|Publication number||US593157 A|
|Publication date||Nov 2, 1897|
|Filing date||Aug 3, 1897|
|Publication number||US 593157 A, US 593157A, US-A-593157, US593157 A, US593157A|
|Inventors||Zachry T. Furbish|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (15), Classifications (1)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
5 Sheets-Sheet 1.
Z. T. FURBISH. RATGHET MECHANISM.
No. 593,157. Patented Nov. 2,1897.
(No Model.) 5 Sheets-Sheet 2.
Z. T. FURBISH.
RATCHET MECHANISM. No. 593,157. Patented Nov 2,1897
(N0 Model/3 5 SheetsSheet 3. Z. T. PURBISH. RATOHET MECHANISM.
No. 593,157. Patented Nov. 2,1897.
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Z. T. PURBISH. RATCHET MECHANISM. No. 598,157. Patented Nov, 2,1897. FIQZO. .Z 'IQZZ ,F'IQZZ, 11 G123.
l5 Sheets-Sheet 5.
Z. T. PURBISH.
Patented Nov. 2, 1897.
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ZAOHBY T. FURBISH, OF PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA, ASSIGNOR TO THE NORTH BROTHERS MANUFACTURING COMPANY, OF SAME PLACE.
RATCHET MECHANISM. V
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Fatent No. 598,157, dated November 2, 1897.
Application filed August 3, 1897- To all whom it may concern.-
Be it known that I, ZAOHRY T. FURBISH, a citizen of the United States, residing in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, have invented certain Improvements in Ratchet Mechanisms, of
which the following is a specification.
The object of my invention is to construct a ratchet or ratchet-tool in such a manner that it will be effective, compact, strong, and cheaply .manufactu red.
lVhile myinvention, is especially adapted to ratchet-tools such as screw-drivers and drills, it will be understood that the main features of my invention can be applied to any ratchet mechanism.
In the accompanying drawings, Figure 1 is a perspective view of my improved ratchet shown in the double form. Fig; 2 is a plan view. Fig. 3 is a section on the line 3 3, Fig. 20 2. Fig. 4. is a perspective view of one of the pawls. Fig. 5 is a plan view illustrating a single ratchet. Fig. 6 is a section on the line 6 6, Fig. 5. Fig. 7 is a longitudinal section on the line '7 7, Fig. 2, showing an outer casing and means for throwing the pawls out of engagement. Fig. 8 is a longitudinal section on the same line as Fig. 7, showing the pre-. ferred shifting mechanism. Fig. 8 is a perspective view of a securingplate. Figs; 9 and 10 are views showing my invention as applied to a capstan. Figs. 11, 12, 13, 14, and are views of a ratchet screw-driver embodying my invention. Fig. 16 is a section on the line 16 16, Fig. 13. Fig. 17 is a section on the line 17 17, Fig. 15. Fig. 18 is a perspective view showing the parts detached. Fig. 19 is a view of a modification of my invention. Figs. 20 and 21 are views illustrating my invention as applied to a single-spiral tool using a single pawl and ratchet. Figs. 22 and 23 are views illustrating my invention as applied to a double-spiral tool having two pawls and two ratchets. Fig. 24 is a view of a double-spiral tool with two pawls so set as to revolve the spindle continuously in one direction. In this view the carrier slides upon the spindle which is adapted to bearings in the head or handle of the tool. Figs. 25,
26, and 27 are views showing my invention applied to a double-spiral tool having three Serial No. 646,967. (in man.)
pawls, and Figs. 28 and 29 are perspective views of modifications of the pawl.
Referring in the first instance to Figs. 1, 2, and 3, A is a'shaft or spindle on which are two ratchet-wheels a a, having suitably- 55 spaced teeth, as shown in Fig. 3. These wheels may be formed integral with the spindle or keyed or splined thereto.
Bis a casing inclosing the ratchet-teeth and forming fixed abutments Z2 Z2, against which the pawls rest.
D D are two pawls preferably of the form shown in Fig. 4, having a body d, which rests between the two abutments b b, and an extension or finger d, which acts as the pawl proper and has its bearing against one of the abutments and is adapted to engage with one of the teeth, as shown in Fig. 3.
