Apparatus for lifting or forcing liquids
US 568445 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
(No Model.) 2 Sheets-Sheet 1.
G. J; KENNEDY. APPARATUS Poe LIFTING 0R FORGING LIQUIDS. A
No. 568,445. Patented Sept. 29, 1896.
9 1 lui'nlnlmlmmlw- Il I .Il
l. O OOO IH I l" H H E IIJ A @MMA f I f@ my d l/// //z\` t5 I in //// m w @350K/@ C27. fiqgm Tn: MORRIS PETERS co. Pworomrno., wAsmNsTow, n. c.
2 Sheets-Sheet 2.
G.J.KBNNEDY. APPARATUS POR LIFTING 0R FORCING LIQUIDS.
No. 568,445. Panted'sept. 29, 1896.
ma Norms vs-rens co. rnomuwo. WASHINGTON. o. c.
^ UNITED STATES YPATENT @EricEo GEORGE J. KENNEDY, OE PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA.
APPARATUS FOR LIFTING OR FORCING LlQUll'lJS.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 568,445, dated September 29, 1896.
Application filed April 17, 1895. Serial No. 546,119. (No model.)
To @ZZ whom, t may concern:
Be it known that I, GEORG-E J. KENNEDY, a citizen of the United States, residing at Philadelphia, in the county of Philadelphia and State of Pennsylvania, have inventedcertain new and useful Improvements in Apparatus for Lifting or Forcing Liquids; and I do hereby declare the following to be a full, clear, and exact description of the invention, such as will enable others skilled in the art to which it appertains to make and use the same.
My invention relates to nozzles for use in lifting or forcing liquids in -either vertical or horizontal planes. My improved nozzle is more especially designed for use in an apparatus of that kind known as compressed-air water-elevators in which aeriform fluid under pressure is injected into a pipe containing a column of liquid which may be either water from a mine, shaft, or Artesian well, or for an oil-lift; but I do not restrict myself to this adaptation or use of the nozzle, because I am aware that it may be used in horizontal lines of piping to force liquid horizontally for some distance; nor do I wish to be understood as limiting my invention to use in connection with forcing or lifting systems using compressed air, because my nozzle can be vused to diffuse gaseous fluids and can be operated advantageously under hydraulic pressure.
In the ordinary system of lifting or forcing liquids by injecting fluids under pressure it has been the common practice to supply the fluid to the piping by means of an open inj ector through which the fluid passes in a continuous stream into the column or body of liquid, and under these conditions the compressed fluid is injected into the core or centerof the column of liquid and does not become thoroughly and uniformly diffused through the liquid. As a result of this mode of lifting or forcing fluids I have found that while the liquid will be moved in the pipe by the action thereon of the compressed iluid supplied in a continuous stream by the openmouth injector the liquid column is retarded by the friction resulting from the movement of the liquid in contact with the wall of the eduction or other line of piping, and hence a large volume of aeriform fluid under considerable pressure must be supplied to the injector for the proper and successful operation of lifting or forcing fluid to considerable heights and distances.
The object that I have in view is this: My present improvement is to diffuse the compressed fluid supplied by the injector uniformly and thoroughly into the liquid at the place where the fluid is supplied thereto, so that the compressed fluid will be thoroughly commingled or mixed with the liquid which is to be lifted or forced and a further object of the invention is to provide a simple and inexpensive construction which can be easily applied to any style of fitting or injector.
One of the chief advantages resulting from the use of my improved nozzle is that a smaller volume of compressed fluid is required for the successful operation of lifting or forcing liquids because the aeriform or other fluid acts throughout a greater radius than the continuous stream of aeriform fluid supplied by the ordinary open injector.
My invention contemplates a construction by which the current of compressed fluid will be divided or split into a multiplicity of sprays, streams, or jets which act radially in all directions, but all of which tend to travel in the same general direction in which the fluid is to be forced, and hence the compressed fluid supplied in divided streams, sprays, or jets will become thoroughly com mingled with and act upon a largely-increased area or volume of liquid than an ordinary single-discharge open injector, whereby increased eiliciency and economy of motive power is secured.
