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Publication numberUS5867783 A
Publication typeGrant
Application numberUS 08/705,976
Publication dateFeb 2, 1999
Filing dateAug 30, 1996
Priority dateApr 22, 1991
Fee statusPaid
Also published asDE69406240D1, DE69406240T2, EP0648027A1, EP0648027B1, US5439190, US5551624
Publication number08705976, 705976, US 5867783 A, US 5867783A, US-A-5867783, US5867783 A, US5867783A
InventorsPeter H. Cress, Michael Horstein, Roger J. Rusch
Original AssigneeTrw Inc.
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Medium-earth-altitute satellite-based cellular telecommunications
US 5867783 A
Abstract
A satellite-based cellular telecommunications system employing a constellation of telecommunications satellites in medium earth orbit to provide multibeam radio frequency (rf) communications links for worldwide cellular telephone service with a minimum number of satellites. The telecommunications satellites are placed in a plurality of inclined orbits about the earth at an altitude of between approximately 5600 and 10,000 nautical miles. The characteristics of the orbits, such as the number of orbits, the inclination of each orbit, the number of satellites in each orbit and the altitude of the satellites, are tailored to maximize the coverage area of the satellites and their related line-of-sight elevation angles, while minimizing propagation time delays, the number of beam-to-beam and satellite-to-satellites handovers, and the total number of satellites. The present invention also includes several additional features which essentially eliminate beam-to-beam and satellite-to-satellite handovers, thus dramatically reducing the likelihood of dropouts.
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Claims(27)
What is claimed is:
1. A method for deploying a full service constellation of satellites in a satellite based telecommunications system, whereby the satellites provide one of single and double coverage of at least a predetermined portion of the earth depending upon a number of satellites deployed, wherein single coverage constitutes continuous, 24-hour satellite visibility by mobile users of one satellite and double coverage constitutes continuous, 24-hour satellite visibility by mobile users of two satellites, each satellite being adjustable within a corresponding orbital plane to accommodate gain and loss of satellites from the corresponding orbital plane, comprising the steps of:
deploying a plurality of satellites in an original constellation of satellites providing single coverage;
distributing said original constellation of satellites along at least one orbital plane to provide single coverage of a desired portion of the earth;
providing rf communications links through said original constellation of satellites between mobile users and ground stations in an area of single coverage for the desired portion of the earth; and
deploying at least one additional satellite to said at least one orbital plane to provide a baseline constellation providing double coverage.
2. A method according to claim 1, further comprising the steps of:
after establishing double coverage, losing at least one satellite from the baseline constellation due to satellite failure, thereby temporarily preventing coverage of some region desired to have coverage by a faulty satellite orbital plane; and
adjusting a position of at least one remaining non-failing satellite within said faulty satellite orbital plane to provide at least single coverage of the desired portion of the earth until the satellite that failed is repaired or replaced.
3. A method according to claim 2, further comprising the steps of:
introducing into operation a new or repaired satellite within the faulty satellite orbital plane; and
adjusting a position of at least one satellite in the faulty satellite orbital plane to expand coverage afforded by satellites in the faulty satellite orbital plane from single coverage to double coverage.
4. A method according to claim 1, wherein the step of deploying at least one additional satellite includes deploying three additional satellites.
5. A method according to claim 1, wherein the original constellation includes six satellites that provides single hemispheric coverage of a predetermined latitude band.
6. A method according to claim 1, wherein the baseline constellation includes nine satellites that provide double hemispheric coverage of a predetermined band.
7. A method according to claim 1, wherein the original constellation includes nine satellites that provide whole earth coverage.
8. A method according to claim 1, wherein the baseline constellation includes twelve satellites that provide double whole earth coverage.
9. The method according to claim 1 further comprising the step of providing multi-beam communications links between the satellites and mobile users.
10. The method according to claim 1, further comprising receiving rf communications from mobile users via a multi-beam antenna over a first frequency band; and
transmitting rf communications to the mobile users via a multi-beam antenna over a second frequency band.
11. The method according to claim 1, wherein each satellite uses at least two multi-beam antennas to provide multi-beam communications links with mobile users.
12. The method according to claim 1, wherein the satellites use at least two antennas to provide rf communications links with the ground stations.
13. The method according the claim 1, wherein the satellites utilize multi-beam antennas having a composite coverage area that determines the service region actually covered by each satellite.
14. The method according to claim 1, wherein each satellite utilizes a multi-beam antenna which includes 19 beams providing a composite footprint coverage area of about 23
15. The method according to claim 1, wherein each satellite includes a multi-beam antenna having 37 beams providing a composite footprint coverage area of about 35
16. The method according to claim 1, wherein each satellite includes a multi-beam antenna, each beam of the multi-beam antenna having a field of view of about 5 having 1/2 watt of power and an omni directional antenna.
17. A method of forming a constellation of telecommunications satellites, comprising the steps of:
providing an original constellation of up to nine satellites which provide continuous, 24-hour satellite visibility by mobile users of one satellite in at least a predetermined latitude band;
evenly distributing said up to nine satellites among at least two inclined orbital planes;
operating said original constellation of satellites to provide telecommunications links between ground stations and mobile users in said predetermined latitude band; and
adding additional satellites to provide a full baseline satellite constellation of no more than 12 satellites which provides continuous, 24-hour satellite visibility by mobile users of two satellites in said at least a predetermined latitude band.
18. The method of claim 17, further comprising the step of:
after providing said original constellation and before providing said full baseline constellation, adding up to three additional satellites to provide a follow-on constellation of no more than nine satellites, said follow-on constellation including said no more than six satellites of said original constellation and said up to three additional satellites.
19. The method of claim 17, further comprising the step of arranging said original constellation of satellites in three circular orbital planes with two satellites per plane.
20. A method according to claim 17, further comprising the step of arranging said original constellation of satellites in up to three elliptical orbital planes, with at least two satellites per plane.
21. A method according to claim 17, wherein said full baseline constellation includes nine satellites arranged in no more than three elliptical orbital planes with at least three satellites in each elliptical orbital plane.
22. A method according to claim 17, wherein said follow-on constellation offers global land mass coverage of the earth of one satellite at all times with a minimum elevation angle of 10
23. A method according to claim 17, wherein said full baseline satellite constellation offers global land mass coverage of the earth by at least two satellites at all times with a minimum elevation angle of 10
24. A method according to claim 17, wherein said original constellation offers hemispheric coverage of the earth by at least one satellite at all times with a minimum elevation angle of 10
25. A method according to claim 17, wherein said original constellation offers hemispheric coverage of the earth by at least two satellites at all times with a minimum elevation angle of 10
26. A method according to claim 17, wherein said orbital planes are inclined at an inclination angle of at least 63
27. A method according to claim 17, wherein said orbital planes are inclined at an inclination angle of at least 55
Description
CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