Thepawl has trunnions d at each side, near the rear,which rest in transverse slots 11 in the casing B, and, as shown in Fig. 4, the rear portion 61 is beveled on the under side, so that the pawl can be tilted out of engagement with the ratchet-wheels, although in some instances instead of beveling the pawl, 7 5 as shown in Fig. 4, the slot may be beveled, as shown in Fig. 19, or both the slot and the end of the pawl may be beveled, as in Fig. 13, without departing from the main feature of my invention, as it will be under 8r stood that the pawl can be made in any manner, so that it can be raised out of engagement with the ratchet-wheels, and for this purpose I have shown in Fig. 7 two independently-movable screws, which, when one or the other is moved inward, willpress upon the tail (1 of the pawl and thus elevate the finger (1 out of engagement with the ratchetwheel.
It will be understood here that many difo ferent devices may be used for operating the pawls, and the device I prefer to use is that shown in Fig. 8. In some instances one or other of the pawls may be removed from the casing, dispensing with shifting mech- 5 anism.
In Figs. 5' and 6 I have shown a singlepawl device instead of the double-pawl de vice shown in Fig. 1. The same construction of pawl is used and the same form of ratchet; but'I have modified the form of tooth of this ratchet, so that the pawl, as shown in Fig. 6, will have a full bearing both upon the side of the tooth andon the base, but the tooth may be modified without departing from my invention.
When the mechanism is in a fixed position, as shown in Figs. 5, 6, 9, and 10, for instance, and where the pawl is of sufiicient weight, a spring or other device for forcing the pawl into engagement with the ratchet need not be provided, as the ratchet moving,
in the direction of'the arrow, for. instance, in Fig. 6, will raise the pawl, which will drop by its own weight as the next notch presents itself, preventing any movement in theopposite direction; but where the shell or casing 13 is moved, when used, for instance, as a screw-driver, as shown in Fig. 11, then the spring or equivalent device is. required to force one or both of the pawls intoi engagement with the ratchet wheel or wheels. It will be seen, for instance, in the simplest form, Figs. 5 and 6, that the finger d, as well as the main portion of the pawl D, finds a bearing throughout its entire length against equivalent of a pivot is relieved of all strain when the pawl is engaged with 'the ratchet, and, as shown in the figures, the finger cl extends throughout the entire length of its ratchet-tooth, the full bearing of the ratchettooth is against this finger, and, as before remarked, the finger has a full bearing against the abutments, and it will be seen that the pawl can be made very light and small, yet will prevent one part turning in one direction without the other until either the pawl is crushed by the compression or the tooth of the ratchet is broken.
In making compact ratchet mechanism, es pecially for handtools, the pawls have to be made small, and pawl-and-ratchet tools now on the market are universally made so that the strains are taken directly by the small pivots or pivot-pins of the pawls, so that it will be seen that in such tools as screw-drivers, where compactness is essential, the pawls must withstand very great pressures. Consequently the tools are strained, the pivot-pins broken, and as a result the tool itself is dis- 7 parts will withstand far more strain than the ratchet-wheel itself, as it simply has to withstand the compression strain between the tooth of the ratchet and theabutments.
' The side wings or trunnions d of the pawl snugly fit in the transverse slots 1) of the casing, so as to prevent as much as possible any longitudinal movement of the pawl, while the pawl preferably snugly fits between the two abutment-walls, as shown in 2 and 5.
In Figs. 1 and 2 I have shown a doublee pawl and ratchet device arranged one to rest against the abutment Z) and the other to rest against the abutment b,so that when both pawls are in engagement, as shown in'Fig. 1, they'prevent the movement of the shaft A in either direction, as the pawl D is in engage ment with the ratchet-wheel a. and the pawl D is in engagement with the ratchet-wheel a; but if the pawl D is tilted by the screw 0, for instance, Fig. 7, then the shaft can 'move in the direction of the arrow, Fig. 2,
; or allow it to move in one direction and lock it in the reverse direction, or allow it to move in the other direction and lock it against backward movement.
This construction can be applied to many forms of mechanism, but is especially adapted for use in ratchet-tools in which it is required to either have a forward feed-ratchet or a reverse feed-ratchet or look the handle to the blade and, as illustrating a type of ratchet screw-driver embodying my invention, I refer particularly to Figs. 11 to 18, inclusive.
