US 581427 A
Abstract available in
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
3 sheetssheen 1.
s. OLSON. NUTl WRENCH.
Patented Ap-r. 27., 189,7.
N ammi! nllln www" (No Model.) 3 Sheets-SheenvZ.
r NUT WRENCH.
No. 581,427. Patented Apr. 2?-, 1897.
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3 Sheets-Sheet; 3.
NUT WRENCH. N0. 581,427 Patented Apr. 27V, 1897.
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f--J a5 a mm" 7 70 Z UNITED STATES ATENT vPrion.
SWAN OLSON, OF ULEN, MINNESOTA.
SPECIFIGJQTION forming part of Letters Patent No. 581,427, dated April 27', 1897.
Application iiled lIuly Z4, 1896. Serial No. 600,425. (No model.)
To all 7,072,071@ it may concern:
yBe it known that I, SWAN OLSON, a citizen of the United States, and a' resident of IIlen, Olay county, State of Minnesota, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Nut-VVrenches; and my preferred manner of carrying out the invention is set forth in the following full, clear, and exact description, terminating with claims particularly specifying the novelty.
Thisinvention relates to nut-wrenches, and more especially to that class thereof which employ a ratchet-wheel; and the object of the sameis to effect certain improvements in tools of this character.
To this end the invention consists in the construction hereinafter described and claimed and as illustrated in the drawings, wherein- Figure 1 is an elevation of the body portion of this wrench with the upper half ot' its handle removed to show the interior construction, this view illustrating one of the mechanisms which I employ for moving the pawls. Fig. 2 is a similar view of a slightly different mechanism for moving the pawls. Fig. 3 is a side elevation of the device shown in Fig. 1
l with the head in section, illustrating the use of a box shown as seated in said head and of a handle as screwed into the rear end of the box, both box and handle being in section. Fig. 4 is aside elevation of said box and handle slightly separated. Fig. 5 is a side elevation of a long shaft for use in connection with this wrench,the ends thereof bein g shown as in section, so that the upper end can receive the box and the lower end can pass through .the head and receive the handle. Fig. 6 is a perspective view of certain details belonging to Fig. .1. Fig. 7 is a perspective detail of a reducing-box for insertion in the hole in the head or inthe hole in the box shown in Fig. 3. Fig. 8 is a longitudinal section of a chuck especially adapted for use in connection with this improved wrench and which is intended for the reception of bits. Fig. 9 is a similar view of a chuck for the reception of drills which may have bodies of round, square, or tapered form. Fig. 10 is a similar view of my preferred form of chuck adapted for use in connection with this improved wrench. Fig. 11 is a front elevation thereof. Fig. 12 is a section on the line 12 12 thereof in Fig. 10.
In the said drawings the letter P designates the body portion or main part of my improved wrench, comprising a handle having at one end a rotary head R. B is a box shaped to fit the hole in said head and having a smaller end shaped to receive the'threaded shank of a handle H. S is a long shaft, of which there may be several, from fifteen inches to two feet in length, more or less, having a cavity at one end for the reception of the box B and shaped at its other end to pass through the hole in the head R and receive the handle H, and r is a reducing piece or box whereby the nutcavity in the head R, the box B, or the larger end of the shaft S. may be reduced in size. These parts will now be described in detail.
The body portz'oa.'l`lie numeral 1 designates a handle, which may be of two wooden members held together by screws or bolts or may have an interposed strip 2 of metal, and in the upper enlarged end of .this handle is journaled the rot-ary head R, which consists of a wheel 3, having a square hole 4 through its center and provided in itsperiphery with teeth 5, so shaped that they receive the tips of the two pawls 6, which face in opposite directions. Said pawls are pivoted at 7 (preferably on bolts or screws which hold the parts of the handle 1 together) and have depending arms 8, which a-re held normally separated by springs 9, seated in cavities l() in a piece 1l, formed integral with one of the halves of the handle. Any suitable mechanism may be employed for operating the pawls, and I have shown two such mechanisms.