This is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 08/440,311, now U.S. Pat. No. 5,551,624, filed May 12 1995, which is a Continuation-in-Part of Ser. No. 08/134,030 filed Oct. 12, 1993, issuing as U.S. Pat. No. 5,439,190, on Aug. 8, 1995, which is a Continuation-in-Part of Ser. No. 07/890,510, filed May 28, 1992, issuing as U.S. Pat. No. 5,433,726, on Jul. 18, 1995, which is a Continuation-in-Part of application Ser. No. 07/688,412, filed Apr. 22, 1991, now abandoned.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

This invention related generally to cellular telecommunications systems and, more particularly, to satellite-based cellular telecommunications systems and methods attendant thereto.

The use of mobile cellular telephones has proliferated in the many large metropolitan areas in which cellular telecommunications systems have been installed. Cellular telecommunications systems provide voice communications between a mobile telephone user and fixed telephone users or to other mobile telephone users, as well as data communications for mobile facsimile machines and modem-equipped computers. A typical cellular telephone systems includes a grid of service zones or cells, with each cell having a base station situated near its center. A mobile telephone user located in a particular cell is connected to that cell's base station through low-power radio frequency (rf) transmissions. Each base station is connected by trunk lines to a gateway station, which is connected by trunk lines to a local and long distance telephone network.

The cellular telecommunications systems in use today are generally land-based systems that have been installed in large metropolitan areas. Small towns and rural areas cannot economically justify the installation and operation of one of these relatively costly systems. To provide cellular telephone service for these areas, satellite-based cellular telecommunications systems have been proposed which would provide world-wide cellular telephone service. These proposed cellular telephone systems typically include a large constellation of telecommunications satellites in low earth orbit at an altitude of between approximately 400 and 1000 nautical miles, which is just below the Van Allen radiation belt. At these low altitudes, as many as 50 to 80 satellites are required to provide adequate coverage of the entire earth. This results in an extremely costly and complex system with a large number of rapidly changing crosslinks and a large number of beam-to-beam and satellite-to-satellite handovers. Accordingly, there has been a need for a less costly and complex satellite-based cellular telecommunications system. The present invention clearly fulfills this need.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The present invention resides in a satellite-based cellular telecommunications system employing a constellation of telecommunications satellites in medium altitude earth orbit to provide multibeam radio frequency (rf) communications links for world-wide land mass cellular telephone service with a minimum number of satellites. The telecommunications satellites are placed in a plurality of inclined orbits about the earth at an altitude of between approximately 5600 and 10,000 nautical miles. The characteristics of the orbit, such as the number of orbits, the inclination of each orbit, the number of satellites in each orbit and the altitude of the satellites, are tailored to maximize the coverage area of the satellites and their related line-of-sight elevation angles, while minimizing propagation time delays, the number of beam-to-beam and satellite-to-satellite handovers, and the total number of satellites.

The present invention also includes several additional features which essentially eliminate beam-to-beam and satellite-to-satellite handovers, thus dramatically reducing the likelihood of dropouts. One of these important features is an assignment of each satellite to a sequence of fixed service regions (rather than a continuously varying coverage area) during each satellite's orbit. The boresight of the satellite's antennas remains centered on a given assigned service region during the entire time the service region is visible to the satellite. This results in an essentially fixed beam pattern thus practically eliminating beam-to-beam handovers. Another one of these important features is a provision for overlap in the coverage of each service region by two successive satellites during the transition in service from one satellite to another. All calls that are placed during the overlap interval are assigned to the arriving satellite. Therefore, only calls placed prior to the overlap interval and extending beyond the overlap interval are subjected to satellite-to-satellite handovers when a departing satellite is reoriented to its new service region.

In one preferred embodiment of the present invention, a constellation of nine satellites provides complete global coverage of the earth by at least one satellite at all times with a minimum elevation angle of 10 The constellation includes three inclined circular orbital planes which are evenly spaced about the earth with ascending nodes at 120 intervals about the equator. Three satellites are placed in each orbit and evenly spaced at 120 miles. Each orbital plane is inclined at an angle of 53 to the equatorial plane. In another preferred embodiment of the invention, a constellation of twelve satellites provides global coverage of the earth by at least two satellites at all times with a minimum elevation angle of 10 planes with the same characteristics as the nine satellite constellation, except that four satellites are placed in each orbit, evenly spaced at 90 elliptical orbits to provide hemispheric coverage the earth by at least one and two satellites, respectively all times with a minimum elevation angle of 10

The present invention also provides an original satellite-based cellular telecommunications system which is also capable of evolving in phases to a full baseline satellite-based cellular telecommunications system as the traffic demand and revenue stream increase in magnitude. The original system utilizes a minimum number of satellites which can nevertheless serve a substantial portion of the potential subscriber population. Accordingly, the original system of the present invention will reduce the initial capital investment required, while still enabling commercially significant satellite coverage to be achieved in a way which will not adversely affect the anticipated growth toward a full baseline satellite-based cellular telecommunications system. However, it should be appreciated that the original system also provides a complete satellite-based cellular telecommunications system in terms of its coverage regions.

In one embodiment of the original system according to the present invention, a six-satellite medium orbit constellation is employed with two satellites in each of three orbital planes. The use of three orbital planes also facilitates the capability to launch the satellites in pairs, which will minimize launch costs and reduce the sequence of launches requires before the original system is operational. However, the original system may also employ a six-satellite medium orbit constellation with each of the satellites residing in their own individual orbital planes. In any event, continuous satellite coverage is provided in a restricted, but economically significant, range of latitudes. Satellite coverage outside of this latitude range has several, typically small gaps during the course of a day, which would result in a small reduction of the time that satellite coverage would be available.

