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Publication numberUS5935752 A
Publication typeGrant
Application numberUS 08/975,182
Publication dateAug 10, 1999
Filing dateNov 20, 1997
Priority dateNov 22, 1996
Fee statusPaid
Publication number08975182, 975182, US 5935752 A, US 5935752A, US-A-5935752, US5935752 A, US5935752A
InventorsHideaki Ueda, Keiichi Furukawa
Original AssigneeMinolta Co., Ltd.
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Toner for developing electrostatic latent images
US 5935752 A
Abstract
The toner for developing electrostatic latent images according to the invention contains at least one of a bisphenol compound of a general formula (I), a phenol derivative of any one of general formulas (II) to (V), a phenol compound of any one of general formulas (VI) to (IX) and a resorcin allene derivative of a general formula (X).
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Claims(23)
What is claimed is:
1. A toner for developing electrostatic latent images containing a bisphenol compound represented by the following general formula (I): ##STR73## wherein R1 to R4 each indicate any one of a hydrogen atom, an electron attractive substituent, an alkyl group, an alkoxy group and a hydroxyl group, at least one of R1 to R4 being an electron attractive substituent; and R5 and R6 each indicate any one of a hydrogen atom, a carbon atom having an electron attractive substituent and a carbon atom bonded to an aryl group having an electron attractive substituent, or otherwise R5 and P6 may combine to form a ring or cooperatively form a double bond to represent an oxygen atom, a carbon atom having an electron attractive substituent or a carbon atom bonded to an aryl group having an electron attractive substituent, but R5 and R6 are not simultaneously hydrogen atoms.
2. A toner for developing electrostatic latent images as set forth in claim 1, wherein said bisphenol compound is made to adhere to surfaces of the toner particles.
3. A toner for developing electrostatic latent images as set forth in claim 1, wherein said bisphenol compound is contained in the toner particles.
4. A toner for developing electrostatic latent images as set forth in claim 1, wherein a resin coat layer comprising said bisphenol compound is applied to surfaces of the toner particles.
5. A toner for developing electrostatic latent images as set forth in claim 1, wherein said bisphenol compound is made to adhere to surfaces of suspension-polymerized particles comprising a graft polymer containing black carbon.
6. A toner for developing electrostatic latent images containing at least one of phenol derivatives represented by the following general formulas (II) to (V): ##STR74## wherein R7 to R24 each indicate a hydrogen atom, an electron attractive substituent, an alkyl group, an alkoxy group or a hydroxyl group, except for that R7 to R10 all indicate a hydrogen atom, that R11 to R15 all indicate a hydrogen atom, and that R16 to R20 all indicate a hydrogen atom.
7. A toner for developing electrostatic latent images as set forth in claim 6, wherein said phenol derivative is made to adhere to surfaces of the toner particles.
8. A toner for developing electrostatic latent images as set forth in claim 6, wherein said phenol derivative is contained in the toner particles.
9. A toner for developing electrostatic latent images as set forth in claim 6, wherein a resin coat layer comprising said phenol derivative is applied to surfaces of the toner particles.
10. A toner for developing electrostatic latent images as set forth in claim 6, wherein said phenol derivative is made to adhere to surfaces of suspension-polymerized particles comprising a graft polymer containing carbon black.
11. A toner for developing electrostatic latent images containing at least one of phenol compounds represented by the following general formulas (VI) to (IX): ##STR75## wherein R26 to R29, R32, R33, R35 to R41, R42, R43, R45 to R50, R51, R52, R54 to R57, and R59 to R62 each indicate a hydrongen atom, an electron attractive substituent, an alkyl group, an alkoxy group or a hydroxyl group; R25 indicates a hydrogen atom, an alkyl group or an aryl group which may have a substituent; R34 indicates an alkylene group or an aralkylene group; and R44, R53, and R58 each indicate an alkylene group, a halogenated alkylene group, a carbonyl group or an aralkylene group.
12. A toner for developing electrostatic latent images as set forth in claim 11, wherein said phenol compound is made to adhere to surfaces of the toner particles.
13. A toner for developing electrostatic latent images as set forth in claim 11, wherein said phenol compound is contained in the toner particles.
14. A toner for developing electrostatic latent images as set forth in claim 11, wherein a resin coat layer comprising said phenol compound is applied to surfaces of the toner particles.
15. A toner for developing electrostatic latent images as set forth in claim 11, wherein said phenol compound is made to adhere to surfaces of suspension-polymerized particles comprising a graft polymer containing carbon black.
16. A toner for developing electrostatic latent images containing a resorcin allene derivative represented by the following general formula (X): ##STR76## wherein R63 and R64 each indicate an aryl group or a heterocyclic group, which groups may have a substituent; and n indicates an integer of 0 to 4.
17. A toner for developing electrostatic latent images as set forth in claim 16, wherein said resorcin allene derivative is made to adhere to surfaces of the toner particles.
18. A toner for developing electrostatic latent images as set forth in claim 16, wherein said resorcin allene derivative is contained in the toner particles.
19. A toner for developing electrostatic latent images as set forth in claim 16, wherein a resin coat layer comprising said resorcin allene derivative is applied to surfaces of the toner particles.
20. A toner for developing electrostatic latent images as set forth in claim 16, wherein said resorcin allene derivative is made to adhere to surfaces of suspension-polymerized particles comprising a graft polymer containing carbon black.
21. The toner of claim 1, wherein said electron attractive substituent is selected from the group consisting of halogen, halogenated alkyl, halogenated alkoxy, nitro and cyano.
22. The toner of claim 6, wherein said electron attractive substituent is selected from the group consisting of halogen, halogenated alkyl, halogenated alkoxy, nitro and cyano.
23. The toner of claim 11, wherein said electron attractive substituent is selected from the group consisting of halogen, halogenated alkyl, halogenated alkoxy, nitro and cyano.
Description
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

1. Field of the Invention

The present invention generally relates to a toner for developing an electrostatic latent image formed on an image bearing body, such as a photoconductor drum, in an electrophotographic apparatus, electrostatic recording apparatus, electrostatic printing apparatus, and the like, and more particularly, to a toner featuring a charge control agent added thereto.

2. Description of the Related Art

In electrophotographic apparatuses, electrostatic recording apparatuses and electrostatic printing apparatuses and the like, various types of toners have conventionally been used for developing an electrostatic latent image formed on an image bearing body, such as a photoconductor drum and the like. It is a general practice in the art to allow such a toner to be adsorbed on an electrostatic latent image formed on the image bearing body thereby to develop the latent image into a toner image. The toner image thus formed on the image bearing body is transferred onto a copy sheet and then fixed thereon.

In order to produce a sharp image suffering no fog, a toner having a proper chargeability is required. It is further required that the toner should present little change in charge quantity over time and be insusceptible to environmental changes such as variations of humidity causing significant attenuation of the charge quantity or production of agglomeration of toner particles. For example, if the charge quantity of the toner decreases from an initial set value, an increased amount of toner particles is scattered from the developing device, thus contaminating the periphery of the developing device with toner particles or producing toner fogs all over a resultant image.

It is therefore a conventional practice in the art to add a charge control agent to the toner material for accomplishing a stabile chargeability thereof.

Recently, a demand exists for a charge control agent of a white or pale color having an excellent color reproducibility such as to meet the need of production of color images.

Unfortunately, most of the charge control agents, which are colorless, white or pale yellow in color and generally used for imparting negative charges to the toner particles, comprise compounds containing heavy metals, such as a complex or a salt of chromium. The heavy metals are not desirable in a safety standpoint. Hence, demand exists for a negative charge control agent free from a heavy metal.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

It is an object of the invention to provide a toner for developing electrostatic latent images which employs a negative-charge control agent free from a heavy metal.

It is another object of the invention to provide a toner for developing electrostatic latent images which features quick start of charging, stable chargeability, spent-resistance and insusceptibility to environmental changes.

It is still another object of the invention to provide a toner for developing electrostatic latent images which presents excellent color reproducibility and light-transmitting property.

In accordance with a first aspect of the invention, a toner for developing electrostatic latent images contains a charge control agent comprising a bisphenol compound represented by the following general formula (I): ##STR1## wherein R1 to R4 each indicate any one of a hydrogen atom, an electron attractive substituent, an alkyl group, an alkoxy group and a hydroxyl group, at least one of R1 to R4 indicating an electron attractive substituent; R5 and R6 each indicate any one of a hydrogen atom, a carbon atom having an electron attractive group and a carbon atom bonded to an aryl group having an electron attractive group, or otherwise R5 and R6 may combine to form a ring or cooperatively form a double bond to represent an oxygen atom, a carbon atom having an electron attractive group or a carbon atom bonded to an aryl group having an electron attractive group, but both R5 and R6 are not simultaneously hydrogen atoms.