To the accomplishment of these ends I have preferably embodied my invention in a noz- 'zle constructed with a' series or plurality of Irows of openings or ports arranged at suitable intervals one from the other and all tending to split up or divide the stream of compressed fluid supplied to the injector-nozzle. The nozzle is made with a series of concentric shoulders each having an inclined top face and an inclined lower face, and through this inclined top face of each shoulder opens the series of discharge-ports forming the circular row of ports which relate to that shoulder, the inclined bottom face of the next upper row terminating within the lines of discharge of the streams of compressed fluid is- IOO suing from the series of discharge-ports, so as to avoid breaking up or retardation of the spray or streams of compressed iiuid. As these series of annular rows of openings discharge radially in all directions and on diverging lines from the axis of the nozzle, and as the streams, sprays, or jets all tend in the same general direction in which it is desired 1o force the liquid in the pipe-line, it is evident that the compressed 4liuid will become uniformly diiused in and commingled with the body or column of liquid and that the compressed iiuid will impel or force the liquid according to the laws of nature, that is, in view of the weight of the column of liquid and the pressure and volume of the compressed `fluid.
To enable others to understand my invention, I have illustrated the preferred embodiment thereof in the accompanying drawings, iorming a part of this specification, and in which- Figure I is a sectional elevation showing my invention applied to a liquid-lifting system. Fig. 2 is a sectional elevation ot the improved system for forcinga body of liquid through a horizontal pipe-line. Fig. 3 is a detail detached view of the improved nozzle. Fig. 1l is a vertical longitudinal sectional view of the nozzle shown by Fig. 3. Fig. 5 is a horizontal sectional view on the plane indicated. by the dotted line a: of Fig. 4. Figs. f5, 7, and 8 represent various arrangements oi the supply and eduetion pipes and illustrating the application of my limproved nozzle thereto.
Like letters of reference denote corresponding parts in all the iigures of the drawings.
My newly-invented nozzle for liquid elevating or forcing systems is shown at A, reference being made more particularly to Figs. 3 to 5, inclusive. The nozzle is cast or otherwise wrought from a single piece of metal in the cylindrical form shown in the drawings, and one end of this cylindrical body has a threaded nipple a, while the other end has an integral head b, which is slightly arched or crowned, as shown. A series of collars or shoulders c d ej" g 7L isproduced in the cylindrical surface of the nozzle by forming or cutting a series of annular grooves or channels z' on the surface of the nozzle, and these collars are arranged equidistant apart, concentric with each other. The upper face of each annular collar is inclined, as at j, and the lower side or face of all the collars, except the wide bottom collar c, is inclined at 7.3. The lower tace k of one collar meets or joins the upper face j of the next collar below it, and the lower face 7i: has greater inclination to the longitudinal axis of the nozzle than the upper face of the next collar, the opposing ;tace of the two adjacent collars being thus inclined at different angles to each other, for a purpose to be explained. In these annular collars or shoulders oi' the nozzle I produce the series C D E F G II of the annular rows of openings, one row of ports or openings being provided in each of the collars. Each row of openings is drilled or other wise produced in its collar at an angle to the longitudinal axis of the nozzle, and these openings are exposed or extend through the' upper inclined face of the collar, whereby the streams, jets, or sprays will be projected radially and uniformly in all directions 'from the inclined upper face of each collar, and the sprays, streams, or jets will be projected or forced in one general direction longitudinally through the eduction pipe or line of piping. Each opening or port of all the series or rows of openin gs is tapered longitudinally, as shown by Fig. 4, and the enlarged or widened ends oi' the ports open through the inclined faces j of the shoulders, while the inner contracted or smaller ends of the ports open into the chamber or space of the nozzle.
The head Z) of the nozzle has the inner and outer rows of discharge-ports b b, which are concentric with each other, and all these ports are tapered, with their enlarged ends opening through the exposed face of the crown or head b, while their inner ends open into the space or chamber of the nozzle. The outer series of ports D in the head or crown l) are inclined at an angle to the axis of the nozzle to project the sprays, streams, or jets radially with respect to the nozzle; but the inner row oi ports b" are parallel to the axis of the nozzle, or substantially so, to project the streams, jets, or sprays on planes parallel to the axis of the nozzle, although this is not essential.