Fig. 11 is an exterior view of a screw-driver embodying my invention. Fig. 12 is a view similar to Fig. 11 with the shell removed, showing the two pawls in position. Fig. 13 is a view on the line 13 13, Fig. 12, showing the upper pawl in engagement with the ratchetwheel and the lower pawl out of engagement therewith. Fig. let is a view showing the adjusting mechanism in the mid-position, with both pawls in engagement. Fig. 15 is aview showing the upper pawl out of engagement and the lower pawl in engagement.
The casing 13, having the abutments b b, is of the same construction as that shown in Fig. 1, and the pawls D D are of the same construction shown in Fig.4. The transverse slots are beveled, as well as the rear of the pawl, T so as to give the pawl more movement on its pivot if necessary.
E is a shell fixed to the casing by a screw .6 and has a slot e, Fig. 11, through which passes a lug or button i of a spring-shifter I. (Shown clearly in Fig. 18.) This spring-shifter rests upon the pawls D, D, as shown, and is of such a length that when in the mid-position, as shown in Fig. 1 1, it will tend to force both pawls into engagement with ratchetwheel a on the spindle A, but when shifted to the position shown in Fig. 13 it will bear upon the rear end of the pawl D and tilt it out of engagement with the ratchet-wheel and will act as a spring to keep the pawl D in engagement with the ratchet-wheel, but when shifted in the opposite positiomas shown in Fig. 15, it will tilt the pawl D out of engagement and will act as a spring to keep the pawl D in engagement.
Instead of the two sections of the ratchetwheel, as shown in Figs. 1 and 2 in the views relating to the screw-driver, I have shown a single elongated ratohetwheel fixed in any suitable manner to the spindle A, which is shaped at its extreme end in the present instance in the form of a screw-driver, but it may be provided with a detachable blade common in this class of tools.
The ratchet-wheel and its spindle are held to the casing B, Fig. 7, by a screw-pin i, which enters between the two wheels a a, and in Fig. 8 bya fiat plate 11, made segmental, as in Fig. 8, which enters a slot in the casing and extends between the wheels a a.
In Figs. 13, 14, 15, and 18 I extend the end f of the handle F into the casing B and provide an abutment-plate 11 which is the bearing for the inner end of the spindle A. The bearing for the outer end of the spindle is in a plug 11 driven into the casing l3 until it fits snugly against the collar on the spindle. The plate i or pin 5 may be used with the plug 11 in some instances.
In Figs. 9 and 10 I have shown my invention applied to a capstan. b are the abutments. 1) are the pivoted pawls. a are the ratchet-wheels, to which are attached the drums, and C are the levers by which the drums are turned. While I have shown the two pawls made independent, both locking against turning in one direction, they may be arranged similar to those shown in Figs. 1, 7,
or 8 without departing from my invention.
Referring to Figs. 20 and 21, I have shown my invention as applied to a single-spiral screw-driver which turns to the right, in the present instance, as the handle is forced forward. A is the stem, having two spirals out therein in the same direction. This stem is adapted to slide longitudinally in the handle F, and carried by the ratchet-wheel a are shoes c, Fig. 21, which are adapted to slide in the spiral grooves of the stem A. A spring I, which partially encircles the casing, has a portion which bears upon the pawl D tendin g to force it down onto the ratchet-wheel, so that as the handle is pushed forward the pawl will lock the ratchet to the handle, being held between the ratchet and the abutment on the'handle, so that the spindle will be turned to the right. When the handle is tool shown in Fig. 11.
returned, the spindle will not turn, as the rests in one of the grooves in the stem, and
on the ratchet-wheel o is another shoe resting in the other groove, so that when the spring-slide I is moved to the position shown in Fig. 23 the outer pawl D will be raised and the inner pawl D will-be held in engagement with its ratchet-wheeh so that when the .handle is pushed forward the stem will be turned to the left intermittently, the pawl freeing itself, so as to allow the handle to re turn without turning the stem, but when the spring-slide'I is moved to the opposite position then the pawl D is thrown out of engagement and the pawl D held in engagement, so that when the handle is moved backward and forward it will turn the stem to the right. When the slide I is pushed to the mid-position, it will lock both pawls to their ra tchet-wheels. Then the stem is locked to the handle and is prevented from turning in either direction, so that the tool can be used as an ordinary screw-driver. The only movement that can be made is to allow the handle to slide back on the stem, so as to increase the length of the driver, which is prevented from moving forward by the pawls. The above tool can be used also as a right and left hand ratchet-tool, the same as the In this event the handle is simply turned and not reciprocated.