In addition to the reduced number of satellites in the original system according to the present invention, an enlarged field-of-view (FOV) is provided for each of the satellites in comparison with the FOV for the satellites in the earlier embodiments. The enlarged FOV is needed due to the fact that fewer satellites will be employed in the original system than will be employed in the full baseline satellite-based telecommunications system. While this has the effect of increasing the coverage area responsibility of each satellite, there will also be a slight reduction in the communication margins in the user-to-satellite direction. Nevertheless, the enlarged FOV (e.g., 38 ) will still be substantially less the total satellite visibility (e.g., 44 original system also employs the directed coverage method according to the present invention. This method of controlling a constellation of satellites utilizes the ability to programmably steer the boresight of the satellite communication antennas to the desired regions of interest.

It will be appreciated from the foregoing that the present invention represents a significant advance in the field of satellite-based cellular telecommunications systems. Other features and advantages of the present invention will become apparent from the following more detailed description, taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, which illustrate, by way of example, the principles of the invention.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is a schematic illustration of a satellite-based cellular telecommunications system in accordance with the present invention;

FIG. 2 is a schematic illustration of a constellation of telecommunication satellites providing single global land mass coverage of the earth;

FIG. 3 is a schematic illustration of a constellation of telecommunication satellites providing double global land mass coverage of the earth;

FIG. 4 is a schematic illustration of a constellation of telecommunication satellites providing single hemispheric coverage of the earth;

FIG. 5 is a schematic illustration of a constellation of telecommunication satellites providing double hemispheric coverage of the earth;

FIG. 6 is a schematic illustration of a original constellation of telecommunication satellites which provides partial coverage of the earth;

FIG. 7 is a schematic illustration of a follow-on constellation of telecommunication satellites which provides further coverage of the earth;

FIG. 8 is a schematic illustration of a full baseline constellation of telecommunication satellites which provides complete land mass coverage of the earth;

FIG. 9 is a cartographic illustration of satellite visibility using the original constellation of FIG. 6;

FIG. 10 is a graphical illustration of satellite coverage using the original constellation of FIG. 6;

FIG. 11 is another graphical illustration of satellite coverage using the original constellation of FIG. 6;

FIGS. 12A-12E provide a cartographic illustration of satellite coverage using the original constellation of FIG. 6;

FIGS. 13A-13G provide a cartographic illustration of the variable antenna pattern using the beam-steering method according to the present invention;

FIG. 14 is a cartographic illustration of satellite visibility using an alternate constellation wherein each of the satellites reside in their own individual orbital planes;

FIG. 15 is a graphical illustration of satellite coverage using the original constellation referred to in FIG. 14;

FIG. 16 is another graphical illustration of satellite coverage using the original constellation referred to in FIG. 14; and

FIG. 17 is a flow chart which further illustrates the coordinated boresight steering method according to the present invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

As shown in the drawings for purposes of illustration, the present invention is embodied in a satellite-based cellular telecommunications system employing a constellation of telecommunications satellites in medium earth orbit to provide multibeam radio frequency (rf) communications links for world-wide land mass cellular telephone service with a minimum number of satellites. The telecommunications satellites are placed in a plurality of inclined orbits about the earth at an altitude of between approximately 5600 and 10,000 nautical miles. The characteristics of the orbits, such as the number of orbits, the inclination of each orbit, the number of satellites in each orbit and the altitude of the satellites, are tailored to maximize the coverage area of the satellites and their related line-of-sight elevation angles, while minimizing propagation time delays, the number of beam-to-beam and satellite-to-satellite handovers, and the total number of satellites. The present invention also includes several additional features which essentially eliminate beam-to-beam and satellite-to-satellite handovers, thus dramatically reducing the likelihood of dropouts.

FIG. 1 illustrates a satellite-based cellular telecommunications system in accordance with the present invention. The cellular telecommunications system includes a constellation of telecommunications satellites 10 in medium earth orbit, a gateway station 12 situated in each region serviced by the satellites and a plurality of mobile cellular telephones 14 located in the service region of the satellite 10. The mobile cellular telephones 14 can also include mobile facsimile machines and modem-equipped computers. The telecommunications satellite 10 provides a multibeam rf communications link with the mobile cellular telephones 14 using two multibeam antennas 16, 18 and an rf communications link with the gateway station 12 using two antennas 20, 22. Multibeam antenna 16 receives rf signals from the mobile cellular telephones 14 on frequency band F.sub.1. The satellite 10 then amplifies, translates and transmits the rf signals down to the gateway station 12 on frequency band F.sub.2 using antenna 20. The gateway station 12 is connected by trunk lines to a local and long distance telephone network 24, which provides connections to a fixed telephone 26. RF signals are transmitted from the gateway station 12 back to the telecommunications satellite 10 on frequency band F.sub.3 and received using antenna 22. The satellite 10 then amplifies, translates and transmits the rf signals back down to the mobile cellular telephones 14 on frequency band F.sub.4 using multibeam antenna 18.

Various types of connections are possible between the different users of the cellular telecommunications system of the present invention. A mobile telephone user can communicate with another mobile telephone user in the same service region of the satellite 10 or in the service region of another satellite 10, or with a fixed telephone user located anywhere in the world. If in communication with another mobile telephone user in the same service region, the rf signals are transmitted up from the mobile cellular telephone 14 to the satellite 10, then down to the gateway station 12, then back up to the satellite 10, and then down to the other mobile cellular telephone 14, and vice versa. This type of connection requires a double hop, which doubles the propagation time delay. If in communication with another mobile telephone user in a different service region, the rf signals are transmitted up from the mobile cellular telephone 14 to the satellite 10, then down to the gateway station 12, then through the local and long distance network 24, as necessary, to the gateway station 12 responsible for the other service region, then up to the satellite 10 responsible for the other service region, and then down to the other mobile cellular telephone 14, and vice versa. This type of connection also requires a double hop. If in communication with a fixed telephone user, the rf signals are transmitted up from the mobile cellular telephone 14 to the satellite 10, then down to the gateway station 12, and then through the local and long distance network 24, as necessary, to the fixed telephone 26, and vice versa. This type of connection required only a single hop.

In an alternative embodiment of the present invention, the satellite 10 performs the function of the gateway station 12 for communications between mobile telephone users located in the same service region, thus requiring only a single hop. In this type of connection, the rf signals are transmitted up from the mobile cellular telephone 14 to the satellite 10, the satellite 10 then performs signal processing on the rf signals to provide any necessary switching between the multiple beams, and then the rf signals are transmitted back down to the other mobile cellular telephone 14, and vice versa.