By arranging the ports at an angle to the axis of the nozzle and tapering the ports to have their discharge-oriiices larger than their receiving ends I provide a nozzle which possesses increased efficiency as compared with the ordinary single-port ejector, and my nozzle does not require iiuid under as great pressure as it is necessary to supply to the ordinary ejector, because the current of compressed airis divided into thin sprays,streams, or jets, which are distributed radially in all directions from the nozzle and thereby diffused uniformly through and intimately combined with the liquid to be lifted or forced. The lower faces 7.; of the shoulders are inclined at such angles and the ports so disposed in the shoulders that the sprays, streams, or jets of compressed luid do not strike the faces 1, and hence the overhanging shoulders do not retard or break up the streams or jets of compressed fluid issuing from the nozzle. i
In a nozzle for liquid-lifting systems in which the liquid is to be raised in an upright eduetion-pipe by the action of compressed i'luid injected under pressure into the liquid it is important to have the discharge-ports in an injector-nozzle stand as nearly perpendicular as practicable and consistent with the radial diffusion of the compressed fluid into the body of the liquid. The reasons for this IOO IIO
are twofold: iirst, to prevent the sprays, streams, or jets of compressed fluid from being directed in such horizontally-inclined planes that they will be impelled through the surrounding column of liquid and strike against the inner walls of the eduction-pipe, thus destroying the energy of the streams or jets of compressed iiuid, and, second, to direct the streams or jets into the surrounding column of liquid more nearly in the direction of the line of propulsion of the iiuid through the eduction-pipe to utilize lthe energy of the compressed fiuid to better advantage and secure increased eflicieney and economy.
In the construction of a nozzle of the class herein disclosed, in which a plurality of discharge-ports are arranged in rows, difficulty is experienced in producing ports in the nozzle which will stand in an upwardly-inclined position to the longitudinal axis of the nozzle. This difficulty is due to the fact that the ports or holes must be bored or drilled in the nozzle, and these drills cannot be successfully manipulated to bore into surfaces which are inclined to the position of the drills and the lines or directions in which the drills are fed or moved. To overcome this difficulty in drilling the discharge-ports, I have constructed my nozzle in the peculiar Way herein shown and described, that is to say, with a series of annular grooves forming a series of spaced concentric collars, each collar having an inclined upper face and an inclined lower face, and with a plurality of rows of ports, one row of ports being produced in each collar in an inclined position to the axis of the nozzle and with the outer ends of the ports opening through the inclined upper face of the collar. By making each collar With an inclined upper face the ports can be advantageously and quickly drilled in the collar in true positions and at the desired angle, because the inclined upper face of the collar offers a proper surface for the drills to rest upon and enables the drills to bore through the collar into the hollow chamber of the nozzle, said inclined upper face of the collar being in a plane at right angles to the line of feed of the drilling and boring tools.
My nozzle can be used in liquid forcing or elevating systems in which the line of pipe is arranged in either a vertical, horizontal, or inclined position, and in Fig. l I have shown a series of nozzles applied to a vertical eduction-pipe I, while in Fig. 2 the pipe .I is in a horizontal position.
I prefer to employ a series of nozzles in the pipe-line and to provide one or more valved supply-pipes by which the currents of compressed iiuid may be supplied successively to the nozzles of the series, in order that each nozzle may be adapted to force a known Weight and quantity of liquid in proportion to the pressure of the compressed fluid supplied to the nozzle and in accordance with the laws of nature.
In Fig. 1 I have shown a series of three nozzles L M N, which are dispersed at suitable intervals along the length of the pipe I, and to the nozzles are connected the valved supply-pipes Z m n, which lead to a source of iiuid supply which may be a compressor for supplying compressed aeriform fluid to the pipes or a hydraulic pump or other machinery, according to the nature of the compressed iiuid it is intended to supply to the nozzles. In operation the valved pipe lis rst opened to admit the current to the rst nozzle L, by Which theA current is divided and sprayed into the liquid standing in the pipe I to lift and force the liquid above the nozzle L. Then the valved pipe m is opened to inject the iiuid through the nozzle M and lift the liquid in the pipe I between the nozzles L M. Then the the pipe m is closed and pipe n opened to admit the fluid to nozzle N, which lifts or forces the uid between nozzles M N, the valved pipe Z'being left open or closed, as may be found necessary or desirable, While the nozzles M or N. are in operation.
