US 591783 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
3 Sheets '0. D. MQOLELLAN.
Patented Oct. 12, 1897.
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Witnesses (No Model.) 3 Sheets-Sheet 2. O. D. McCLELLAN.
ELECTRIC HEATER. No. 591,783. Patented Oct. 12,1897.
"IIIIIIIIIIIIIII'IIIVI Witnesses. Inventor Attorney.
(No Model.) 3 SheetsSheet 3. 0. D. MQCLELLAN.
ELECTRIC HEATER. No. 591,783. Patented Oct. 12,1897.
W itnesses. I nventor.
U TTED STATES PATENT @rrrcn.
OSCAR D. MCOLELLAN, OF PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA, ASSIGNOR OF ONE-HALF TO FRANCIS DOUGHERTY, OF SAME PLACE.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 591 ,783, dated October 12, 1897.
Application filed October 17, 1895. Serial No. 565,936. (No model.)
To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, OSCAR D. MCOLELLAN, a citizen of the United States, residing in the city and county of Philadelphia and State of Pennsylvania, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Electric Heaters, of which the following is a full, clear, and exact description, reference being had to the accompanying drawings, forming a part of this specification.
The object of this invention is to provide an apparatus for utilizing the voltaic are for heating purposes, the same being especially, though not exclusively, designed for the gen- I 5 eration of steam in boilers.
In carrying out my invention I produce the arc in a hermetically sealed combustionchamber containing air, to the end that the burning of the arc shall consume the oxygen of the confined air and form carbonic acid, which, in conjunction with the unconsumed and inert nitrogen from the air, shall circulate around and convey the heat of the arc throughout the chamber. The carbonic acid thus formed prevents the candles burning too rapidly. The chamber may, however, be filled with an inert gas in the first instance, its presence therein and not the manner in which it is obtained being the essential feature.
In the preferred embodiment of my invention the sealed chamber in which the heat is produced is arranged within the boiler or generating-chamber,and the electrodes within the sealed chamber are fed from a suitable source of electric energy,there being provided an intermediate rheostat, or controller, together with independent switches for the respective candles.
0 The electrodes are preferably of large capacity, being supported upon fire-brick or other refractory material within the combustion-chamber, as will hereinafter appear.
In the annexed drawings, Figure 1 is a ver- 5 tical section of a steam-boiler embodying my invention. Fig. 2 is a horizontal section thereof, as on the line a: w of Fig. 1. Fig. 3 is a diagram illustrating lthe electrical connections between the dynamo and the candles.
Fig. 4 is a section similar to Fig. 1 0f 1 The numeral 1 designates a boiler or generating-chamber of any appropriate construction. In the present instance the boiler is an upright cylinder surmounted by the usual steam-dome 2. Arranged within this cylinder, near the bottom thereof, is a shallow cylindrical chamber 3, which is so disposed as to be surrounded or jacketed by the water contained in the boiler; Rising from the chamber 3 is a series of vertical pipes t, which are preferably connected at their upper ends by cross-pipes 5. Confined within the chamber 3 is a series of heavy electric candles 6, the
electrodes of which are extended through heads 7, that are screwed into or otherwise secured to tubes 8, that connect the walls of the two cylinders. The terminals of the electrodesare fitted to the heads 7, each pair of electrodes being suitably insulated from each other. The electrodes of the respective candles are electrically connected in series with a suitable source of electric energy, the electrodes herein shown being of the parallel type wherein no regulating mechanism is required for automatically adjusting the points of the electrodes'in respect to each other. I
would remark, however, that so far as the spirit of the invention is concerned the same is not affected by any particular type of candles, nor by the number of candles employed.
In the present instance the conductors to the respective candles are connected with switches 9, whereby any or all of the candles may be thrown into or out of circuit, as desired. There are also provided intermediate the dynamo 10 and the candles arheostat 11, by means of which the current transmitted to the candles may be controlled, and also a storage battery 12 and a switch-board 13, the
varying the strength of the electric current through the medium of the rheostat. The
burning of the are within the hermeticallysealed chamber consumes the oxygen of the confined air and forms carbonic acid, which, in conjunction with the unconsumed and inert nitrogen from the air in the chamber, circulates around and conducts the heat of the arc throughout the combustion ehamberviz., the cylinder 3 and its pipes t and 5. The carbonic acid and the nitrogen being indestructible, and being confined, an intense heat is produced with the maximum economy, and this without the emission to the external atmosphere of smoke or other deleterious prodncts of combustion.
The caloric produced within the chamber is imparted from the walls of the latter to the surrounding water, from which steam is generated. This water prevents the walls being injuriously affected by the intense heat.
During the operation of the apparatus the storage battery 12 is switched into circuit, so as to store up sufficient electric energy to feed the candles preparatory to the subsequent starting of the dynamo.
I preferably arrange in the bottom of the chamber 3 a bed of fire-brick 3 or other refractory material, upon which the heavy electrodes are supported. This material also absorbs heat to a large extent and forms an increased area for its dissipation. It also serves as a conductor of heat to the bottom and lower lateral portions of the chamber or receptacle.
In Fig. 4 is shown a modification of the apparatus, wherein, as will be observed, the combustion-chainber comprises a vertically disposed cylinder 3, arranged concentrically within the boiler, so as to form an annular water-containing chamber. The lower end of the cylinder is provided with a manhole ll, whereby access to said cylinder may be readily had. This manhole is equipped with a cap or cover 15, by means of which the cylinder may be hermetically sealed. Confined within the cylinder, at various points in the length, are the electric candles (3, the elecsemss trodes whereof are extended through duct-s or tubes 8, that connect the walls of the two cylinders, the outer ends of said tubes or ducts being hermetically sealed by means of plugs to which the respective terminals of the electrodes are fitted.
I claim 1. A heater comprising a gas-tight receptacle, carbon points arranged therein, and an inert gas filling said chamber and designed to circulate therein, substantially as specified.
2. A heatercomprising a gas-tight receptacle, carbon points arranged therein, a bed of refractory material, and an inert gas filling said chamber and designed to circulate there in, substantially as specified.
A heater comprising a gastight chamber or receptacle having a number of tubes radiating therefrom, carbon points arranged in said chamber or receptacle, and an inert gas filling the same and designed to circulate therein, substantially as specified.
t. A heater comprising an inner gas-tight receptacle, carbon points arranged therein, an inert gas filling said receptacle and dc signed to circulate therein, and an outer receptacle separated from said inner receptacle by a heating space or chamber, substantially as specified.
5. A heater comprising an inner gas-tight receptacle containing an inert gas designed to circulate therein, an outer or surrounding receptacle separated from the inner receptacle by a heating space or chamber, a number of tubes extending through the walls of both said receptacles, and carbon candles or points arranged in said tubes and extending into the inner receptacle, substantially as speci lied.
In testimony whereof I have hereunto af.- fixed my signature in the presence of two s ubscribing witnesses.
OSGAR D. MGCLELLAN.
JOHN R. NOLAN, ANDREW F. mourn.