Construction of buildings
US 581940 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
J. 0. PELTON. CONSTRUCTION OF BUILDINGS.
No. 581,940. Patented May 4, 1897.
JOHN C. PELTON, OF SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA.
CONSTRUCTION OF BUILDINGS.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 581,940, dated May 4, 1897'.
Application filed June 1'7, 1896. Serial No. 595,863. (No model.)
To all whom, it may concern:
Be it known that I, JOHN C. PELTON, of San Francisco, county of San Francisco, State of California, have invented an Improvement in the Construction of Buildings, of which the following description, in connection with the accompanying drawings, is a specification, like letters and figures on the drawings representing like parts.
This invention relates to that form of building construction wherein the structural portion of the building has applied thereto a facing, preferably separated therefrom to leave a space, the facing being supported at intervals by the structural part of the building, whether of brick, iron or steel, or other ma terial. Such method of constructiom'termed released ashler, is advantageous in many particulars, the structural portion of the building being protected by the facing, while the latter can be made of thin slabs, tiles, or the like set on edge, the weight thereof being divided at suitableintervals and transmitted to the building structure.
In my present invention I provide simple and effective means for adjusting the weightsupporting devices either vertically or toward or from the building-wall, and I fill in the space between the wall and facing with a composition which increases the fireproof qualities of the building and guards against dampness, acting also as a good non-conductor of heat.
It is desirable to make the joints between the facing stones, slabs, or tiles somewhat elastic, and I have provided novel means herein for so doing.
This invention accordingly has for its object the production of an improved construction of buildings to be fully described hereinafter, and particularly pointed out in the claims.
Figure 1, in side elevation and section, represents a portion of a building-wall and separated facing with one form of facing-sup port embodied therein, the intervening space being shown as partially filled in. Figs. 2 and 3 are enlarged perspective details of the parts of the adjustable facing support or carrier shown in Fig. i. Fig. 4 is a perspective view of another form of support. Fig. 5, in
elevation,represents a series of stones orslabs with my improved elastic joint; and Fig. 6 is a is shown as bent at its inner end at'a to engage the vertical face of a brick or the in ner face of the wall itself, the outer end of the anchor projecting beyond the wall being shown as bent at a to form an ear in a vertical plane. This car a is slotted at a as herein shown, vertically, and the anchors are let into the walls at desired vertical intervals,
depending upon the character and thickness of the facing and the height thereof.
The cooperating facing-support is shown separately in Fig. 2 as consisting of an upright web I) and a shelf 1), extended therefrom at right angles, the outer end of the shelf being preferably oppositely extended, as at 1)" b Said extensions are adapted to enter grooves in the adjacent edges of two successive courses of facing stones or tiles to prevent lateral movement thereof, and I prefer to form oppositely-extended steps or guides 12 b at the inner end of the shelf to rest against the inner surface of the facing, as shown in Fig. 1.
The web Z) is slotted at b and horizontally or at right angles to the slot a in the anchor member, and in use the two members of the support are connected by a suitable bolt 19 Fig. 1, extended through the slots, the anchorear a? and the shelf-web I) being placed in juxtaposition.
It will be understood that the anchor members are put in place as the building structure is erected, and the facing is erected later or simultaneously, as desired, and as the main structure is apt to settle more or less the exact position of the points of connection of the anchors and facing cannot be absolutely computed and maintained. For this reason it is necessary to make provision for adjusting the facing-supporting members on the anchor members, and the construction described is well adaptedtherefor, the vertical slot permitting vertical adjustment of the shelf or support and the horizontal slot permitting movement toward or from the face of the structural wall.
Obviously the vertical slot could be made in the web of the movable member and the horizontal slot in the ear of the anchor member without departing from the spirit of the invention.
As the facing is erected I prefer to introduce a fillin g B, preferably in liquid or semiliquid form, such as steatite, cement, grout, &c., which will harden in place and increase the protection against fire and dampness, and also serve to make the building warmer in winter and cooler in summer.