The propagation time delay depends on the altitude of the telecommunications satellite 10 and the location of the mobile cellular telephones 14 in the service region. In the present invention, at an altitude of between 5600 and 10,000 nautical miles, the time delay from the satellite 10 to the ground and vice versa is limited to 60 msec. Therefore, the single hop time delay is limited to 120 msec. At an altitude of 5600 nautical miles, the one hop time delay between two mobile cellular telephones 14 located directly below the satellite 10 is 69 msec., while the one hop time delay between two mobile cellular telephones 14 spaced apart at the minimum elevation angle of 10

The relationship between station to station propagation time and satellite altitude for a single hop from a station on the ground up to the satellite and back down to the station at maximum range, which occurs when the satellite is at a minimum elevation of 10 follows:

______________________________________       Maximum Station                    Maximum StationSatellite   to Satellite to StationAltitude    Propagation Range                    Propagation Timenaut. mi.   naut. mi.    msec.______________________________________5500        7656         946000        8191         1016500        8724         1087000        9255         1157500        9782         121______________________________________

The mobile cellular telephones 14 and the gateway station 12 are within view of the satellite 10 at all times at an elevation angle of at least 10 telephones 14 in a particular service region, another satellite 10 from a constellation comes into view. Each satellite 10 has a relatively narrow antenna footprint that is considerably smaller than the total area of visibility of the satellite. This is because it is not practical to serve the entire area of visibility due to power and complexity constraints.

The service region actually covered by the satellite 10 is determined by the composite coverage of the multibeam antennas 16, 18 has 19 beams for a composite footprint coverage of about 23 can be added to the multibeam antenna to provide 37 beams for a composite footprint coverage of about 35 of about 5 telephone 14 have an omnidirectional antenna.

The present invention also includes several additional features which essentially eliminate beam-to-beam and satellite-to-satellite handovers, thus dramatically reducing the likelihood of dropouts. One of these important features is an assignment of each satellite to a sequence of fixed service regions during each satellite's orbit. The boresight of the satellite's antennas 16, 18 remains centered on the assigned service region is visible to the satellite with respect to antennas 20, 22 they are gimballed to point to the appropriate gateway station. The resulting nearly-fixed antenna beam pattern practically eliminates beam-to-beam handovers. The antenna boresight remains centered on the service region either by adjusting the attitude of the spacecraft 10 or by rotating gimballed antennas.

Another one of the important features of the present invention is a provision for overlap in the coverage of each service region by two successive satellites during the transition in service from one satellite to another. All calls that are placed during the overlap interval are assigned to the arriving satellite. Therefore, only calls placed prior to the overlap interval and extending beyond the overlap interval are subjected to satellite-to-satellite handovers when the departing satellite is reoriented to its new service region.

In several embodiments of the present invention, the constellation of telecommunications satellites 10 has three inclined orbital planes which are evenly spaced about the earth with ascending nodes at 120 intervals about the equator. The satellites 10 are placed in medium earth orbit at an altitude of between 5600 and 10,000 nautical miles. This range of altitudes is above the Van Allen radiation belt, but substantially below the altitude for geosynchronous orbit. This provides good visibility with a minimum number of satellites without excessive power requirements. At least one of the telecommunications satellites 10 is visible at all times from each mobile cellular telephone 14 and gateway station 12 at an elevation angle of at least 10

FIG. 2 shows a constellation of nine satellites which provides global land mass coverage of the earth by at least one satellite 10 at all times with a minimum elevation angle of 10 in three circular orbital planes P.sub.1, P.sub.2, P.sub.3, with three satellites 30a-30c located in orbital plane P.sub.1, three satellites 32a-32c located in orbital plane P.sub.2, and three satellites 34a-34c located in orbital plane P.sub.3. The satellites are evenly spaced at 120 nautical miles. Each orbital plane is inclined at an angle of 55 relative to the equatorial plane. The relative phase angles between the satellites in different orbital planes is 80 one satellite in the constellation disappears from a user's view, at least one additional satellite comes into view above an elevation angle of 10

FIG. 3 shows a constellation of twelve satellites which provides global land mass coverage of the earth by at least two satellites at all times with a minimum elevation angle of 10 arranged in the three circular orbital planes P.sub.1, P.sub.2, P.sub.3, with four satellites 30a-30d located in orbital plane P.sub.1, four satellites 32a-32d located in orbital plane P.sub.2 and four satellites 34a-34d located in orbital plane P.sub.3. The satellites are evenly spaced at 90 nautical miles. Each orbital plane is inclined at an angle of 55 relative to the equatorial plane. The relative phase angles between satellites in different orbital planes is 90

A constellation of telecommunications satellites in circular orbits is preferred for providing global coverage, but a constellation of telecommunications satellites in elliptical orbits is preferred for coverage of limited areas, such as one hemisphere. FIG. 4 shows a constellation of six satellites which provides hemispheric coverage of the earth by at least one satellite at all times with a minimum elevation angle of 10 orbital planes P4, P5, P6, with two satellites 30a-30b located in orbital plane P4, two satellites 32a-32b located in orbital plane P5 and two satellites 34a-34b located in orbital plane P6. Each orbital plane is defined by an apogee altitude of 6300 nautical miles, a perigee altitude of 600 nautical miles, an inclination angle of 63.4.degree., an ascending node spacing of 120 relative phase angle between satellites in different orbits of 180 the satellite, which is also equal to the inclination angle, the coverage period for the northern latitude is maximized.

FIG. 5 shows a constellation of nine satellites which provides hemispheric coverage of the earth by at least two satellites at all times with a minimum elevation angle of 10 three elliptical orbital planes P.sub.4, P.sub.5, P.sub.6, with three satellites 30a-30c located in orbital plane P.sub.4, three satellites 32a-32c located in orbital plane P.sub.5 and three satellites 34a-34c located in orbital plant P.sub.6. Each orbital plane is defined by an apogee altitude of 6300 nautical miles, a perigee altitude of 600 nautical miles, an inclination angle of 63.4.degree., an ascending node spacing of 120 angle between satellites in different orbits of 180

______________________________________          Coverage          Global    Hemispheric          Single                Double  Single  Double______________________________________Number of Satellites            9       12      6     9Number Orbital Planes            3       3       3     3Satellites per Plane            3       4       2     3Apogee Altitude (nm)            5600    5600    6300  6300Perigee Altitude (nm)            5600    5600    600   600Inclination Angle            55                    55                            63.4.degree.                                  63.4.degree.Ascending Node Spacing            120                    120                            120                                  120Argument of Perigee            0                    0                            270                                  270Relative Phase Angle            80                    90                            180                                  180Minimum Elevation Angle            10                    10                            10                                  10______________________________________

The constellations providing single satellite coverage can be initially formed and then the coverage expanded later to provide double coverage by the addition of only three satellites. Conversely, the constellations providing double coverage allow for the failure of one satellite in each orbital plane without the loss of full service. The position of the remaining satellites in the orbital plane can be adjusted to provide single coverage until the satellite is repaired or replaced.

