. The percent recovery on mildly stirred samples was 90-100% over 24 hours, as shown in FIG. 2.

COMPARATIVE EXAMPLE III

0.5 grams of metolachlor was added to a solution containing 0.5 grams of Gantrez S-95 polymer in water, to form a 1% metolachlor concentration. No coprecipitation step was undertaken. The material was inverted 20 times and no stable emulsion was formed.

EXAMPLE IV

Three samples of metolachlor and Gantrez S-95 polymer were prepared in accordance with example I, except the first contained a 50-50 metolachlor to polymer ratio, the second a 60-40 ratio and the third an 80-20 ratio. In each case, a solid was recovered. Each solid sample was kept at an elevated temperature of 45 C. for four weeks. The results on stability are shown in Table II.

              TABLE II______________________________________STABILITY______________________________________SAMPLE          1         2         3RATIO           50:50     60:40     80:20Nature on formation           Solid     Solid     SolidAfter 4 weeks at 45 C.           Negligible                     some      honeylike           caking but                     caking    product           easily    easily           disinter  disinter           able      ableDispersibility on           Excellent Excellent goodformation% Recovery      100%      --        --Dispersibility after 4           No change --        --weeks at 45 C.______________________________________

In each case, dispersion on dilution to a 1% concentration was good to excellent, though the 80/20 solid became viscus after four weeks at 45 C.

EXAMPLE V

Example 1 was repeated except 30 grams of maleic acid-butylvinylether copolymer was used in place of the Gantrez S-95 copolymer. A solid complex was formed.

EXAMPLE VI

Example 1 was repeated except 30 grams of polyacrylic acid, commercially obtained from Aldrich, was used in place of the Gantrez S-95. A solid complex was formed.

EXAMPLE VII

Example 1 was repeated except 30 grams of polymethacrylate, commercially obtained from Aldrich, was used in place of the Gantrez S-95 copolymer. A solid complex was formed.

EXAMPLE VIII

Example 1 was repeated except 30 grams of GANTREDONE, a pyrollidonylethylmaleamide-methylvinylether-maleic acid copolymer, manufactured by ISP Corporation, was used in place of the Gantrez S-95 copolymer. A solid complex was formed.

EXAMPLE IX

Example 1 was repeated except 45 grams of Gantrez S-95 was used instead of 30 grams. The recovered solid had good thermal stability.

Typically the polymer-AI complex forms an aqueous dispersion without utilizing additional surfactants. However, surfactants and other property modifying agents may be used, depending on the end use application. In addition, to achieve a stable dispersion may require adjustment of the solution pH. This can be accomplished by partially neutralizing the polyacid to form salts. Thus, the polymer AI complex, prior to precipitation, can be adjusted, to produce a solid which will provide an instant aqueous dispersion. The process entails the additional step of adding a neutralizing agent, such as sodium hydroxide or NaHCO3 or Na2 CO3, to the polymer solution to provide a pH greater than 3 and preferably 5 to 7. The solid complex, having a polymer containing both free acid and neutralized (salt) forms thus produces the appropriate pH on dispersion to produce a stable emulsion. For example, some pH adjustment is required with the materials of examples V, VI, and VII.

EXAMPLE X

1 grams of the product of example V was placed in 50 grams of water to form a 1% AI concentration. The pH was 3 and a stable dispersion did not form. The pH was adjusted, by addition of sodium hydroxide, to be above 5. Above a pH of 5, a stable dispersion was produced.

Utilizing the inventive polymer complexes, pesticide and herbicide formulations normally applied from organic solvents may be stored and handled as solids which are dispersable into stable aqueous emulsions prior to application. This substantially simplifies storage and handling of such materials, and reduces the potential for organic vapor emissions. In addition, the dispersions, being stable, allow uniform application from water without necessitating the incorporation of other stabilizing additives. This is particularly advantageous at the field point of use, where simply placing in water is all that is required before application.

While specific embodiments of the present invention have been shown and described, it will be understood by those skilled in the art that various changes or modifications could be made without varying from the scope of the present invention.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4041151 *Jul 2, 1975Aug 9, 1977American Cyanamid CompanyResin compositions containing 0,0,0',0'-tetramethyl 0,0'-thiodi-p-phenylene phosphorothioate
US5283228 *Jul 27, 1992Feb 1, 1994Isp Investments, Inc.Agrichemical and polymer having pendant hydroxy and amino groups; pollution control
US5435939 *Jul 7, 1993Jul 25, 1995Isp Investments Inc.Stable emulsifiable gel matrix and aqueous macroemulsion prepared therefrom
US5464627 *Nov 10, 1993Nov 7, 1995Isp Investments Inc.Extrudible wet paste composition of an agriculturally active chemical; free-flowing, water-dispersible or water-soluble granules therefrom
US5468738 *Sep 15, 1993Nov 21, 1995Tokuyama CorporationAmine siloxane conpounds with metals
US5476662 *Nov 13, 1992Dec 19, 1995Isp Investments Inc.Polymer with acid groups complexed through hydrogen bonding with chloroacetanilide-type pesticides, such as alachlor; maleic acid-methyl vinyl ether copolymer preferable
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US6077522 *Jul 23, 1998Jun 20, 2000Zeneca LimitedMicrocapsules containing suspensions of biologically active compounds and ultraviolet protectant
US6146652 *Apr 7, 1998Nov 14, 2000Rohm And Haas CompanyPesticidal composition consists of a pesticide and a pesticide crstallization inhibiting amount of a oil soluble polymer containing a liophilic polymer and a polymer with both liophilic and hydrophilic character
Classifications
U.S. Classification424/409, 424/78.33, 424/78.37, 424/405, 424/78.35
International ClassificationA01N25/04, C08L33/24, C08L33/02, C08L33/04, C08L35/00, A01N37/26, A01N37/38, A01N25/10, A01N37/22
Cooperative ClassificationA01N37/22, A01N37/26, A01N25/10
European ClassificationA01N37/22, A01N37/26, A01N25/10
Legal Events
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