In accordance with a second aspect of the invention, a toner for developing electrostatic latent images contains a charge control agent comprising at least one of phenol derivatives represented by the following general formulas (II) to (V): ##STR2## wherein R7 to R24 each indicate a hydrogen atom, an electron attractive substitutent, an alkyl group, an alkoxy group or a hydroxyl group, except for that R7 to R10 all indicate a hydrogen atom, that R11 to R15 all indicate a hydrogen atom, and that R16 to R20 all indicate a hydrogen atom.

In accordance with a third aspect of the invention, a toner for developing electrostatic latent images contains a charge control agent comprising at least one of phenol compounds represented by the following general formulas (VI) to (IX): ##STR3## wherein R26 to R29, R32, R33, R35 to R41, R42, R43, R45 to R50, R51, R52, R54 to R57, and R59 to R62 each indicate a hydrogen atom, an electron attractive substituent, an alkyl group, an alkoxy group or a hydroxyl group; R25 indicates a hydrogen atom, an alkyl group or an aryl group which may have a substituent; R34 indicates an alkylene group or an aralkylene group; and R44, R53, and R58 each indicate an alkylene group, a halogenated alkylene group, a carbonyl group or an aralkylene group.

In accordance with a fourth aspect of the invention, a toner for developing electrostatic latent images contains a charge control agent comprising a resorcin allene derivative represented by the following general formula (X): ##STR4## wherein R63 and R64 each indicate an aryl group or a heterocyclic group, which groups may have a substituent; and n indicates an integer of 0 to 4.

Like the toners for developing electrostatic latent images according to the first to fourth aspects of the invention, the addition of the charge control agent comprising a bisphenol compound represented by the general formula (I), at least one of the phenol derivatives represented by the general formulas (II) to (V), at least one of the phenol compounds represented by the general formulas (VI) to (IX), or a resorcin allene derivative represented by the general formula (X) provides a toner which does not entail a problem of safety such as posed by a charge control agent containing a heavy metal and features quick start of charging, stable chargeability, spent-resistance and insusceptibility to environmental chages as well as excellent color reproducibility and light-transmitting property.

These and other objects, advantages and features of the invention will become apparent from the following description thereof taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings which illustrate specific embodiment of the invention.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram illustrating a device used for measuring charge quantities of toners and amounts of toners of low charge.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

Preferred embodiments of the invention will hereinbelow be described in detail.

First, description will be given on a toner for developing electrostatic latent images in accordance with a first embodiment of the invention.

The toner for developing electrostatic latent images according to the first embodiment of the invention contains a charge control agent comprising a bisphenol compound of the general formula (I). The bisphenol compound is used particularly as a negative-charge control agent for negatively charging a toner material.

In the bisphenol compound represented by the general formula (I), preferred examples of R1 to R4 include a hydrogen atom, an alkyl group having 1 to 5 carbon atoms, an alkoxy group having 1 to 5 carbon atoms, a hydroxyl group as well as an electron attractive substituent such as a halogen atom, a halogenated alkyl group, a halogenated alkoxy group, a nitro group, a cyano group and the like, at least one of R1 to R4 being an electron attractive substituent.

Preferred examples of R5 and R6 include a hydrogen atom; a carbon atom having an electron attractive substituent such as a halogen atom, a halogenated alkyl group, a halogenated alkoxy group, a nitro group, a cyano group and the like; a carbon atom bonded to an aryl group having an electron attractive substituent such as a halogen atom, a halogenated alkyl group, a halogenated alkoxy group, a nitro group, a cyano group and the like; otherwise R5 and R6 may cooperatively form a double bond to represent an oxygen atom, a carbon atom having any one of the aforesaid electron attractive groups or a carbon atom bonded to an aryl group having any one of the aforesaid electron attractive groups. Specific examples of the bisphenol compound represented by the general formula (I) include compounds represented by the following chemical formulas (1) to (76): ##STR5##

In the toner for developing electrostatic latent images according to the first embodiment of the invention, the bisphenol compound as the charge control agent may be used alone or in combination of plural types. Examples of other charge control agent usable in combination with the bisphenol compound include a metal salicylate complex, a metal benzilate complex and the like.

The aforesaid bisphenol compound may be synthesized at a high yield by a step of, for example, halogenating or nitrating a phenol compound as a material, or by bringing a bisphenol compound having a corresponding substituent into reaction.

Next, description will be given on the toner for developing electrostatic latent images in accordance with a second embodiment of the invention.

The toner for developing electrostatic latent images according to the second embodiment of the invention contains a charge control agent comprising at least one of phenol derivatives represented by the general formulas (II) to (V). It is to be noted that these phenol derivatives are used particularly as the negative-charge control agent for negatively charging the toner material.

In the phenol derivatives represented by the general formulas (II) to(V), preferred examples of R7 to R24 include a hydrogen atom, an alkyl group having 1 to 5 carbon atoms, an alkoxy group having 1 to 5 carbon atoms and a hydroxyl group, as well as an electron attractive substituent such as a halogen atom, a halogenated alkyl group, a halogenated alkoxy group, a nitro group, a cyano group and the like, except for that R7 to R10 all indicate a hydrogen atom, that R11 to R15 all indicate a hydrogen atom, and that R16 to R20 all indicate a hydrogen atom.

Specific examples of the phenol derivatives represented by the general formulas (II) to (V) include compounds represented by the following chemical formulas (77) to (118): ##STR6##

In the toner for developing electrostatic latent images according to the second embodiment of the invention, the phenol derivative as the charge control agent may be used alone or in combination of plural types. Examples of other charge control agent usable in combination with the phenol derivative include a metal salicylate complex, a metal benzilate complex and the like.

The phenol derivative may be synthesized at a high yield by a step of, for example, halogenating or nitrating a corresponding phenol compound as a material, or by bringing a bisphenol compound having a corresponding substituent into reaction.

Next, description will be given on the toner for developing electrostatic latent images in accordance with a third embodiment of the invention.

The toner for developing electrostatic latent images according to the third embodiment of the invention contains a charge control agent comprising at least one of phenol compounds represented by the following general formulas (VI) to (IX). These phenol compounds are used particularly as the negative-charge control agent for negatively charging the toner material.

In the phenol compounds represented by the general formulas (VI) to (IX), preferred examples of R26 to R29, R32, R33, R35 to R41, R42, R43, R45 to R50, R51, R52, R54 to R57, and R59 to R62 include a hydrogen atom, an alkyl group having 1 to 5 carbon atoms, an alkoxy group having 1 to 5 carbon atoms and a hydroxyl group, as well as an electron attractive substituent such as a halogen atom, a halogenated alkyl group, a halogenated alkoxy group, a nitro group, a cyano group and the like.

Preferred examples of R34 include an alkylene group having 1 to 5 carbon atoms, and an aralkylene group having 1 to 5 carbon atoms. Preferred examples of R44, R53 and R58 include a carbonyl group, an alkylene group having 1 to 5 carbon atoms, a halogenated alkylene group and an aralkylene group. A phenylmethyl group is particularly preferred as the aralkylene group.

Specific examples of the phenol compounds represented by the general formulas (VI) to (IX) include compounds represented by the following chemical formulas (119) to (171): ##STR7##

In the toner for developing electrostatic latent images according to the third embodiment of the invention, the phenol compound as the charge control agent may be used alone or in combination of plural types. Examples of other charge control agent usable in combination with the phenol compound include a metal salicylate complex, a metal benzilate complex and the like.

The phenol compound may be synthesized at a high yield by a step of, for example, halogenating or nitrating a corresponding phenol compound as a material, or by bringing a phenol compound having a corresponding substituent into reaction.

Next, description will be given on the toner for developing electrostatic latent images in accordance with a fourth embodiment of the invention.

The toner for developing electrostatic latent images according to the fourth embodiment of the invention contains a charge control agent comprising a resorcin allene derivative represented by the general formula (X).