In Fig. 1, 12 are two'levers pivoted at 13 over corners of the integral piece 11 and hav- -ing notches 14 in their lower ends, as seen in Fig. 6, while 15 is a shaft journaled longitudinally through the handle 1 and operated at its lower endby a button 16, its upper end having an eccentric 17, mounted between the lower ends of said levers 12 and provided with a projection 1S, as seen in Fig. 6. When the button 16 and eccentric 17 stand as seen in Fig. 1, t-he right-hand pawl 6 is disengaged from the teeth 5 on the head, because the eccentric 17 has moved the lever 12 to press the right arm S inward against the spring 9 and turn said pawl 6 on its pivot 7. When the button 16 is given a half-revolution, however, the projection 1S of the eccentric 17 moves out of the notch 14 in the right-hand lever 12, and as the eccentric turns around to the opposite position to enter the other notch the right pawl is forced into the teeth 5 and the IOO left pawl is drawn out. In Fig. 2 the construction is the same except that I use a single lever 12', shaped as here shown and centrally pivoted, so that the extremities 12l of its yoke-shaped arlns engage the arms 8, as seen. The lower ends of said arms S are provided with heads S', which engage beneath said extremities 12H when the yoke is in either extreme position. This yoke may be Operated by the shaft and button shown in Fig. 1, if its lower end be forked, as shown in dotted lines in Fig. 2, for the reception of the eccentric 17, although when I use the yoke I preferably employ a thumb-piece 19 at its lower end, which projects laterally through slots 2O in the sides ofthe body-piece, as seen in dotted lines in Fig. 3. By grasping these thumb-pieces and moving them through the length of the slot 2O the yoke will be rocked about its pivot, and the pawls will be moved the same as if the shaft and button were employed, and I consider this a much cheaper arrangement, although the operation is the same.
The hoases-The device above described is a wrench in itself, and the hole 4 can be applied over a nut for the purpose of turning `the same in either direction; but when the nut does` not project, but is surrounded by a projecting member like the outer band of a wheel-hub, it is necessary to employT additional means to get at the nut. For this purpose I provide the box B, (best seen in Fig. 3,) which consists of a shell 2 l, in teriorly squared, as at 22, and exteriorly squared,as at 223, to fit into the hole in the head R. It will be noticed that the hole in said head is of two sizesa larger size 4: and a smaller size Lt--and when it is of such construction the exterior of the box is further reduced and squared, as at 24, so as to pass through the reduced portion a of the hole in the head. By reference to Fig. I it will be seen that this smaller portion or shank of the box B is provided with springcatches 25, of which there is one on each side, and the length of such shank is sufficient to permit it to pass completely through the hole in the head, so that the catches 25 engage the opposite face thereof, as seen in Fig. 3.
Referring now to Fig. 7, the letter 0' designates a reducing-box which, like the box B, consists of a shell 3l, interiorly recessed, as at S2, and having a reduced shank 34, carrying on opposite sides spring-catches 35, as shown. This reducing-box is adapted for insertion in the hole l of the head R or in the socket 22 of the box B, the tips of its catches 35 in the former instance passing into notches 4t in the reduced portion et' of said hole and in the latter instance into notches 22 in the sides of the socket of the box, whereby said red ucing-box is frictionally held in place. The socket 32 of the reducing-box is of course smaller than the larger size of hole in the head, while the smaller end of the reducingbox is also of less size than the smaller portion lit'ef the hole in the head or than the socket 22 in the box B. In all cases the holes for the reception of nuts or other angular devices maybe either squared or of other desired configuration, according to the shape of the nut.
The handler-In Figs. 3 and 4 is shown the handle II, which consists of an ordinary handpiece 10, havi ng swi veled therethrough a shaft 4l, provided with wings 42, adjacent the operative end of the handle, and also provided with a cup l2-3, which is beyond the wings, beyond which said shaft is threaded, as at ete, so that it may screw into the threaded aperture 26 in the smaller end of the box B. The use of this handle is best seen in Fig. 3, where the cup 13 .stands against the rear face of the head R around and over the springcatches 25, so as to completely prevent them from accidental contact. The socket 22 being passed over the nut on the end of an axle and the handle t0 held in one hand, the shank of the box is passed through the hole in the head R, and the shaft 4l of the handle is turned by means of the wings At2, so as to screw the threads 114; into the aperture 2G. Still holding the handle l() in one hand the main handle 1 of the body portion of the wrench is manipulated to turn the nut otf the axle, the pawls having been previously set so as to rotate the head to the right or left, as may be necessary, at opposite sides of the vehicle. XVith light nuts it may be possible to rotate the box B with sufficient force by simply holding the swiveled handle 4:0 and turning the wings 42 with the same hand or with the other hand, thus avoiding the use of the body portion at all; but said body portion is generally employed, and in order to remove the parts therefrom it is only necessary iirst to unscrew the handle II and next to compress the tips of the catches 25, so that they may pass through the smaller portion 4' of the hole in the head.
