Improvement in speculums
US 58709 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
THOS.- D. lVORRALL, OF CENTRAL CITY, COLORADO TERRITORY.
IMPROVEMENT IN SPECULUMS.
Specitication forming part ol' Letters Patent No. 5.709. dated October 9, 1855.
To all 'whom 'it may concern? Be it known that I, THOMAS D. W oRRALL, of Central City, in the county ot' Gilpin and Territory ot' Colorado, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Vaginal and otherSpeculums; and I do hereby declare that the following is a full, clear, and exact description thereof, reference bein g had to the aecompanying drawings, and to the letters of reference marked thereon.
My entire invention relates to mechanical contrivances or devices designed to improve that class ot surgical instruments known as speculums, and thereby to remove certain objections to their use as now constructed.
On reference to lticords tour-valve or any other speculum iu common use it will be seen that the expansion commences directly at or near to the outer rim of the instrumcnt,at
best in the neighborhood of the labia majora or labia minera; and in order to expand the vaginal walls ot' the immediate vicinity of the os uteri considerable expansion of the instrument takes place in the neighborhood of the pelvic bones at their junction to form the osseous portion at the base ofthe pelvic strait, which, in certain condition of the parts well known to professional men, occasions very serious inconvenience to the patient, and sometimes renders the use ot' the speculum impossible.
To remedy the defect I remove the joint ot' the valves sufticiently far into that portion of the speculum which passes into the vagina to prevent all possible pressure in the neighborhood ofthe bones, in a manner described hereinafter.
Another objection to the use of valved speeulums consist-s in the liability of the delicate membrane lining' the inner coat of the vagina falling between the valves of the speculum in such a manner that when the valves are being closed, in order to the removal ot' the instrument, serious mischief is frequently done by pinching the exposed parts between the falling valves.
`Serious accidents have sometimes happened in the dropping of caustic preparations from the holder onto the vaginal membrane while engaged in operations requiring their use;
There are also certain tiabby or loose conditions of the vaginal walls in which they would obtrude between the open valves of the speculum in such a manner as to preclude the possibility ot' makin g correct observations or successtull y performing desired operations.
These last three named dit'ticulties are obviated bythe use ot' flexible rubber, as hereinat'ter set forth.
It is sometimes ditiicult, in cases where the os uteri has been forced from its normal position by malposiiion of the uterus, to obtain a view ofthe cervix by using' the ordinary speculum where all the valves move simultaneously, the os uteri frequently' falling behind and being hid by one ot' the valves ot the instrument. This diiiiculty may be obviated by moving one valve at a time, as provided for in my invention.
Having stated the objects of my invention, I now proceed to describe the methods in which I accomplish them. A
Figure lis athree-valved speculum, in which one valve is seen closed. and one opened, and one detached, and in which the screws and joints are seen inside of the speculum. Fig. 2 is a section of the speculum iu which one valve is operated by a screw and nut on the inside moving on a slide on the outside of the valveA Fig. 3 is a ring with anges on the outside and holes through which the revolving nut passes that operates the valves. Fig. is a section of this ring', showing the manner in which the revolving` nut is secured to it, and also the manner in which the ring running round the outer end ofthe speculum operates upon its anges. Fig. 5 is the top or outside end ot the speculum, within which the ring, Fig. 3, is made to work. Fig. 6 is the body -ot' the speculum with all its valves detached.
Fig. 7 is the rubber covering.
The letters of reference on each part are made to correspond in all the tigures.
Ain Figs. l and 6 is a cone-shaped tube with a thread and nut, H, three slots, (marked G,) and three hinges, I.
B are valves, connected with A bythe hinges I. C are three nuts tapped to receive and operate on the screws F. They have milled heads, by which they are turned, and are loosely fastened to the ring, Fig. 3, through the holes d.
D is a ring designed to Operate up and down the inside of the tube A for the space of halfinch or more, and contains 011 its outer edgethree ilan ges, E, to drop into the corresponding slots Gr on Figs. l and 6, and seen also on the end view on Fig. 5 at Gr.
E are the anges alluded to above. F are screws connected by joints to the valves at J and with the thumb-nuts G, for the purpose of raising or lowering said valves.
Gr are three slots cut in A about half-inch deep, and in which the flanges E move up and down. H is a nut with thread cut on the inside and milled on the outside, made to screw on the extreme end of A, and to operate on the ilan ges E after they have passed through Gr.
, J are studs securely fastened to the valves B, and having joints to connect with the screw F, B being connected with A by the hinges I. The ring, Fig. 3, is placed inside of A, and kept in its place by the flanges E working in the slots Gr. The screws F are next connected by joints to the stud J and are screwed into the nuts G. After said nuts have been passed through the holes d and are set to the required distance, I next screw the nut H onto the outside of A, the edge of which, pressing upon the flanges E, forces that down with its attached nuts and screws, by which means I force open simultaneously the valves B; but should I desire to operate only one or two of the valves, I should shorten the screws of those I desired to remain down, and thus open one or more at pleasure.
In Fig. 2, K is a joint operating on the outside of the valve B, moved in the same way by the screw F. This joint works by a pulling rather than a pushing motion; and should I adopt this in the place of the joint J, I must place the nut H under the llanges E instead of over them, as in the present drawings.
Before introducing my speculum I draw over it or have securely fastened to it a fine case of rubber or other iiexible material, Fig. 7, bringing it over all the joints, so that when l operate the valves the rubber expands with them, making continuous pressure upon all parts of the vagina, affording a protection against possible accidents from the use of caustic, and preventing the folds of the vaginal wall from falling between and being injured by the closing valves.
I do not contine myself to any particular device for operating the valves of the speculum, but will use these or any others that are suitable.
Having described my invention and its operations, what I claim as new, and desire to se cure by Letters Patent, is-
1. Soconstructing a vaginal speculum that the motion of its valves shall be confined exclusively to that portion of the vagina which is inside the pelvic bone.
2. So constructingaspeculum that the whole of its valves lnay be worked simultaneously or one or more separately, at the pleasure of the operator.
3. 'lhe use of rubber or other flexible material either securely fastened to or loosely surrounding a valved speculum, and operating with it, for the purposes set forth.
4. The screw F, in combination with thejoint J and the nut G, for the purposes set forth.
5. The joint K,in combination with the screw F and thcfnut C, for the purposes set forth.
6. The ring l), in combination with the tube A, the nut H, the nuts C, the screws F, the joints J and K, and the valves B, for t-he purposes set forth.
THOS. D. WORRALL. Witnesses:
J. O. STANTON, GEO. D. HILL.