In the resorcin allene derivative represented by the general formula (x), preferred examples of R63 and R64 include an aryl group such as a phenyl group, a biphenyl group, a naphthyl group or a heterocyclic group such as a pyridyl group, a furyl group, a thiophene group, a carbazolyl group, a pyrrole group, an indanedione group and the like. The above aryl group and the heterocyclic group may have a substituent. Examples of such a substituent include an alkyl group having 1 to 5 carbon atoms, an alkoxy group having 1 to 5 carbon atoms and a hydroxyl group as well as an electron attractive substituent such as a halogen atom, a halogenated alkyl group, a halogenated alkoxy group, a nitro group, a cyano group and the like.

Specific examples of the resorcin allene derivative include compounds of (172) to (226) represented by the general formula (X) wherein R63, R64 and n each indicate as shown in the following Tables 1 to 3.

              TABLE 1______________________________________No.   R1 = R2 (n = 0)______________________________________(172) 1 #STR8##(173) 2 #STR9##(174) 3 #STR10##(175) 4 #STR11##(176) 5 #STR12##(177) 6 #STR13##(178) 7 #STR14##(179) 8 #STR15##(180) 9 #STR16##(181) 0 #STR17##(182) 1 #STR18##(183) 2 #STR19##(184) 3 #STR20##(185) 4 #STR21##(186) 5 #STR22##(187) 6 #STR23##(188) 7 #STR24##(189) 8 #STR25##(190) 9 #STR26##(191) 0 #STR27##(192) 1 #STR28##(193) 2 #STR29##(194) 3 #STR30##(195) 4 #STR31##(196) 5 #STR32##(197) 6 #STR33##(198) 7 #STR34##______________________________________

              TABLE 2______________________________________No.   R1 = R2 (n = 0)______________________________________(199) 8 #STR35##(200) 9 #STR36##(201) 0 #STR37##(202) 1 #STR38##(203) 2 #STR39##(204) 3 #STR40##(205) 4 #STR41##(206) 5 #STR42##(207) 6 #STR43##(208) 7 #STR44##(209) 8 #STR45##(210) 9 #STR46##(211) 0 #STR47##(212) 1 #STR48##(213) 2 #STR49##(214) 3 #STR50##(215) 4 #STR51##(216) 5 #STR52##(217) 6 #STR53##(218) 7 #STR54##(219) 8 #STR55##(220) 9 #STR56##(221) 0 #STR57##______________________________________

              TABLE 3______________________________________No.   R1         R2         n______________________________________(222) 1 #STR58##                 7 #STR59##      3(223) 1 #STR60##                 2 #STR61##      2(224) 1 #STR62##                 7 #STR63##      2(225) 6 #STR64##                 7 #STR65##      3(226) 7 #STR66##                 9 #STR67##      1______________________________________

In the toner for developing electrostatic latent images according to the fourth embodiment of the invention, the resorcin allene derivative as the charge control agent may be used alone or in combination of plural types. Examples of other charge control agent usable in combination with the resorcin allene derivative include a metal salicylate complex, a metal benzilate complex and the like.

The aforesaid resorcin allene derivative may be synthesized at a high yield by means of dehydration condensation reaction using, as a material, aldehyde of an aryl compound or a heterocyclic compound with resorcin and an acid catalyst added thereto.

In the toner for developing electrostatic latent images according to the first and second embodiments of the invention, a toner material contains a bisphenol compound represented by the general formula (I), at least one of the bisphenol derivatives represented by the general formulas (II) to (V), at least one of the phenol compounds represented by the general formulas (VI) to (IX), or a resorcin allene derivative represented by the general formula (X), as the charge control agent. Such a toner material is prepared by the known processes.

Examples of such toner materials include a toner material prepared by the pulverization process wherein a binder resin, a colorant and other ingredients, as required, are melted by heating, cooled and then pulverized and classified; a toner material prepared by the suspension polymerization process wherein at least more than one types of monomers and a polymerization initiator sparingly soluble to water and soluble to the monomer are dispersed in water for polymerization; an encapsulated toner material configured such that a core material comprising a fixing resin and a colorant is coated with a shell layer; a toner material prepared by the suspension granulation process wherein a resin solution comprising an organic solvent and a binder resin dissolved therein is dispersed in a dispersion medium for granulation; a toner material prepared by the non-aqueous dispersion polymerization process wherein, in a dispersion solvent medium comprising an organic solvent or a mixture of an organic solvent and water, and an organic solvent, at least more than one types of monomers and a polymerization initiator sparingly soluble to the medium and soluble to the monomer is dispersed for polymerization; a toner material comprising a matrix of a thermoplastic resin and a disperse phase of a thermoplastic resin dispersed in the matrix resin as isolated therefrom, and having substantially the total amount of colorant injected in the disperse phase of the resin; a toner material obtained by the steps of heating particles comprising at least a resin and a colorant and prepared by suspension polymerization so as to produce the aggregate thereof, and of grinding the resultant aggregate; a toner material obtained by spray drying; a spherical toner material obtained by heat-treating toner particles prepared by the pulverization process; a toner material comprising a mixture of the spherical toner particles and toner particles in determinate forms.

The aforesaid charge control agent comprised of the bisphenol compound, the phenol derivative, the phenol compound or the resorcin allene derivative may be added to the aforementioned toner materials in a manner to be incorporated in the toner particles or to be fixed on the particle surface of the toner materials.

In case where the aforesaid charge control agent is incorporated in the toner particles, a toner material may be prepared by any of the aforementioned processes after addition of the charge control agent depending upon a resin component of the toner material and additives such as a colorant. In the case of the encapsulated toner, the toner material is preferably prepared such that the charge control agent is contained in the shell layer.

In case where the aforesaid charge control agent is fixed on the particle surface of the toner material, the charge control agent may be adhered to the particle surface of the toner material by means of the action of Van der Waals force, electrostatic force or the like and then fixed thereon by means of mechanical shock or the like. The fixing treatment can be made by either the wet process or the dry process.

Examples of the dry process machines preferably employed for fixing the charge control agent on the particle surface of the toner material include Hybridization System commercially available from Nara Machines Co., Ltd., Ang-Mill commercially available from Hosokawa Micron Corporation, Mechano Mill commercially available from Okada Co, Ltd. and the like, the machines utilizing the air jet impact process. However, usable machines should not be limited to these and many other various devices can be employed.

A mixing ratio of the charge control agent such as of the bisphenol, the phenol derivative, the phenol compound or the resorsin allene derivative is suitably decided depending upon an amount of other additives to be added to the toner material, a type of resin to be used for the toner material, and a system to which the toner is to be applied, that is, whether the toner is applied to the one component development system utilizing the toner alone or to the two component development system utilizing the toner and a carrier in combination.

Where toner particles produced by the pulverization process or suspension process contain the charge control agent therein, a mixing ratio of the aforesaid charge control agent on the basis of 100 parts by weight of a resin used for the toner is in the range of between 0.1 and 20 parts by weight, preferably between 1 and 10 parts by weight and more preferably between 1 and 5 parts by weight. More specifically, if less than 0.1 part by weight of charge control agent is incorporated in the toner particles, the resultant toner may not be fully charged. If, on the other hand, more than 20 parts by weight of charge control agent is incorporated therein, the resultant toner may suffer unstable charge quantity or reduced fixing property.

Where the aforesaid charge control agent is adhered to and fixed on the particle surface of the toner material, a mixing ratio of the charge control agent on a basis of 100 parts by weight of toner particles is in the range of between 0.001 and 10 parts by weight, preferably between 0.05 and 2 parts by weight, or more preferably between 0.1 and 1 part by weight. More specifically, if less than 0.001 part by weight of the charge control agent is adhered to and fixed on the particle surface of the toner material, the resultant toner may not be fully charged because of an insufficient amount of the charge control agent present on the particle surface of the toner. If, on the other hand, the charge control agent exceeds 10 parts by weight, the charge control agent fails to be securely fixed on the particle surface of the toner material, resulting in separation thereof from the particle surface of the toner during use.

If the charge control agent is fixed on the particle surface of the toner material in this manner, even a small amount of charge control agent allows the toner to be sufficiently charged. Additionally, the bisphenol compound, the phenol derivative, the phenol compound are the resorcin allene derivative are white in color, thus imparting the resultant toner with a good chargeability or providing a color toner suitable for forming sharp color images.

Where the charge control agent of the bisphenol compound, the phenol derivative, the phenol compound or the resorcin allene derivative is incorporated into the toner particles, preferably used is a charge control agent having a particle size of not greater than 5 μm, preferably not greater than 3 μm, or more preferably not greater than 1 μm. If a charge control agent has a size greater than 5 μm, the charge control agent is nonuniformly dispersed in the toner particles and nonuniform chargeability of the toner may result.