The shaft- The letter S designates a shaft of metal or of a suitable material, of which there may be several of various lengths even up to several feet, and this yshaft is used where it is desired to remove or apply nuts in the center of a complicated machine, such as a thresher, and far from a point where they could readily be reached by the box B or the wrench itself. This shaft consists of a long body 50, having one end exteriorly squared, as at 53, beyond which it is reduced and squared, as at 5st, and is interiorly threaded, as at 5G, so that this end corresponds with the smaller end of the box B, even having springcatches 55, if desired, as seen in dotted lines. The other end of the body 5t) comprises a shell 51, having an interior squared socket 52 like the larger end of the box, and because said box may sometimes be employed in connection with this end I also preferably provide releasers 57, which are springs attached at one end to opposite sides of the body 50, and having pins 5S at their opposite ends projecting inward into the socket 52 at proper points to fio IOO
bear upon the free ends of the spring-catches 25 of the box B, as seen in dotted lines. It will be understood that the interior of the box may be hexagonal, while the exterior of its shank is square, and when the box is connected with theshaft S for the purpose of turning a hexagonal nut the square shank 24 passes into the square socket 52. This socket, however, having no outlet at its rear end like the hole 4 in the head R there must be means provided to trip the spring-catches 25, so as to release the box after it has been used, and hence the provision of the releasers 57. The use of the shaft will be obvious. It could be substituted for the box, as shown in Fig. 3, with or without the handle H, and by it the operator can gain access to a far-distant nut which can be applied or removed with ease.
In addition to the parts of the wrench proper, as above described, the drawings hereto attached illustrate certain attachments especially adapted for use in connection therewith,
which attachments are shown on Sheet 3. and
consist of a chuck C for general use, another chuck D for drills, and my preferred form of chuck M. These attachments will now be described.
The chucks-The letter C designates as a whole the ordinary form of chuck now employed with bit-handles, which chuck has a body 60, having one end exteriorly squared, as at (S4, and interiorly threaded, as at 66, so that this end corresponds with the smaller end ot the box B, and it may even have the spring-catches G5, if desired, as seen in dotted lines. The other end of the body G0 is longitudinally slotted, and in the fork thus formed are located two connected arms o3,
'notched at their front inner ends, as at 62,
for the reception of the angular extremity of the bit when in place, while 6l is a shell surrounding these arms and screwing, as at 67, upon the body, so as to clamp the outer ends of the arms against the bit, as usual.
is the body of a chuck, having one end squared, as at 74, and also possibly interiorly screw-threaded, as at 7 6, so as to correspond with the smaller end of the box B, this end also having spring-catches 75, if desired, and substantially of the construction above described. The opposite end is tubular, as shown at 71, and 77 is a set-screw passing inwardly through the side of this portion, so as to clamp the square, round, angular, or tapered end of a drill therein, as will be clearly understood.
My preferred chuck- In Figs. 10 to 12 is shown the form of chuck which I prefer to use in connection with the wrench above described and whose construction is such that it is especially adapted thereto. 8O is the body thereof, having one end exteriorly squared, as at Si, and interiorly threaded, as at. S6, the same as the smaller end of the box B, and possibly also having spring-catches S5, as shown in dotted lines, whereby the whole is adapted for attachment, as above described,
vation, thus providing a central web 80 and two lateral ears 83 at each side thereof, and in the space between these ears works an arm 83, whose forward or outer extremity is semisquare, as seen at 82, for the reception of one corner of a nut of any size within certain limits. S7 are springs attached at opposite ends to the outer edges of the arms 83, then making bows or coils and having their centers secured to opposite edges of the web 80,where by these springs are of substantially W shape, as seen in the drawings, and these springs act as releasers, in that they cause the angular ends S2 of the arms S3'to normally disengage the diametrically opposite corners of the nut. 8l is a shell of cylindrical form whose body embraces the body portion S0 and whose lower end is journaled thereon, and within this lower end is formed a pair of lower cams 88, consisting of grooves diverging spirally from the center in one direction. Secured Within the upper open end of this shell is a pair of upper cams S9, projecting inward and having their operative faces also diverging spirally from the center in the same direction as the lower cams, and against each pair of cams the outerface of one of the arms 83 rests, being held normally in contact therewith by its spring. When the shell is turned axially in proper direction around the body portion 80, its cams 88 and 89 are moved behind the outer face of each arm 83 in such manner as to press said arm inward, and hence to cause its semisquared extremity S2 to engage the corner of the nut to be turned, and when the shell is again turned in the opposite direction the spring causes the arm 83 to be moved laterally outward, so that its extremity 82 disengages the nut. In order to hold the shell against a retrograde movement after it has been turned as rst above described, I provide on the exterior of its lower end a ratchet 8l', adapted to be engaged by the tip or outer end of the catch S4', whose body passes transversely through the body portion 8O and is cavso thatit does not project far enough to engage the ratchet; but when it is desired that it shall engage such ratchet the catch is borne inward, then downward, and finally released, and the spring then throws it outward, so that its outer extremity does engage the ratchet. Obviously the shell can be rotated about the body portion and held by the catch and ratchet, so that the semisquared ends S2 IOO IOS
will engage the corners of a nut of varying sizes.