In Fig. 4 I have shown a modified form of anchor and facing-support, the anchor member 0 being shown as a hollow casting, preferably rectangular in cross-section, adapted to be built in the structural wall and having an opening a in one of its side walls, if desired.
The movable supporting member I) is adapted to enter the open outer end of the anchor member and to be moved longitudinally more or less therein for lateral adj ustment.
Vertical adjustment is effected by inserting one or more shims 5 (see dotted lines) between the bottom of the anchor and the un der side of the supporting member d, and then retaining shims or wedges 6 are driven in above it to hold it rigidly in place.
If the structural wall be of such construction as to permit it, the shims or wedges may be inserted through the side openings 0 of the anchor.
The facing-supporting member Z) has oppositely-extended lugs or projections b b thereon to enter grooves in the facing stones or slabs, as before.
For heavy facings it will be obvious that the anchor members may be varied in form and size, according to circumstances, to provide the necessary strength so long as the adjustable connection of the anchor member and the movable supporting member is preserved.
It is desirable to make elastic joints in the facing, and for this purpose, instead of layin g on the mortar or cement with a trowel, as is customary, I take paper, cloth, felt, or other similar material in strip form, as f, Fig. 6, and dip it into the soft mortar or cement until a sufficient portion f of the latter is taken up. The strip is then laid upon the upper edge of one of the facing blocks or stones on, Fig. 5, if a bed-joint, and the block on in the next course is placed in position thereupon, the strip f possessing sufficient compressibility and elasticity for the purpose desired.
In a vertical joint the strip with its mortar or cementf Fig. 5, is laid against the vertical edge of a block, as m and the adjacent block m moved up snugly against it.
The space between the facing and structural wall will, as aforesaid, aid in making the building fireproof, the filling l3 increasing this resistance as well as protecting the building from dampness and changes of temperature in the outside air.
Until the facing has been destroyed the structural wall is protected from fire, and thereafter the filling acts as further protection.
The construction of such buildings is more rapidly prosecuted, inasmuch as the structural walls may be carried to their full height without delay or interruption, so that interior work and finishing may be carried on while the facing is being erected.
The interruption of the accumulation of weight of the facing is a very important feature, but this is not broadly claimed herein, as it forms a part of the subject-matter of United States Patents Nos. 542,203 and 542,204, granted to me July 2, 1895.
Having fully described my invention, what I claim, and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is
1. In the construction of buildings, an anchor member adapted to be rigidly secured in fixed position to the structural wall, a cooperating facing support or member, and means to adjustably connect said members and hold them in adjusted position, whereby the movable member may be adjusted vertically and toward or from the structural Wall, substantially as described.
2. In the construction of buildings, an anchor member adapted to be rigidly secured to the structural wall, a cooperating facing support or member having oppositely-extended projections to enter grooves in the edges of adjacent facing stones or blocks, and means to adjustably connect said members,whereby the movable member may be adjusted vertically and toward or from the structural wall, substantially as described.
3. In the construction of buildings, an anchor member adapted to be secured to the structural wall, a cooperating facing support or member, having an upturned projection at its outer end to enter a groove in. the lower edge of the facing stone or block, a stop to bear against the inner face of said stone or block, and means to adjustably connect said m embers, whereby the facing member may be adjusted vertically and toward or from the structural wall, substantially as described.
4. In the construction of buildings, an anchor member adapted to be secured to the structural wall, a cooperating facing support or member, and a slot-and-bolt connection between said members, whereby the facing member can be adjusted vertically and toward and from the structural wall, substantially as described.
5. In the construction of buildings, an an ehor member having at its outerenda-slotted In testimony whereof I have signed my Vertical ear, a eoeperating facing support or name to this specification in the presence 0f 10 member provided with a vertical slotted Web, two subscribing Witnesses.
the slots being at right angles, and :1 connecti 5 ing and adjusting bolt extended through the JOHN PELTON' ear and Web When placed in juxtaposition, to WVitnesses: adjnstably secure them together, substan- JOHN O. EDWARDS, tially as described. I AUGUSTA E. DEAN.