Where the charge control agent of the bisphenol compound, the phenol derivative, the phenol compound or the resorcin allene derivative is adhered to particle surface of the toner material, preferably used is a charge control agent having a particle size of not greater than 1 μm or more preferably not greater than 0.5 μm. More specifically, if a charge control agent has a size greater than 1 μm, it is difficult to uniformly fix the charge control agent to the particle surface of the toner material.

It is to be noted that the charge control agent of the bisphenol compound, the phenol derivative, the phenol compound or the resorcin allene derivative may be used in combination with other negative-charge control agent. Further, a minute amount of positive charge control agent may be added for stable chargeability of the toner. Incidentally, in case where the charge control agent of the bisphenol compound, the phenol derivative, the phenol compound or the resorcin allene derivative is used in combination with other charge control agent, the total amount of used charge control agents should preferably be within the aforementioned range.

Examples of the negative-charge control agent usable in combination with the charge control agent of a bisphenol compound, a phenol derivative, a phenol compound or a resorcin allene derivative include Oil Black (Color Index 26150), Oil Black-BY (commercially available from Orient Chemical Co., Ltd.), metal salycilate complex E-81 (commercially available from Orient Chemical Co., Ltd.), thioindigo pigments, a sulfonylamine derivative of copper phthalocyanine, Spiron Black-TRH (commercially available from Hodogaya Chemical), Bontron S-34 (commercially available from Orient Chemical Co., Ltd.), Nigrosine SO (commercially available from Orient Chemical Co., Ltd.), Ceresschwarz(R)G (commercially available from Farben Fabricken Bayer), Chromogenschwarz ETOO (C.I.No.14645), Azooil Black(R) (commercially available from National Aniline), borons, calcium compounds and the like.

Examples of the positive-charge control agent usable in combination with the charge control agent of a bisphenol compound, a phenol derivative, a phenol compound or a resorcin allene derivative include Nigrosine Base EX (commercially available from Orient Chemical Co., Ltd.), quaternary Ammonium salt P-51 (commercially available from Orient Chemical Co., Ltd.), Nigrosine, Bontron N-01 (commercially available from Orient Chemical Co., Ltd.), Sudanchiefschwarz BB (Solvent Black 3; Color Index 26150), Fetteschwarz HBN (C.I.No.26150), Brilliant Spiritzschwarz TN (commercially available from Farben Fabricken Bayer), Sabonschwarz X (Ferberque Hoechst), alkoxylated amine, alkylamide, molybdate chelate pigments, imidazole compounds and the like.

Incidentally, a minute amount of the charge control agent of the aforesaid bisphenol compound, the phenol derivative, the phenol compound or the resorcin allene derivative may be added to a positive-charge toner utilizing the aforementioned positive-charge control agent for stabilization of the chargeability thereof.

Various types of binder resins generally used for typical toner materials may be used as a resin component of the toner of the invention. Examples of the usable binder resin include thermoplastic resins such as styrene resins, (meta) acrylic resins, olefin resins, amide resins, carbonate resins, polyether, polysulfone, polyester resin, epoxy resin and the like; thermosetting resins such as urea resin, urethane resin, epoxy resin and the like; and copolymers and polymer blends of the above, but are not particularly limited to these. It is to be noted that resins usable for the toners for developing electrostatic latent images according to the invention are not limited to, for example, those in a perfect polymer state like the thermoplastic resins and may further include resins in an oligomer or a prepolymer state like the thermosetting resins, and polymers partially containing a prepolymer or a crosslinking agent.

Examples of monomers composing the aforesaid binder resins include various types of monomers as below.

Examples of vinyl monomers include styrenes such as styrene, o-methyl styrene, m-methyl styrene, p-methyl styrene, p-ethyl styrene, 2,4-dimethyl styrene, p-n-butyl styrene, p-tert-butyl styrene, p-n-hexyl styrene, p-n-octyl styrene, p-n-nonyl styrene, p-n-decyl styrene, p-n-dodecyl styrene, p-methoxy styrene, p-phenyl styrene, p-chlorstyrene, 3,4-dichlorstyrene and the derivatives thereof. Above all, styrene is most preferred. Examples of other vinyl monomers include unsaturated monoolefins of ethylene such as ethylene, propylene, butylene, isobutylene and the like; halogenated vinyls such as vinyl chloride, vinylidene chloride, vinyl bromide, vinyl fluoride and the like; vinyl esters such as vinyl acetate, vinyl propionate, vinyl benzoate, vinyl butyrate and the like; a-methylene aliphatic acid monocarboxylates such as methyl acrylate, ethyl acrylate, n-butyl acrylate, isobutyl acrylate, propyl acrylate, n-octyl acrylate, dodecyl acrylate, 2-ethyl hexyl acrylate, stearyl acrylate, 2-chloroethyl acrylate, phenyl acrylate, α-methyl chloracrylate, methyl methacrylate, ethyl methacrylate, propyl methacrylate, n-butyl methacrylate, isobutyl methacrylate, propyl methacrylate, n-octyl methacrylate, dodecyl methacrylate, 2-ethyl hexyl methacrylate, stearyl methacrylate, phenyl methacrylate, dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate, diethylaminoethyl methacrylate and the like; derivatives of (meta)acrylates such as acrylonitrile, methacrylonitrile, acrylamide and the like; vinyl ethers such as vinyl methylether, vinyl ethylether, vinyl isobutyl ether and the like; vinyl ketones such as vinyl methyl ketone, vinyl hexyl ketone, methyl isopropenyl ketone and the like; N-vinyl compounds such as N-vinyl pyrrole, N-vinyl carbazole, N-vinyl indole, N-vinyl pyrolidone and the like; and vinyl naphthalins.

Examples of monomers used to obtain an amide resin include caprolactam; dibasic acids such as terephthalic acid, isophthalic acid, adipic acid, maleic acid, succinic acid, cebacic acid, thioglycolic acid and the like; and diamines such as ethylenediamine, diaminoethyl ether, 1,4-diaminobenzene, 1,4-diaminobutane and the like.

Examples of monomers used to obtain a urethane resin include di-isocyanates such as p-phenylene diisocyanate, p-xylene diisocyanate, 1,4-tetramethylene diisocyanate; and glycols such as ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, propylene glycol, polyethylene glycol and the like.

Examples of monomers used to obtain a urea resin include diisocyanates such as p-phenylene diisocyanate, p-xylene diisocyanate, 1,4-tetramethylene diisocyanate and the like; and diamines such as ethylene diamine, diamino ethyl ether, 1,4-diaminobenzene, 1,4-diaminobutane and the like.

Examples of monomers used to obtain an epoxy resin include amines such as ethyl amine, butyl amine, ethylene diamine, 1,4-diaminobenzene, 1,4-diamino butane, monoethanolamine and the like; and diepoxies such as diglycidil ether, ethylene glycol diglycidilether, bisphenol A diglycidil ether, hydroquinone diglycidil ether and the like.

Examples of monomers used to obtain a polyester resin include polyols such as ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, triethylene glycol, 1,2-propylene glycol, 1,3-propylene glycol, 1,4-butanediol, 1,3-butanediol, 2,3-butanediol, 1,5-pentanediol, 1,6-hexanediol, neopentyl glycol, 2-ethyl-1,3-pentanediol, 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol, 1,4-bis(2-hydroxymethyl)cyclohexane, 2,2-bis(4-hydroxypropoxyphenyl)propane, bisphenol A, hydrogenated bisphenol A, polyoxyethylenated bisphenol A and the like; and polybasic acids such as unsaturated carboxylates including maleic acid, fumaric acid, mesaconic acid, citraconic acid, itaconic acid, glutaconic acid, 1,2,4-benzene tricarboxylate, 1,2,5-benzene tricarboxylate and the like, saturated carboxylates including phthalic acid, terephthalic acid, isophthalic acid, succinic acid, adipic acid, malonic acid, cebacic acid, 1,2,4-cyclohexanetricarboxylate, 1,2,5-cyclohexanetricarboxylate, 1,2,4-butanetricarboxylate, 1,3-dicarboxy-2-methyl-2-methylcarboxypropane, tetra(methylcarboxy)methane and the like, or anhydrides thereof and esters thereof with lower alcohol. Examples of such anhydrides or esters include maleic anhydride, phthalic anhydride, tetrahydrophthalic anhydride, hexahydrophthalic anhydride, endomethylene tetrahydrophthalic anhydride, tetrachlorophthalic anhydride, tetrabromophthalic anhydride, dimethyl terephthalate and the like.