In Fig. 24: I have shown a tool which may be used either as a screw-driver having a continuous'movement in one direction, or as a drill, Where a continuous motion in one direction is desirable. In this case the spindle A has double spiral grooves out in it similar to the spindle A and the end of the spindle is adapted to ball-bearings a in the head or handle F The pawls, ratchet-wheel, and casing B are contained within a carryingshell E of the peculiar form shown in Fig. 24:, so that it can be readily grasped by the hand and reciprocated upon the stem. The pawls are so set that when the carrying-shell is reciprocated the stem will move continuously in one direction.
Figs. 25, 26, and 27 illustrate a combinationtool having a number of movements. In this tool there are three sets of pawls D D, two on one side, set similar to those shown in Fig. 22; but on the opposite side is a single pawl 13, and inorder to cheapen the manufacture I use a pawl-blank 61 which does not engage with the ratchet-wheel and is simply used to carry one end of the spring-shifter, Fig. ,25, as it will be understood that these tools are made in quantities and the parts are simply duplicates.
By the above-described arrangement the spindle can be made to turn according to how the spring-slides are shifted, so as to turn either continuously to the right, intermittently to the left, or locked so as to act as an ordinary screw-driver, and can be used as a right or left hand ratchet-tool.
It will be seen that my invention can be applied to any machine in which a pawl and ratchet are required,and can be used either as a single pawl and ratchet or as a double pawl and ratchet, so as to obtain a number of movements in the same tool, as in the case of the screw-drivers described above.
I have found that in heavy work particularlyas in capstans, hoists, and like mechanism-a pawl and ratchet made in accordance with my invention will be much more substantial than those now in common use.
In Fig. 28 I have shown a pawl in which the trunnions d are dispensed with. In this case a channel 02 is formed in the under side of the pawl, so that the pawl can either rest on the cross-shaft or a rib on the casing B.
In Fig. 29 I have shown another modification in which the trunnions are dispensed with. In this case I simplyperforate the pawl and pass it over a vertical pin on the casin g, so that it will have no longitudinal movement. The pawl isheld laterally by the two abutments.
I claim as my invention- 1. The combination of a ratchet-wheel, a? pawl pivoted transversely to the longitudinal line of the wheel and extending longitudinally over the wheel and an abutment at one B side of the axial line of the wheel and also extending longitudinally over said wheel, so i that when the wheel engages the pawl the I abutment will, through the medium of said pawl, directly oppose the thrust of the wheel, substantially as described.
2. The combination of a ratchet-wheel, a pawl pivoted transversely to the longitudinal line of the wheel and extending longitudinally over said wheel, and an abutment for; the pawl also projecting longitudinally over i the wheel close to the toothed periphery of the same, said abutment being located at one 1 side of the axial line of the wheel and pro-i jecting below the top tooth of the wheel, sub- 5 stantially as specified. I
3. The combination of a ratchet-wheel, an i abutment extending over the ratchet-wheel close thereto, and at an angle in respect to a line drawn through the faceof the engaging 1 tooth, and a transversely-pivoted pawl extendinglongitudinally over the wheel adapted to rest between the abutment and a tooth of I the ratchet-wheel so that the abutment will receive the direct thrust of the wheel through 1 the pawl, substantially as described.
4. The combination of a square-toothed ratchet-wheel, a beveled abutment extending I over the wheel and a square pawl resting T against the abutment and adapted to the space 1 between a tooth of the wheel and the abutment when the wheel is turned in one direction, and so arranged as to be elevated by a tooth of the wheel when turned in an opposite direction, substantially as described.