FIG. 6 shows a original constellation of six satellites which provides continuous, 24-hour satellite visibility (above 10 angle) to all users located in the latitude bands .+-.(20 45 planes P.sub.7, P.sub.8, P.sub.9, with two satellites 40a-40b located in orbital plane P.sub.7, two satellites 42a-42b located in orbital plane P.sub.8, and two satellites 44a-44b located in orbital plane P.sub.9. The satellites are evenly spaced at 180 plane at an altitude of 5600 nautical miles. Each orbital plane is inclined at an angle between 50 equatorial plane, with a 53 The relative phase angles between the satellites in different orbital planes is 0

FIG. 7 shows the growth of the original constellation to a follow-on constellation of nine satellites. As shown in FIG. 7, three new satellites have been added to the constellation, such that each of the orbital planes P.sub.7, P.sub.8, P.sub.9 include one additional satellite. In other words, orbital plane P.sub.7 includes satellites 40a-40c, orbital plane P.sub.8 includes satellites 42a-42c, and orbital plane P.sub.9 includes satellites 44a-44c. The satellites in each of these orbitals planes are preferably evenly spaced at 120 appreciated that at least some of the satellites from the original configuration will need to be relocated from the original 180 interval.

This concept of continuing to launch additional satellites beyond the original constellation in order to provide greater coverage leads to the full baseline satellite constellation of FIG. 8. A full baseline satellite constellation is one in which complete land mass (including coastal area) coverage can be achieved. As shown in FIG. 8, the full baseline satellite-based telecommunications system will preferably include twelve satellites. Accordingly, it should be appreciated that only six satellite launches will be required if the dual launch method is employed. In the full satellite constellation of FIG. 8, each of the orbital planes P.sub.7, P.sub.8, P.sub.9 include four satellites which are equally spaced at 90 to include satellites 40a-40d.

In both the follow-on constellation and the full constellation, the preferred inclination angle of the satellites will remain unchanged at 53 altitude of the satellites in all cases will preferably remain at 5600 nautical miles. However, in the follow-on constellation, the relative phase angle between satellites in different orbital planes is preferably 0 constellation is preferably 30 constellation). With these configurations, the follow-on constellation will provide continuous 24-hour satellite visibility in the latitude range between 10 10 24-hour satellite visibility in the latitude range between 0 90

In accordance with the present invention, it is important to understand that there is a significant difference between satellite visibility and satellite coverage or availability. This is because the satellites according to the present invention are capable of employing an antenna FOV which is less than the FOV for the satellite itself. For example, at the preferred altitude of 5600 nautical miles, the FOV for each of the satellites will be 44 and 44a-44d need only employ multibeam antennas that provide a FOV in a 38 relatively small, it actually has a significant effect on the size of ground area that can be covered without the coordinated boresight steering method according to the present invention.

FIGS. 9-11 illustrate satellite visibility for the original constellation of FIG. 6. In this regard, FIG. 9 shows a map of the earth in which the time periods of satellite visibility are superimposed for the original constellation. The shaded areas illustrate the latitude bands where continuous 24-hour satellite visibility is provided. Thus, for example, the upper shaded area 46 shows that the six satellites of the original constellation will provide continuous visibility across almost all of the United States and Southern Europe. Similarly, the column labeled Hours Per Day shows the number of hours in each day that at least one of the original constellation satellites will be seen from the ground.

FIG. 10 shows the percent of time that satellite visibility can be provided according to the present invention across all latitude bands. Thus, for example, at a minimum elevation angle of 10 understood that 100% satellite coverage will be available across a latitude range between 20 elevation angle is increased to 20 time will be decreased as shown. Nevertheless, as the satellite-based telecommunications system grows from the original constellation to the full baseline constellation, it should be noted that the percent of continuous coverage time will increase over a considerably wider latitude band. For example, in the full baseline constellation of FIG. 8, continuous 24-hour visibility will be provided in a latitude range between 10 However, again it should be noted that the land mass coverage provided in these latitude ranges is achieved in connection with the coordinated boresight steering method according to the present invention. While the FOV for the satellite antennas could be enlarged so that NADIR pointing satellites with a 42 advantageous because a considerably higher antenna gain would be necessary, and the size of the antennas would be increased as well. Even though a 42 (full width of the earth), fixed NADIR pointing for the boresight would be acceptable for global land mass coverage. FIG. 11 shows another illustration of satellite visibility for the original constellation of FIG. 7. However, in this figure, the time gaps are graphically illustrated and quantified.

Referring now to FIGS. 12A-12E, a cartographic illustration of the "coordinated" boresight steering method according to the present invention is shown. Each of these figures show the movement and steering of the six satellites employed in the original constellation of FIG. 6 over a period of approximately one hour. For purposes of simplicity, these six satellites are labeled with reference numerals 1 through 6. This sequence of figures is based upon the satellite antennas (e.g., antennas 16 and 18) having a FOV of 40 satellites, such as shaded area 48 for satellite 1. These shaded areas represent the 40 shaded areas include three arcuate lines, such as lines 50-54 for satellite 5. The outer line 50 represents a minimum elevation angle of 10 and the inner line 54 represents an elevation angle of 30

Each of the satellites 1-6 in FIGS. 12A-12E also include two associated lines, such as lines 56 and 58 for satellite 5. Line 56 represents the direction of orbital travel for satellite 5, while line 58 is representative of the boresight line of sight for satellite 5 to an aim point on the ground. In other words, line 58 shows that the boresight of satellite 5 is pointed at an angle from NADIR which is greater than zero. In this case, the antennas 16-18 of satellite 5 are pointed toward North America. With a 40 anticipated that the maximum swing in boresight angle relative to NADIR will be approximately .+-.4.degree.. This is in contrast to the wider boresight steering which is employed in the embodiments of FIGS. 1 and 2, where the anticipated that the maximum swing in boresight angle relative to NADIR will be approximately .+-.20.degree.. This difference in boresight swing is due to smaller antenna FOV preferred for the embodiments of FIGS. 1 and 2 (e.g., 23 aim point location in those embodiments.