It is to be noted that the polyester resins employed by the invention are not limited to those obtained by polymerizing a combination of one type of polyol and one type of polybasic acid, as described above, but may further include those obtained by polymerizing a combination of plural types of the respective components. Examples of polybasic acids particularly used in combination include that of an unsaturated carboxylate and a saturated carboxylate and of a polycarboxylate and a polycarboxylate anhydride.

Where the aforementioned thermoplastic resin material is used as a resin component of the toner, any of low-molecular-weight polyolefin waxes is preferably added to the thermoplastic resin material. A mixing ratio of the low-molecular-weight polyolefin wax on a basis of 100 parts by weight of the thermoplastic resin material is in the range of 1 to 10 parts by weight, and preferably of 2 to 6 parts by weight. More specifically, if such an amount of low-molecular-weight polyolefin wax is added to the thermoplastic resin material, the aforesaid charge control agent of the bisphenol compound or the ascorbate compound can perform a preferable negative charge control on the resultant resin material, thereby imparting a proper chargeability thereto.

As a resin component of the toner, polyester resins receive attention because of its resistance to adhesion to vinyl chloride, light-transmitting property as rendered into a transparent color toner, and an adhesive property to OHP sheet. Where the polyester resin is used for a transparent toner, preferably employed is a linear polyester having a glass transition temperature of between 55 and 70 C. and a softening point of between 80 and 150 C. Where the polyester resin is used for a toner adapted for oilless fixing, preferably employed is a polyester resin having a glass transition temperature of between 55 and 80 C. and a softening point of between 80 and 150 C., and containing 5 to 20 wt % of a gelling component.

In preparation of a toner adapted for low-temperature fixing, preferably employed is a polyester resin having an onset run-off temperature of 100 C. or less as measured by a flow tester and a softening point of 110 C. or less.

The aforementioned charge control agent of the bisphenol compound or ascorbate compound is applicable to a toner material comprising a vinyl-modified polyester resin obtained by graft polymerizing and/or block polymerizing a vinyl monomer comprising a vinyl monomer and an amino-group-containing vinyl monomer with an unsaturated polyester component comprising at least an aliphatic unsaturated dibasic acid and a polyalcohol.

A variety of types and colors of organic and inorganic pigments and dyes conventionally used in the art are usable as a colorant contained in the toner of the invention.

Examples of usable black pigments include carbon black, cupric oxide, manganese dioxide, aniline black, activated carbon and the like.

Examples of usable yellow pigments include chrome yellow, zinc yellow, cadmium yellow, yellow oxide, mineral fast yellow, nickel titanium yellow, nables yellow, naphthol yellow S, hansa yellow G, hansa yellow 10G, benzidine yellow G, benzidine yellow GR, quinoline yellow lake, permanent yellow NCG, tartrazine lake and the like.

Examples of usable orange pigments include chrome orange, molybdenum orange, permanent orange GTR, pyrazolone orange, vulcan orange, indanthrene brilliant orange RK, benzidine orange G, indanthrene brilliant orange GK and the like.

Examples of usable red pigments include iron oxide red, cadmium red, red lead oxide, cadmium mercury sulfide, cadmium, permanent red 4R, lithol red, pyrazolone red, watching red, calcium salt, lake red D, brilliant carmine 6B, eosin lake, rhodamine lake B, alizarin lake, brilliant carmine 3B and the like.

Examples of usable violet pigments include manganese violet, fast violet B, methyl violet lake and the like.

Examples of usable blue pigments include prussian blue, cobalt blue, alkali blue lake, victoria blue lake, phthalocyanine blue, metal-free phthalocyanine blue, phthalocyanine blue partial chlorine compound, fast sky blue, indanthrene blue BC and the like.

Examples of usable green pigments include chrome green, chrome oxide, pigment green B, malachite green lake, fanal yellow green G and the like.

Examples of usable white pigments include zinc white, titanium oxide, antimony white, zinc sulfide and the like.

Examples of usable extender pigments include powdery barytes, barium carbonate, clay, silica, white carbon, talc, alumina white and the like.

As various types of dyes such as basic dyes, acid dyes, disperse dyes and direct dyes, usable are nigrosine, methylene blue, rose bengale, quinoline yellow, ultramarine blue and the like.

These colorants may be used alone or in combination of plural types. The content of colorants in total is 1 to 20 parts by weight and more preferably, 2 to 10 parts by weight per 100 parts by weight of the resin component of the toner. More specifically, if the total content of colorant exceeds 20 parts by weight, the toner is reduced in the fixing properties thereof, whereas if the total content of the colorants is smaller than 1 part by weight, a desired image density may not be obtained.

Various types and colors of pigments and dyes, as listed below, are usable as the colorant of a transparent color toner.

Examples of usable yellow pigments include C.I.10316 (naphthol yellow S), C.I.11710 (Hansa Yellow 10G), C.I.11660 (Hansa Yellow 5G), C.I.11670 (Hansa Yellow 3G), C.I.11680 (Hansa Yellow G), C.I.11730 (Hansa Yellow GR), C.I.11735 (Hansa Yellow A), C.I.11740 (Hansa Yellow RN), C.I.12710 (Hansa Yellow R), C.I.12720 (pigment yellow L), C.I.21090 (benzidine yellow), C.I.21095 (benzidine yellow G), C.I.21100 (benzidine yellow GR), C.I.20040 (permanent yellow NCG), C.I.21220 (vulcan fast yellow 5), C.I.21135 (vulcan fast yellow R) and the like.

Examples of usable red pigments include C.I.12055 (sterling I), C.I.12075 (permanent orange), C.I.12175 (lithol fast orange 3GL), C.I.12305 (permanent orange GTR), C.I.11725 (Hansa Yellow 3R), C.I.21165 (vulcan fast orange GG), C.I.21110 (benzidine orange G), C.I.12120 (permanent red 4R), C.I.1270 (para red), C.I.12085 (fire red), C.I.12315 (brilliant fast scarlet), C.I.12310 (permanent red FR2), C.I.12335 (permanent red F4R), C.I.12440 (permanent red FRL), C.I.12460 (permanent red FRLL), C.I.12420 (permanent red F4RH), C.I.12450 (light fast red toner B), C.I.12490 (permanent carmine FB), C.I.15850 (brilliant carmine 6B) and the like.

Examples of usable blue pigments include C.I.74100 (metal-free phthalocyanine blue), C.I.74160 (phthalocyanine blue), C.I.74180 (fast sky blue) and the like.

These colorants for the transparent color toner may be used alone or in combination of plural types. The content of colorants in total is in the range of 1 to 10 parts by weight and more preferably of 2 to 5 parts by weight per 100 parts by weight of the resin component of the toner. More specifically, if the total content of the colorants exceeds 10 parts by weight, the toner is reduced in the fixing and light-transmitting properties thereof, whereas if the content of the colorants is smaller than 1 part by weight, a desired image density may not be obtained.

In case where carbon black is used as the colorant, preferred is a carbon black having a pH not greater than 7. More specifically, the carbon black with a pH not greater than 7 is favorably dispersed in the binder resin by virtue of a polar group present on the surface thereof. When used for small toner particles having an average particle size of 2 to 9 μm, in particular, such a carbon black is properly dispersed in the binder resin. Additionally, the carbon black is effective in improving negative chargeability of the negative-charge toner.

Incidentally, an anti-offset agent may be added to the toner of the invention for improving the fixing property thereof.

Examples of suitable anti-offset agents include various types of waxes and particularly preferred are polyolefin waxes such as a low-molecular-weight polypropylene, polyethylene, or oxidized polypropylene and polyethylene; and natural waxes such as carnauba wax, rice wax, and montan waxes. A mixing ratio of such an anti-offset agent is in the range of 1 to 10 parts by weight or more preferably of 2 to 6 parts by weight per 100 parts by weight of the binder resin contained in the toner. A wax suitably used as the anti-offset agent preferably has a number average molecular weight Mn of between 1000 and 20000 and a softening point Tm of between 80 and 100 C. If a wax having a number average molecular weight Mn smaller than 1000 or a softening point Tm lower than 80 C. is used, the wax is not uniformly dispersed in the resin of the toner and eluted on the toner surface. This leads to a lowered keeping quality and developing performance of the resultant toner, or film forming on the photoconductive drum. On the other hand, if a wax having a number average molecular weight Mn greater than 20000 or a softening point Tm over 150 C. is used, the compatibility of the wax with the toner may be lowered so that effects such as offset resistance at high temperatures cannot be obtained. Incidentally, it is desirable to use a wax having a polar group in case where the toner employs a resin having a polar group in the light of the compatibility of the wax with the toner.