In the system shown by Fig. 2 the horizontal pipe J is supplied with a series of nozzles P P', and a series of valved pipes o o' are connected to said nozzles, respectively. Thel operation of this system is analogous to that described for the system shown by Fig. 1, but instead of lifting or pumping the liquid it is forced in a horizontal line.
In Figs. 6, '7, and 8 of the drawings I have illustrated different methods of supplying the compressed aeriform fluid to the series of nozzles, either of which may be adopted. Thus in Fig. (5 a single supply-pipe Q is provided for all the series of nozzles, and this pipe Q is arranged outside of the eductionpipe I, and it is provided with branches` q, which extend into the pipe I, each branch q carrying the nozzle A, as shown. In Fig. 7 the eduction-pipe I is arranged within a casing R, which is closed by a head r, and to this casing is connected the supply-pipe Q", which conveys the compressed aeriform iuid to the lifting or forcing apparatus. The nozzles are arranged centrally Within the eduction-pipe, and they are carried by short elbowshaped supports s, which open through the eduction-pipe to permit the compressed iiuid, supplied to the casing R, to pass from said casing into the nozzles, by which the compressed fluid is sprayed or divided into the column of liquid in the pipe I.
In Fig. 8 of the drawings I have shown a modification in which the nozzles are coupled to sections of the pipe and form a part of the same. In this embodiment of the invention the interior pipe forms the air-pipe or other source for supplying aeriform fluid to the nozzles, and to the upper end of this interior pipe is coupled the supply-pipe thatleads to the air-compressor or other motor for forcing fluid under pressure to the nozzles. The nozzles used in this construction are made in the form of cylindrical bodies open at both ends and threaded for attachment thereto of IOO IIO
the section of pipe, and said nozzles have their collars and ports as in the construction shown by Figs. 3, et, and 5. The external casing or eduction-pipe has a branch pipe leading off from the upper end for conveying the liquid, or rather the coniniingled liquid and air or other fluid, to a suitable place of discharge.
IIaving thus fully described iny invention, what I claim as new, and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is-
l. A nozzle for liquid lifting and forcing systems comprising an externally-grooved body forming a series of spaced collars each having an upper face which is inclined with respect to the longitudinal axis of the nozzle, and a plurality of rows of discharge-ports, one row of such ports being produced in each collar in lines approximately at right angles to the' inclined upper face of said collar and in dverging lines radially to the axis of the nozzle, substantially as and for the purposes described.
2. A nozzle for liquid lifting and forcing systems comprising a cylindrical body having a series of circumferential grooves forniinga series of spaced collars, cach collar provided with an upper face which is inclined to the longitudinal axis of the nozzle and with a lower face of greater inclination than the upper face, and a plurality of rows of tapering ports, one row of tapered ports being produced in each collar in lines substantially at right angles to the upper inclined face of said collar and with the outer, larger ends of said tapering ports opening through such upper face of the collar, substantially as and for the purposes described.
A nozzle for liquid lifting and forcing systems comprising a body having on its outer surface a series of working faces, j, which are inclined relatively to the longitudinal axis of the nozzle, and a plurality of rows of ports, one row of ports extending through each of the working faces, j, in lines substantially at right angles to the inclination of said working face, substantially as and for the purposes described.
4. A nozzle for liquid lifting and forcing systems comprising a cylindrical body having a series of grooves forming a series of spaced collars, each collar provided with an upper face which is inclined with respect to the longitudinal axis of the nozzle and with a lower neutral face of greater inclination than the upper working face, and rows of dischargeports extending' through said collars in lines substantially at right angles to the inclination of the upper working faces thereof; the lower neutral face of each collar being disposed within the lines of the jets or sprays discharged from the working face of the next adjacent collar, substantially as and for the purposes described.
In testimony whereof I affix niy si guatu re in presence of two witnesses.
GEORGE J. KENNEDY. lVitnesses:
EDWARD BROOKS, J r., 1I. A. MACKEY.