As shown in FIG. 12A, satellite 5 covers almost all of the United States at a minimum elevation angle of 10 the most northern countries of Europe at this elevation angle. With respect to the United States, satellite 6 is available to cover the most north eastern of its states. Additionally, FIG. 12A shows the provision of an overlap interval between satellites 5 and 6 over the United States. In this case, satellite 5 is the arriving satellite, while satellite 6 is the departing satellite. Accordingly, as indicated above, satellite 5 will be used to handle all newly initiated telephone calls in the overlap interval with satellite 6.

FIG. 12B illustrates the satellite coverage provided by the original constellation at a time period which is fifteen minutes later than that shown for FIG. 12A. The remaining set of figures in the FIGS. 12A-12E sequence also illustrate the original satellite constellation at consecutive fifteen minute intervals. In light of the approximately six hour orbital period for the satellites 1-6, these satellites will move around the earth at a generally fixed rate of travel. As a result, it should be appreciated that the coordinated boresight steering method according to the present invention will minimize, if not eliminate, any coverage gaps over land above the minimum elevation angle of 10 The boresight steering method is referred to as being coordinated in that the adjustment of the boresight angle for one satellite will at many times require a change in the boresight angle of an adjacent satellite. Thus, for example, a change in the boresight angle of satellite 2 may require a change in the boresight angle for both satellites 1 and 3.

The method of boresight steering is dramatically illustrated in the sequence of FIGS. 13A-13G. In this case, a 35 satellite antennas is used to more fully illustrate the concept relative to a single satellite 60. More specifically, FIGS. 13A-13G show the beam pattern of satellite 60 as it travels over Europe during a time period of two hours. Each of the circles, such as circles 62 and 64, represent the coverage provided by one beam of a multibeam antenna, such as antenna 16 of FIG. 1. Line 66 represents the minimum elevation angle of 10 Line 68 represents the boresight line of sight to the ground. Accordingly, in FIG. 13A, the boresight points forward as the satellite 60 approaches Europe, and the boresight angle relative to NADIR decreases in FIGS. 13B-13C, until the boresight aim point is approximately at NADIR in FIG. 13D. Then, as the satellite continues its travel, the boresight is steered to a location looking behind the satellite in FIGS. 13E-13G. It should also be noted that each of the beams are labeled in FIG. 13D to illustrate that the antenna includes an array of 35 beams.

In accordance with the present invention, the physical boresight steering may be accomplished through a variety of mechanisms, such as adjusting the attitude of the satellite itself ("body steering"), the use of gimballed antennas, or possibly even through electronic focusing (e.g., with a phase array antenna). However, in accordance with the coordinated boresight steering method of the present invention, each of the satellites 1-6 (or satellites 40a-40b, 42a-42b and 44a-44b of FIG. 6) would be programmed from a terrestrial-based station with the command signals or other data necessary to control the boresight steering mechanism for a predetermined orbital period. This predetermined orbital period should comprise a significant orbital duration, which will avoid unnecessary ground to satellite transmissions. Thus, for example, the predetermined period may be the repeating 24-hour orbital period which occurs with a satellite altitude of 5600 nautical miles.

As an example of one coordinated boresight steering method according to the present invention, computer generated plots such as those shown in FIGS. 12A-12E are used to determine the most appropriate boresight locations of all of the satellites at various intervals during the predetermined orbital period. While these boresight aim points may be determined manually, it should be appreciated that this process could be automated with an appropriate rule set. In this regard, the Antenna Beam Aim Table ("ABATB") below set forth the boresight locations for each of the six satellites of the original constellation over a six hour period. The first portion of the table identifies the configuration of the satellite constellation. More specifically, a 6/3/3 phasing relationship is used in this example, meaning that there are six satellites in three orbital planes with a 3 different orbital planes. The column labeled Time indicates a point in minutes from the starting time reference. The second column shows the Latitude at this given time, while the third column shows the Longitude at this given time.