For enhancement of fluidity of the toner of the invention, a fluidizing agent may be added to the toner.

Examples of the usable fluidizing agent include various types of metal oxides such as silica, aluminum oxide, titanium oxide, a mixture of silica and aluminum oxide, and a mixture of silica and titanium oxide; magnesium fluoride and the like. These fluidizing agents may be adhered to the toner surface or incorporated in the toner particles.

The toner of the invention may further contain a cleaning assistant for improvement in the cleaning property thereof so that the toner may adequately be removed from the photoconductive drum or the like.

Examples of the usable cleaning assistant include the aforesaid inorganic particulates used as the fluidizing agent, a metal soap such as of stearate, particulates of various synthetic resins such as of fluorines, silicones, styrene-(meta)acrylics, benzoguanamine, melamine, epoxy and the like. Usable as the aforesaid synthetic particulates are a variety of organic particulates of styrenes, (meta)acrylics, olefins, fluorine-containing resins, nitrogen-containing (meta)acrylics, silicone, benzoguanamine, melamine and the like, which are granulated by means of wet polymerization processes such as emulsion polymerization, soap-free emulsion polymerization, non-aqueous dispersion polymerization and the like or gas phase polymerization process. The synthetic particulates are substantially in spherical shape having an average particle size of 0.01 to 3 μm and more preferably of 0.05 to 2 μm, the average size thereof being smaller than the average particle size of the toner. A mixing ratio of such synthetic particulates is in the range of between 0.01 and 10 wt %, preferably of between 0.1 and 5 wt % and more preferably of between 0.1 and 2 wt % on the basis of the amount of toner.

The toner of the invention may be a magnetic toner, which comprises known magnetic carrier particulates dispersed in the binder resin. Examples of the magnetic carrier particulates include known magnetic metals like ferromagnetic metals such as cobalt, iron, nickel and the like; alloys, mixtures and oxides of metals such as cobalt, iron, nickel, aluminum, lead, magnesium, zinc, antimony, beryllium, bismuth, cadmium, calcium, manganese, selenium, titanium, tungsten, vanadium and the like; and sintered iron (ferrite). A mixing ratio of such a magnetic carrier particulates is typically in the range of 1 to 80 parts by weight and more preferably of 5 to 60 parts by weight per 100 parts by weight of the binder resin in the toner.

The toner of the invention may be used alone as a one-component type developer or in combination with the carrier to form a two-component type developer.

In the case of the two-component type developer, any of known carriers is usable, such as ferrite carrier, coating carrier, iron powder carrier, binder type carrier, carrier having complex charging surfaces.

Additionally, the toner of the invention is preferably applicable to the development system wherein the toner particles are passed through a gap between the toner regulating member comprised of a blade or roller and the toner bearing body thereby being triboelectrically charged, while a thin layer of the toner particles is formed on the surface of the toner carrier body. The above toner carrier body includes a developer roller for supplying the toner particles to the photoconductive drum and the toner supply roller for replenishing the toner particles.

The toner of the invention is also usable as a photoconductive toner.

The toner for developing electrostatic latent images according to the invention will hereinbelow be described in detail with reference to the specific examples thereof.

EXAMPLE 1

The following ingredients were used in the following proportion for the preparation of a toner of Example 1.

______________________________________Ingredients           Parts by weight______________________________________Styrene-n-butyl methachrylate                 100(Softening point: 132 C.,Glass transition Temp.: 60 C.)Carbon black           8(MA #8, pH 3: Mitsubishi Kagaku Corp.)______________________________________

These ingredients were sufficiently blended by a ball mill and kneaded on a triple roll mill heated to 140 C. The resultant mixture was allowed to cool to be crushed by a feather mill and subsequently pulverized by a jet mill. The resultant particles were subject to air classification to give toner particles having an average particle size of 8 μm.

As shown in the following Table 4, 1 part by weight of the bisphenol compound of the chemical formula (1), as the charge control agent, on the basis of 100 parts by weight of the above toner particles were thrown in a Henschell mixer to be blended by stirring at revs of 1500 rpm for 2 minutes thereby to make the charge control agent adhere to the surfaces of the toner particles.

The toner particles with the charge control agent adhered to the surfaces thereof were processed at revs of 6000 rpm for 3 minutes by Hybridization System (NHS-1 model commercially available from Nara Machines Co., Ltd.) thereby to fix the charge control agent onto the surfaces of the toner particles. Subsequently, added to the toner particles was 0.1 wt % of hydrophobic silica, as a post-treatment agent, having an average particle size of 17 nm (R-974 commercially available from Nippon Aerosil Co., Ltd.). The mixture was blended by a Henschell mixer (commercially available from Mitsui-Miike Kakoki K.K.) and thus was obtained the toner of Example 1.

EXAMPLES 2 to 4

Toners of Examples 2 to 4 were prepared in the same manner as in Example 1 except for that the charge control agent used in Example 1 was replaced by the charge control agent of the bisphenol compound of the chemical formula (2) in Example 2, by the charge control agent of the bisphenol compound of the chemical formula (4) in Example 3, and by the charge control agent of the bisphenol compound of the chemical formula (6) in Example 4, respectively, as shown in the following Table 4.

EXAMPLE 5

The following ingredients were used in the following proportion for the preparation of a toner of Example 5.

______________________________________Ingredients             Parts by weight______________________________________Polyester resin         100(Tuffton NE1110: Kao Soap Co., Ltd.)Carbon black (Mogul L: Cabot Inc.)                   8Charge control agent:   3Carboxylate compound of formula (10)Carnauba wax free from liberated aliphatic acid                   1.5(Melting point: 85 C., Acid value: 0.5)______________________________________

These ingredients were sufficiently blended by a Henschell mixer (commercially available from Mitsui-Miike Kakoki K.K.) and kneaded by a twin-screw kneader (commercially available from Ikegai K.K.). The resultant mixture was allowed to cool, crushed by a feather mill and subsequently pulverized by a jet mill. The resultant particles were subject to air classification to give toner particles having an average particle size of 8 μm.

Subsequently, 0.2 parts by weight of hydrophobic silica, as a post-treatment agent, having an average particle size of 17 nm (H-2000 commercially available from Wacker) was added to 100 parts by weight of the toner particles. The mixture was blended by a Henschell mixer (commercially available form Mitsui-Miike Kakoki K.K.) at revs of 1000 rpm for 1 minute, and thus was obtained the toner of Example 5.

EXAMPLES 6 to 8

Toners of Examples 6 to 8 were prepared in the same manner as in Example 5 except for that the charge control agent used in Example 5 was replaced by the charge control agent of the bisphenol compound of the chemical formula (12) in Example 6, by the charge control agent of the bisphenol compound of the chemical formula (14) in Example 7 and by the charge control agent of the bisphenol compound of the chemical formula (16) in Example 8, respectively, as shown in following Table 4.

EXAMPLE 9

The following ingredients were used in the following proportion for the preparation of a toner of Example 9.

______________________________________Ingredients             Parts by weight______________________________________Styrene-n-butyl methachrylate                   100(Softening point: 132 C.,Glass transition temp.: 60 C.)Carbon black            8(MA #8, pH 3: Mitsubishi Kagaku Corp.)Low-molecular-weight polypropylene                   5(Viscol 550p: Sanyo Chemical Industries Ltd.)Charge control agent    5Bisphenol compound of formula (19)______________________________________

These ingredients were sufficiently blended by a ball mill and kneaded on a triple roll mill heated to 140 C. The resultant mixture was allowed to cool and crushed by a feather mill. The resultant particles were subject to air classification to give toner particles having an average particle size of 8 μm.

To 100 parts by weight of the toner particles, there was added 0.1 part by weight of hydrophobic silica, as a post-treatment agent, having an average particle size of 17 nm (R-974 commercially available from Nippon Aerosil Co., Ltd.). The mixture was blended by a Henschell mixer (commercially available from Mitsui-Miike Kakoki K.K.) at revs of 1000 rpm for 1 minute and thus was obtained the toner of Example 9.

EXAMPLE 10

The following ingredients were used in the following proportion for the preparation of a toner of Example 10.