5. The combination of a casing, having an abutment and an open transverse slot, a spindle adapted to the casing, a ratchet-wheel on the said spindle, and a pawl having trunnions formed integral therewith and adapted to the open transverse slot, said pawl extending alongside the abutment of the casing and engaging one of the teeth of the ratchet-wheel. so that it will prevent the wheel and its spin dle from turning in one direction when in engagement therewith, substantially as described.
6. The combination of a casing slotted to form an abutment and having an open transverse slot, at spindle, a ratchet-wheel thereon, said wheel and spindle adapted to the casing, a pawl having trunnions at each side formed integral therewith and adapted to rest in the transverse slot and extending alongside the abutment and over the ratchet-wheel, the trunnions of the pawl bearing at the forward end only of the slot so as to form a tail-section, with means for pressing upon this tail-section to tilt the pawl, substantially as described.
7. The combination in ratchet mechanism, of a casing having two abutments, a ratchet- 1 wheel, two pawls, one pawl pivoted at one end of the ratchet-Wheel and resting against one abutment, and the other pawl pivoted at the other end of the ratchet-wheel and. resting against the other abutment, both pawls being transversely pivoted to the axial line of the wheel, the arrangement of the pawls being such that the rotation of the wheel in one direction is blocked by one pawl and the rotation of the wheel in the opposite direction is blocked by the other pawl, with means for 1 acting on the pawls to throw one of them out of engagement with the ratchetwheel, substantially as and for the purpose set forth.
8. The combination in ratchet mechanism, of the casing slotted to form two abutments and having a transverse slot at each end extending past the abutment and forming the bearing for the pawls, a spindle, a ratchetwheel thereon, two pawls transversely pivoted, said pawls having integral trunnions,the trunnions of one pawl being adapted to one transverse slot and the trunnions of the other pawl being adapted to the other transverse slot, and one pawl having a finger extending alongside one abutment, the other pawl having a finger extending alongside the other abutment, both pawls extending over the ratchet-wheel, with means for acting upon thepawls to throw them into or out of engagement with the ratchet-wheel, substantially as I described.
9. A pawl for ratchet mechanism consisting of the body d, trunnions d and a finger d extending from one end of the body, said parts being integral, substantially as described. 1
10. A pawl for ratchet mechanism consisting of the body cl, having trunnions d at the rear end, said trunnions and body-piece being beveled on the under side at the rear end and a finger projecting from the opposite end of the body, substantially as described.
- 11. The combination of a slotted casing forming two abutments b b, a spindle, a ratchet-wheel on the spindle within the easing, pawls D, D, one pawl resting against one abutment and the other pawl resting against the opposite abutment, said pawls being transversely pivoted on a longitudinal line through the spindle, with a longitudinal sliding spring adapted to be moved past the pivot-points of the pawls so that they can be thrown into and out of engagement with the ratchet-Wheel, substantially as described. I
12. A pawl for ratchet mechanism consisting of body having parallel sides with a finger extending from one end of the body and located at one side of the center thereof, substantially as described.
13. The combination in a ratchet mechanism, of the casing B having abutments b b, a spindle having a ratchet-wheel, transverselypivoted pawls D D, the pawl D resting against the abutment Z) and the pawl D resting against the abutment b, one pawl being pivoted in the casing at'one end of the ratchet-wheel and the other pawl being pivoted in the easing at the opposite end of the ratchet-wheel, each pawl having a tail extending beyond its pivot-point, with an elongated flat spring having a projection, a shell having an elongated slot through which the projection extends so that on moving the said spring longitudinally one or other of the pawls will be thrown out of engagement with the ratchetwheel, substantially as described.
14. The combination in ratchet mechanism, of a casing open at one end and longitudinally slotted to form an abutment, a pawl adapted to the slotted portion of the casing, an abutment-plate within the casing and a perforated plug adapted to be inserted in the open end of the casing, a spindle confined longitudinally by the abutment-plate and perforated plug and having a reduced portion extending through the perforated plug said spindle having teeth with which thepawl engages, substantially as described.
In testimony whereof I have signed my name to this specification in the presence of two subscribing witnesses.
ZACHRY T. FURBISII.
WILL. A. BARR, J 0s. H. KLEIN.
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