______________________________________Antenna Beam Aim TableSatellite Configuration ********************,OESC(1,1)=54468822.,0.00001,55., 0., 0., 0.,OESC(1,2)=54468822.,0.00001,55.,240., 0.,180.,OESC(1,3)=54468822.,0.00001,55.,120., 0., 0.,OESC(1,4)=54468822.,0.00001,55., 0., 0.,180.,OESC(1,5)=54468822.,0.00001,55.,240., 0., 0.,OESC(1,6)=54668822.,0.00001,55.,120., 0.,180.,      TIME   LAT.      LONG.______________________________________Satellite # 1 *******************************,ABATB(1, 1,1, 1) =        0.000,   8.400,    -3.000, 2ABATB(1, 2,1, 1) =        45.000,  35.400,   24.000, 2ABATB(1, 3,1, 1) =        75.000,  48.600,   47.400, 2ABATB(1, 4,1, 1) =        98.000,  53.400,   72.000, 2ABATB(1, 5,1, 1) =        110.000, 49.200,   91.800, 2ABATB(1, 6,1, 1) =        120.000, 43.800,   100.200,                                   2ABATB(1, 7,1, 1) =        140.000, 25.800,   115.200,                                   2ABATB(1, 8,1, 1) =        160.000, 16.800,   123.000,                                   2ABATB(1, 9,1, 1) =        180.000, 2.400,    130.800,                                   1ABATB(1,10,1, 1) =        200.000, -20.000,  140.000,                                   1ABATB(1,11,1, 1) =        280.000, -30.000,  -60.000,                                   2ABATB(1,12,1, 1) =        290.000, -43.000,  -107.400,                                   2ABATB(1,13,1, 1) =        330.000, -11.400,  -91.800,                                   2ABATB(1,14,1, 1) =        340.000, -5.400,   -88.800,                                   2ABATB(1,15,1, 1) =        350.000, 3.000,    -84.000,                                   2ABATB(1,16,1, 1) =        360.000, 11.400,   -82.800,                                   2Satellite # 2 ********************************,ABATB(1, 1,1, 2) =        0.000,   6.600,    58.800, 2ABATB(1, 2,1, 2) =        25.000,  -16.800,  75.600, 2ABATB(1, 3,1, 2) =        90.000,  -20.000,  140.000,                                   1ABATB(1, 4,1, 2) =        180.000, 34.800,   -115.000,                                   2ABATB(1, 5,1, 2) =        240.000, 42.000,   -121.200,                                   2ABATB(1, 6,1, 2) =        260.000, 46.200,   -112.200,                                   2ABATB(1, 7,1, 2) =        270.000, 46.800,   -100.800,                                   2ABATB(1, 8,1, 2) =        280.000, 45.600,   -87.000,                                   2ABATB(1, 9,1, 2) =        290.000, 41.400,   -72.600,                                   2ABATB(1,10,1, 2) =        300.000, 40.200,   -63.600,                                   2ABATB(1,11,1, 2) =        310.000, 33.000,   -61.800,                                   2ABATB(1,12,1, 2) =        320.000, 34.200,   -45.600,                                   2ABATB(1,13,1, 2) =        330.000, 29.400,   -39.600,                                   2ABATB(1,14,1, 2) =        340.000, 30.600,   -34.800,                                   2ABATB(1,15,1, 2) =        350.000, 11.400,   -23.400,                                   2ABATB(1,16,1, 2) =        360.000, -11.400,  -34.200,                                   2Satellite # 3 ****************************,ABATB(1, 1,1, 3) =        0.000,   4.800,    118.800,                                   2ABATB(1, 2,1, 3) =        45.000,  34.200,   133.800,                                   2ABATB(1, 3,1, 3) =        70.000,  46.200,   155.400,                                   1ABATB(1, 4,1, 3) =        96.000,  51.600,   -145.200,                                   2ABATB(1, 5,1, 3) =        110.000, 46.200,   -126.600,                                   2ABATB(1, 6,1, 3) =        120.000, 44.400,   -121.200,                                   2ABATB(1, 7,1, 3) =        140.000, 33.600,   -115.200,                                   2ABATB(1, 8,1, 3) =        160.000, 27.000,   -106.200,                                   2ABATB(1, 9,1, 3) =        180.000, 12.600,   -91.200,                                   2ABATB(1,10,1, 3) =        210.000, -14.400,  -67.800,                                   2ABATB(1,11,1, 3) =        240.000, -25.200,  -60.600,                                   2ABATB(1,12,1, 3) =        270.000, -37.200,  -31.800,                                   2ABATB(1,13,1, 3) =        280.000, -36.600,  -20.400,                                   2ABATB(1,14,1, 3) =        290.000, -38.400,  -7.200, 2ABATB(1,15,1, 3) =        300.000, -33.600,  1.200,  2ABATB(1,16,1, 3) =        330.000, -12.000,  28.800, 2ABATB(1,17,1, 3) =        340.000, -1.200,   23.400, 2ABATB(1,18,1, 3) =        350.000, 4.200,    28.200, 2ABATB(1,19,1, 3) =        360.000, 10.200,   30.000, 2Satellite # 4 ********************************,ABATB(1, 1,1, 4) =        0.000,   -30.000,  140.000,                                   1ABATB(1, 2,1, 4) =        50.000,  -30.000,  -60.000,                                   2ABATB(1, 3,1, 4) =        180.000, 0.600,    -50.400,                                   2ABATB(1, 4,1, 4) =        210.000, 29.400,   -31.800,                                   2ABATB(1, 5,1, 4) =        220.000, 32.400,   -28.800,                                   2ABATB(1, 6,1, 4) =        230.000, 37.800,   -10.800,                                   2ABATB(1, 7,1, 4) =        240.000, 43.800,   1.200,  2ABATB(1, 8,1, 4) =        270.000, 38.400,   32.400, 2ABATB(1, 9,1, 4) =        280.000, 41.400,   40.800, 2ABATB(1,10,1, 4) =        290.000, 40.800,   48.000, 2ABATB(1,11,1, 4) =        300.000, 40.200,   57.600, 2ABATB(1,12,1, 4) =        330.000, 29.400,   82.200, 2ABATB(1,13,1, 4) =        350.000, 15.600,   84.600, 2ABATB(1,14,1, 4) =        360.000, 12.600,   100.200,                                   2Satellite # 5 ********************************,ABATB(1, 1,1, 5) =        0.000,   4.800,    -116.400,                                   2ABATB(1, 2,1, 5) =        60.000,  42.600,   -87.600,                                   2ABATB(1, 3,1, 5) =        98.000,  49.800,   -49.200,                                   2ABATB(1, 4,1, 5) =        110.000, 44.400,   -25.800,                                   2ABATB(1, 5,1, 5) =        120.000, 43.200,   -12.000,                                   2ABATB(1, 6,1, 5) =        140.000, 32.400,   6.600,  2ABATB(1, 7,1, 5) =        160.000, 21.000,   15.600, 2ABATB(1, 8,1, 5) =        180.000, 5.400,    17.400, 2ABATB(1, 9,1, 5) =        250.000, -15.000,  30.600, 1ABATB(1,10,1, 5) =        252.000, -20.000,  140.000,                                   2ABATB(1,11,1, 5) =        270.000, -46.200,  97.200, 2ABATB(1,12,1, 5) =        290.000, -41.400,  121.800,                                   2ABATB(1,13,1, 5) =        300.000, -33.000,  127.800,                                   2ABATB(1,14,1, 5) =        310.000, -24.600,  129.600,                                   2ABATB(1,15,1, 5) =        320.000, -21.000,  138.000,                                   2ABATB(1,16,1, 5) =        330.000, -8.400,   135.000,                                   2ABATB(1,17,1, 5) =        340.000, -2.400,   144.600,                                   2ABATB(1,18,1, 5) =        350.000, -1.200,   141.000,                                   2ABATB(1,19,1, 5) =        360.000, 2.400,    141.600,                                   2Satellite # 6 ********************************,ABATB(1, 1,1, 6) =        0.000,   3.000,    -61.800,                                   2ABATB(1, 2,1, 6) =        40.000,  -27.000,  -44.400,                                   1ABATB(1, 3,1, 6) =        120.000, -11.400,  103.800,                                   2ABATB(1, 4,1, 6) =        180.000, 2.400,    82.800, 2ABATB(1, 5,1, 6) =        210.000, 28.200,   73.800, 2ABATB(1, 6,1, 6) =        226.000, 34.800,   93.600, 2ABATB(1, 7,1, 6) =        240.000, 38.400,   105.000,                                   2ABATB(1, 8,1, 6) =        270.000, 36.000,   129.600,                                   2ABATB(1, 9,1, 6) =        280.000, 48.000,   153.600,                                   2ABATB(1,10,1, 6) =        290.000, 46.200,   168.600,ABATB(1,11,1, 6) =        300.000, 38.400,   171.600,                                   2ABATB(1,12,1, 6) =        302.000, 35.400,   170.400,                                   1ABATB(1,13,1, 6) =        310.000, 31.200,   -166.800,                                   2ABATB(1,14,1, 6) =        320.000, 32.400,   -162.600,                                   2ABATB(1,15,1, 6) =        330.000, 27.600,   -151.200,                                   2ABATB(1,16,1, 6) =        340.000, 24.000,   -142.200,                                   2ABATB(1,17,1, 6) =        360.000, 8.400,    -139.800,                                   2______________________________________