______________________________________Ingredients          Parts by weight______________________________________Polyester resin      100(Tuffton NE382: Kao Soap Co., Ltd.)Brilliant carmine 6B (C.I. 15850)                3Charge control agent 4(Bisphenol compound of formula (23)______________________________________

These ingredients were sufficiently blended by a Henschell mixer (commercially available from Mitsui-Miike Kakoki K.K.) and kneaded by a twin-screw kneader (commercially available from Ikegai K.K.). The resultant mixture was allowed to cool, crushed by a feather mill and then further pulverized by a jet mill. The resultant particles were subject to air classification and thus were obtained toner particles having an average particle size of 8 μm.

To 100 parts by weight of the toner particles, there was added 0.2 parts by weight of hydrophobic silica, as a post-treatment agent, having an average particle size of 17 nm (H-2000 commercially available from Wacker). The resultant mixture was processed by a Henschell mixer (commercially available from Mitsui-Miike Kakoki K.K.) at revs of 1000 rpm for 1 minute to thereby give the toner of Example 10.

EXAMPLE 11

In this example, 68 parts by weight of polyoxyethylene(2)-2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane, 16 parts by weight of isophthalate, 16 parts by weight of terephthalate, 0.3 parts by weight of maleic anhydride, and 0.1 part by weight of dibutyltin oxide were put in a flask to be allowed to react in an atmosphere of nitrogen at 230 C. for 24 hours, thereby giving a polyester resin containing unsaturated polyester. The polyester resin had a weight average molecular weight Mw of 9800.

Subsequently, 50 parts by weight of the polyester resin was dissolved in 50 parts by weight of xylene in a flask, wherein the mixture solution of xylene was heated at reflux while a solution comprising 13 parts by weight of styrene, 2 parts by weight of methyl methacrylate and 0.6 parts by weight of azobisisobutyronitrile was added thereto dropwise for about 30 minutes in an atmosphere of nitrogen. After maintained at a constant high temperature for 3 hours, the xylene was distilled in vacuo to give styrene-acryl modified polyester resin. The styrene-acryl modified polyester resin had a weight average molecular weight Mw of 11700, a ratio of weight average molecular weight Mw to number average molecular weight Mn (Mw/Mn) of 2.8, a melt viscosity of 5104 poise at 100 C., and a glass transition temperature of 60 C. It is to be noted that the aforesaid melt viscosity was measured by a flow tester CFT-500 commercially available from Shimadzu Corporation under conditions of a nozzle diameter of 1 mm, a nozzle length of 1 mm, a load of 30 kg, and a rate of temperature rise of 3 C./min.

Subsequently, 100 parts by weight of the resultant styrene-acryl modified polyester resin, 2.5 parts by weight of organic pigment (Lionol Tellow FG-1310 commercially available from Toyo Ink Mfg.Co., Ltd.) and 2 parts by weight of bisphenol compound of the chemical formula (24), as the charge control agent, were sufficiently blended by a Henschell mixer and kneaded by a twin-screw extruder. The resultant mixture was cooled and then crushed by a feather mill. The resultant particles were pulverized by a jet mill and subject to air classification thereby to give toner particles having an average particle size of 8 μm.

To 100 parts by weight of the resultant toner particles, there were added 0.3 parts by weight of hydrophobic silica (H-2000/4 commercially available from Wacker) and 0.5 parts by weight of hydrophobic titanium oxide (T-805 commercially available from Degussa AG). The resultant mixture was blended by a Henschell mixer (commercially available from Mitsui-Miike Kakoki K.K.) at revs of 1500 rpm for 1 minute and thus was obtained a toner of Example 11.

EXAMPLE 12

In this example, 100 parts by weight of monodisperse spherical polymer particles having an average particle size of 6 μm (glass transition temp.: 54 C., softening point: 128 C., gelling component: containing 15% of component insoluble to toluene) obtained by copolymerizing styrene and n-butylmethacrylate by seed polymerization process, and 8 parts by weight of carbon black (MA#8 commercially available from Mitsubishi Kagaku Corp.) were thrown in a 10-litter Henschell mixer (commercially available from Mitsui-Miike Kakoki K.K.) to be blended by agitating at revs of 1000 rpm for 2 minutes. Thus, the carbon black was made to adhere to the surfaces of the polymer particles.

The resultant polymer particles were processed at revs of 6000 rpm for 3 minutes by a hybridization system (NHS-1 commercially available from Nara Machines Co., Ltd.) thereby to fix the carbon black to the surfaces of the polymer particles.

Subsequently, 100 parts by weight of the aforesaid polymer particles and 10 parts by weight of MMA/iBMA (1/9) particles having an average particle size of 0.2 μm and a glass transition temperature of 85 C. (MP-4951 commercially available from Soken Chemical Co., Ltd.) were processed at revs of 8000 rpm for 5 minutes by the aforesaid hybridization system, thereby forming a resin coat layer on the surfaces of the polymer particles.

To 100 parts by weight of the polymer particles with the resin coat layer, there was added 2 parts by weight of the bisphenol compound of the chemical formula (25), as the charge control agent, for fixing the charge control agent on the surfaces of the polymer particles in a similar manner to the aforesaid carbon black. Thus were obtained toner particles having an average particle size of 6.5 μm.

Subsequently, 0.5 parts by weight of hydrophobic silica (H-2000 commercially available from Wacker) was added to 100 parts by weight of the resultant toner particles. The mixture was processed at revs of 1500 rpm for 1 minute by a Henschell mixer thereby to give a toner of Example 12.

EXAMPLE 13

In this example, 60 parts by weight of 2,2'-bis P-(2-hydroxy)-phenyl!propane, 20 parts by weight of isophthal, and 0.1 part by weight of dibutyltin oxide were put in a flask and allowed to react in an atmosphere of nitrogen at 230 C. for 24 hours thereby giving a polyester resin having a weight average molecular weight Mw of 7000.

Subsequently, 50 parts by weight of the polyester resin was dissolved in 50 parts by weight of xylene in a flask, wherein the resultant mixture solution of xylene was heated at reflux while a solution comprising 13 parts by weight of styrene, 0.3 parts by weight of diethylaminoethyl methacrylate and 0.4 parts by weight of azobisisobutyronitrile was added thereto dropwise for about 30 minutes in an atmosphere of nitrogen. After maintained at a constant high temperature for 3 hours, the xylene was distilled in vacuo to give amino-modified polyester resin. The amino-modified polyester resin had a weight average molecular weight Mw of 11000, a ratio of weight average molecular weight Mw to number average molecular weight Mn (Mw/Mn) of 3.0, a melt viscosity of 5104 poise at 100 C., and a glass transition temperature of 61 C.

Subsequently, 100 parts by weight of the resultant amino-modified polyester resin, 2.5 parts by weight of organic pigment (Lionol Red 6B FG-3213 commercially available from Toyo Ink Mfg.Co., Ltd.) and 2.0 parts by weight of the bisphenol compound of the chemical formula (33), as the charge control agent, were sufficiently blended by a Henschell mixer and kneaded by a twin-screw extruder. The resultant mixture was cooled and then crushed by a feather mill. The resultant particles were pulverized by a jet mill and subject to air classification thereby to give toner particles having an average particle size of 8 μm.

Then 0.5 parts by weight of hydrophobic silica (H-2000 commercially available from Wacker)was added to 100 parts by weight of the resultant toner particles. The mixture was processed by a Henschell mixer (commercially available from Mitsui-Miike Kakoki K.K.) at revs of 1500 rpm for 1 minute and thus was obtained a toner of Example 13.

EXAMPLE 14

In this example, 160 g of styrene, 90 g of butylmethacrylate, 30 g of isobutylacrylate, 3 g of α-methyl-styrene dimer (Nofmer MSD commercially available from Nippon Yushi K.K.), 2 g of silane coupling agent (TSL8311 commercially available from Toshiba Corporation) and 6 g of 2,2'-azobis(2,4-dimethylvaleronitrile) were uniformly blended and dispersed by a homojetter (commercially available from Tokushu Machine Co., Ltd.).

By using, as a dispersion stabilizer, 60 g of 4% solution of methyl cellulose (Methcell K35LV commercially available from Dow Chemical Co.) and 5 g of 1% solution of dioctyl sulfosuccinate soda (Nikkol OTP-75 commercially available from Nikko Chemical Co., Ltd.), the aforesaid fluid dispersion was suspended in an aqueous solution comprising 0.3 g of hexametaphosphate soda (Wako Pharmaceutical K.K.) dissolved in 650 g of deionized water by means of a homojetter.