That is claimed as new isl. In a wrench, the combination with the body portion, ahead journaled therein and having an angular opening and teeth on its periphery, two oppositely-disposed pawls pivoted to the body portion and having depending arms, and an expansive spring between said arms; of pivoted levers engaging at one extremity the outer faces of said arms, an eccentric disposed between the opposite extremities of said levers, a shaft extending longitudinally of the handle and attached at one end to the eccentric, and a button secu red to the other end of the shaft, as and for the purpose set forth.
2. In a wrench, the combination `with the' body portion, a rotary head therein having an angular opening and teeth on its periphery, two oppositely-disposed pawls pivoted to the body portion, and springs for throwing said pawls normally against the teeth of the head; of pivoted levers having one extremity adapted to retract said pawls and notches in their opposite extremities, an eccentric disposed between the latter extremities and having a projection at its longest diameter, and means for rotating the eccentric from the exterior of the handle, as and for the purpose set forth.
3. In a wrench, the combination with the body portion, a head journaled therein and having an angular opening and teeth on its periphery, two oppositely-disposed pawls pivoted to the body portion and having depending arms, and an expansive spring between said arms; of pivoted levers engaging at one extremity the outer faces of said arms and having notches at their opposite extremities, an eccentric disposed between the latter extremities and having a projection at its longest diameter, and means for rotating the eccentric from the exterior of the handle, as and for the purpose set forth.
4C. In a wrench, the combination with the body portion having a rotary head provided with an angular aperture which is reduced in size at one end, and means for rotating the head in either direction; of a hollow box having a n Lit-opening at one end and its other end provided with a reduced and exteriorly-sho uldered shank adapted to lit the openings in the head, and spring-catches on the smaller portion of said shank removably connecting it with the head, as and for the purpose set forth.
5. In a wrench, the combination with the body portion having a rotary head provided with an angular opening, means for turning the head in either direction, and a box having a nut-opening in one end and a hollow shank at the other end exteriorl'y fitting the aperture in the head and interiorly threaded; of a handle comprising a shaft screwed into said threaded hole and a handpiece swiveled on the shaft, as and for the purpose set forth.
6. In a wrench, the combination with the body portion having a rotary head provided with an angular opening, means for turning the head in either direction, and a box having a nut-opening in one end and a hollow shank at the other end exteriorly fitting the aperture iu the head; of a handle comprising a shaft removably engaging the interior of the shank of the box, wings fast on said shaft, and a handpiece swiveled on the shaft in the rear of the wings, as and for the purpose set forth.
7. In a wrench, the combination with the body portion having a rotary head provided with an angular opening, means for turning the head in either direction, and abox having a nut-opening in one end and a hollow shank at the other end exteriorly fitting the aperture in the head 5' of spring-catches on the exterior of said shank removably engaging the rear face of the head adjacent its aperture, and a handle comprising a shaft entering the hole in said shank, means for rotating said shaft, and a cup on the latter surrounding the catches and bearing normally against the rear face of said head, as and for the purpose set forth.
S. In a wrench, the combination with a rotary member having an angular opening with notches in opposite walls of said opening, and means for rotating said member in either direction of a reducing-boxhavinga nut-opening in one end and a reduced shank at the other end, and spring-catches on the exterior of said shank whose tips removably engage said notches, as and for the purpose set forth.
9. In a wrench, the combination with a shaft havingan angularsocket in one end,1neans for rotating said shaft in either direction, and a box having a nut-opening in one end and a reduced shank at the other end exteriorly shaped to fit said socket; of spring-catches carried on the exterior of the box-shank, and releasers carried by the shaft and each comprising a spring attached at one end to the shaft and a pin at its other end standing normally over the engaging faces of said catches, as and for the purpose set forth.
10. In a wrench, the combination with the body portion having a rotary head provided with an angular opening, and means for turning the head in either direction; of a box whose body is exteriorly squared at one end so as to fit said opening and provided with an interior' screwthreaded hole, and a handle journaled on a threaded shaft which is adapted for removable insertion in said hole from the opposite side of the rotary head, as and for the purpose set forth.
In testimony whereof I have hereunto subscribed my signature on this the 7th day of July, A. D. 1806.
R. J. CRAUFORD, J. T. JOHNSON.