Thus, for example, at Time=120 minutes, the antennas 16-18 of the first satellite will be pointed at Latitude 43.8.degree. and Longitude 100.2.degree., while the antennas of the third satellite will be pointed at Latitude 44.4.degree. and Longitude -121.2.degree.. In contrast, it will be noted that there is no time entry in the table for the second satellite at Time=120 minutes. Rather, the closest time entries for the second satellite are for Time=90 minutes and Time=180 minutes, respectively. This is not to say that the boresight of the second satellite remains fixed during this 90 minute interval between Time=90 minutes and Time=180 minutes. In accordance with one method step under the present invention, the boresight location may be interpolated between each time entry in the table, such as through straight line approximation between two points (as indicated by the last column of the table). The difference between each of the time entries in the table is related to the speed at which the boresight angle needs to be adjusted. Thus, for example, in several instances of the table, the time difference may only be 10 minutes when rapid movement is necessary to maintain continuous 24-hour coverage. In other words, it should be understood that the antenna boresight of the satellites will be steered at a variable rate in accordance with the present invention. For example, when a satellite is arriving or leaving a particular region of the earth, such as Europe, the rate at which the boresight angle is changed will be greater than the rate of change required when the satellite is more directly over its current region of coverage. In any event, it should be understood that the present invention may be utilized with a variety of different satellite attitude control systems. Thus, while boresight locations over time could be uplinked to each of the satellites, it should also be understood that other command information could be supplied as well, such as steering rate commands relative to time.

Referring to FIGS. 14-16, these figures will be used to illustrate an alternative original constellation embodiment. The principal distinction between this original constellation embodiment and that of FIG. 6 is that each of the six satellites 40a-40b, 42a-42b and 44a-44b will reside in their own individual orbital planes, each of which are inclined at a preferably 53 Accordingly, the preferred phasing for this alternative embodiment will be 6/6/4. FIGS. 14-16 generally correspond to FIGS. 9-11 in order to more fully illustrate and contrast this embodiment with the previous original constellation embodiment. In this regard, FIG. 14 shows that the band of continuous satellite visibility has affectively shifted upwardly, so that now all but the most southern portion of Europe is visible. In other words, the original constellation of FIGS. 6 and 9-11 is directed towards initial coverage of the United States, while the alternative constellation of FIGS. 14-16 is directed towards initial coverage of Europe. Nevertheless, FIG. 16 demonstrates that only two relatively minor gaps in coverage would result for telecommunications with users located in the United States. In either case, the preferred altitude of the satellite constellation is still 5600 nautical miles.

Finally, FIG. 17 provides a flow chart which illustrates one technique for implementing the coordinated boresight steering method according to the present invention. The first step will be to initialize the satellite configuration (block 70), as indicated in the Antenna Beam Aim Table discussed above. The boresight for each of the satellites may be initially set to a predetermined orientation, such as NADIR. The next step will be to determine the most appropriate boresights for each of the satellites at Time=0 (block 72). A chart such as that shown in FIG. 12A could be used to guide this determination. However, it should be understood that this process may be further automated with appropriate programming.

Once the boresights at Time=0 are determined, then the time period should be incremented by a predeterminable amount to consider whether a change in the boresight steering rate is needed for the first satellite (block 74). For example, a minimum time period of five minutes could be used. However, it should be appreciated that other suitable time periods could be selected, depending in part upon the altitude of the satellites and the speed at which they are orbiting the earth. Accordingly, at Time=5 minutes a decision should be made as to whether the boresight steering rate should be changed for the first satellite (diamond 76). In the event that a steering rate changed is required, then a new boresight aim point will be determined (block 78). This new boresight aim point may be stored as an entry in the Antenna Beam Aim Table, as discussed above. If a rate change is not required in order to maintain the desired coverage, then this determination should be made for each of the other satellites in turn before another time increment is considered. Accordingly, FIG. 17 illustrates a check to see if the current satellite being considered is the last satellite in the constellation (diamond 80). If the current satellite is not the last satellite, then the next satellite in the constellation will be examined (block 82).

Once all of the satellites in the constellation have been examined for coverage at the current time increment, a check will be made to see if this time increment is the last time increment in the predetermined time period over which rate adjustments will be considered (diamond 84). If the current time increment is not the last time period, then the time period will be incremented and the process will be repeated. Once the complete time or orbital period has been evaluated, then an interpolate step may be performed to convert the sequence of boresight aim points in the table to rate commands (block 86). Finally, these rate commands or other suitable data for adjusting the boresight will be transmitted to each of the satellites in the constellation (block 88). These rate commands may be transmitted from one or more ground-based control stations, such as gateway station 12 shown in FIG. 1. For example, the rate commands could be uplinked from one ground-based control station as each satellite passes in turn over the region of coverage in which the ground-based control station is located. However, in the event that not all of the satellites in the constellation cover the region where the ground-based station is located, then an additional ground-based station may be employed to transmit the rate commands to pre-selected satellites.

From the foregoing, it will be appreciated that the present invention represents a significant advance in the field of satellite-based cellular telecommunications systems. Although several preferred embodiments of the invention have been shown and described, it will be apparent that other adaptations and modifications can be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention. Accordingly, the invention is not to be limited, except as by the following claims.

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Classifications
U.S. Classification455/427, 455/12.1, 455/428, 455/13.3, 455/13.1
International ClassificationH04B7/15, H04B7/204, H04Q7/38, H04B7/195, B64G1/24, B64G1/10
Cooperative ClassificationH04B7/195, B64G1/1007, B64G1/1085, B64G1/242, H04B7/2041
European ClassificationH04B7/204B, B64G1/10M, H04B7/195, B64G1/24A, B64G1/10A
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