Next, this suspension was transferred to a 4-neck flask, the air in which was replaced by nitrogen. Subsequently, the suspension was agitated at 50 C. and revs of 100 rpm for 24 hours for polymerization thereby to give resin particles. The resultant resin particles were repeatedly filtered off and washed and thereafter, were dried.

Subsequently, 100 parts by weight of the resultant resin particles, 8 parts by weight of carbon black of pH 3 (MA#8 commercially available from Mitsubishi Kagaku Corp.), 4 parts by weight of low-molecular-weight polypropylene (660P commercially available from Sanyo Chemical Industries Ltd.), and 2 parts by weight of the bisphenol compound of the chemical formula (40), as the charge control agent, were sufficiently blended by a Henschell mixer and kneaded by a twin-screw extruder. The resultant mixture was cooled and crushed by a feather mill. The resultant particles were pulverized by a jet mill and subject to air classification to give toner particles having an average particle size of 8 μm.

Subsequently, 0.5 parts by weight of hydrophobic silica (T-500 commercially available from Tokyo Materials Co., Ltd.) was added to 100 parts by weight of the toner particles. The mixture was processed by a Henschell mixer at revs of 1500 rpm for 1 minute thereby to give a toner of Example 14. The toner had a glass transition point Tg of 56 C., a softening point Tm of 87 C., and an onset run-off temperature of 78 C. as measured by a flow tester during the temperature rise. Incidentally, the softening point Tm was measured by means of a perfect oven.

EXAMPLE 15

In this example, a material comprising 10 parts by weight of glycidyl methacrylate, 60 parts by weight of styrene, 30 parts by weight of butyl methacrylate, and 5 parts by weight of benzoyl peroxide together with a deionized water containing 0.1 wt % of polyvinyl alcohol were thrown in a reaction vessel equipped with an agitator, an inert gas inlet tube, a reflux condenser tube and a thermometer. The mixture was sufficiently blended and dispersed, and the resultant dispersion was further vigorously agitated to give a uniform suspension.

Next, the suspension was heated to 80 C. with nitrogen gas bubbled into the reaction vessel. The agitation was continued at this temperature for 5 hours for polymerization reaction. Subsequently, the water was removed to obtain a polymer having an epoxy group as a reactive group.

Then, 100 parts by weight of the resultant polymer, 40 parts by weight of carbon black of pH 3.5 (MA-100R commercially available from Mitsubishi Kagaku Corp.), and 5 parts by weight of low-molecular-weight polypropylene (Viscol 605P commercially available from Sanyo Chemical Industries Ltd.) were mixed together. The mixture was kneaded at 160 C. by a pressure kneader for reaction. The reaction product was cooled and ground to obtain graft polymer containing a colorant comprising a wax-containing carbon black.

A polymerizable monomer solution comprising 80 parts by weight of styrene and 20 parts by weight of n-butyl acrylate which were preliminarily dissolved in deionized water containing 0.5 wt % of sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate as an anionic surface-active agent was mixed with 50 parts by weight of the aforesaid graft polymer, 3 parts by weight of azobisisobutyronitrile and 3 parts by weight of 2,2'-azobis-(2,4-dimethylvaleronitrile). The resultant mixture was thrown in the same reaction vessel as that aforementioned so as to be blended and agitated by T.K.Homomixer (commercially available from Tokushu Machine Co., Ltd.) and thus was obtained a uniform suspension.

Next, the suspension was heated to 65 C. with nitrogen gas bubbled into the reaction vessel. At this temperature, the agitation was continued for 5 hours for suspension polymerization reaction and then the suspension was further heated to 75 C. to complete the polymerization reaction.

A solution comprising 2 parts by weight of hydrophobic silica (H-2000 commercially available from Wacker) and 2 parts by weight of silane coupling agent (TSL8311 commercially available from Toshiba Silicone Co., Ltd.) dispersed in methyl alcohol was added to the aforesaid suspension to be blended therewith. Subsequently, the resultant suspension was heated at 80 C. for 1 hour thereby allowing the suspended particles to fusion bond one another and thus was obtained block-like suspension polymerization agglomeration.

The suspension polymerization agglomeration was repeatedly filtered off and washed with water. Then the suspension polymerization agglomeration was hot-air dried at 60 C. and 80 RH% for 5 hours by means of a hot-air dryer and then further hot-air dried at 50 C. and 50 RH% for 5 hours.

Subsequently, 100 parts by weight of the resultant suspension polymerization agglomeration was mixed with 1.0 part by weight of the bisphenol compound of the chemical formula (44), as the charge control agent, 0.3 parts by weight of hydrophobic silica (H-2000 commercially available from Wacker), and 0.5 parts by weight of tin oxide particulates (T-1 commercially available from Mitsubishi Materials Co., Ltd.). The mixture was blended and agitated by a Henschell mixer (commercially available from Mitsui-Miike Kakoki K.K.) at revs of 3000 rpm. Thereafter, the mixture was subject to crushing process at revs of 18000 rpm by means of Criptron system (KTM-XL model commercially available from Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd.) with inlet air through its inlet port set at 0 C. Thus were obtained toner particles having an average particle size of 6.0 μm. Incidentally, the temperature of air discharged during this process was 28 C.

Subsequently, 0.2 parts by weight of hydrophobic silica (H-2000 commercially available from Wacker) was added to 100 parts by weight of the resultant toner particles and the mixture was processed at revs of 1500 rpm for 1 minute by a Henschell mixer (commercially available from Mitsui-Miike Kakoki K.K.) thereby to give a toner of Example 15.

EXAMPLE 16

In this example, 60 g of styrene, 35 g of n-butyl methacrylate, 5 g of methacrylate, 0.5 g of 2,2'-azobis-(2,4-dimethylvaleronitrile), and 3 g of low-molecular-weight polypropylene (Viscol 605P commercially available from Sanyo Chemical Industries Ltd.) were blended by a sand stirrer to prepare a polymerizable composition.

The resultant composition was agitated in a 3% aqueous solution of acacia gum by a mixer (TK Autohomomixer commercially available from Tokushu Machine Co., Ltd.) at revs of 4000 rpm, thus allowed for polymerization reaction at 60 C. for 6 hours thereby to give spherical suspension-polymerized particles having an average particle size of 6 μm.

Then, a fluid dispersion comprising 10 g of black disperse dye (Kayaron Preester Black S-CONC commercially available from Nippon Kayaku Co., Ltd.) dispersed in 100 ml of pure water was added to the fluid dispersion incorporating the suspension-polymerized particles. The resultant mixture was vigorously agitated by a supersonic vibrator used in combination while heated to 75 C. at a rate of temperature rise of 2 C./min. The mixture was maintained in this state for 1 hour thereby to bind the black disperse dye to the suspension-polymerized particles.

Subsequently, the fluid dispersion was cooled and the aforementioned suspension-polymerized particles with the black disperse dye bound thereto were repeatedly filtered off and washed with water. Thereafter, the resultant suspension-polymerized particles were dried by a slurry dryer (Dispercoat commercially available from Nisshin Engineering Co., Ltd.) and then subject to air classification to give toner particles having an average particle size of 7 μm.

Subsequently, 1.0 part by weight of the bisphenol compound of the chemical formula (49), as the charge control agent, and 0.5 parts by weight of hydrophobic alumina (RFY-C commercially available from Nippon Aerosil Co., Ltd.) were added to 100 parts by weight of the toner particles. The mixture was sufficiently blended and agitated and then, subjected to fixing process by a hybridization system (NHS-O model commercially available from Nara Machines Co., Lted.) at a circumferential speed of 60 m/sec.

Next, 0.1 part by weight of hydrophobic silica (R-974 commercially available from Nippon Aerosil Co., Ltd.) having an average particle size of 17 nm was added to 100 parts by weight of the resultant product. The mixture was processed by a Henschell mixer (Mitsui-Miike Kakoki K.K.) at revs of 1000 rpm for 1 minute thereby to give a toner of Example 16.

EXAMPLE 17

In this example, 100 g of polyester resin (NE-382 commercially available from Kao Soap Co., Ltd.) was dissolved into 400 g of mixture solvent comprising methylene chloride and toluene at the ratio of 8/2. The resultant mixture solution and 5 g of phthalocyanine pigment were thrown in a ball mill to be subject to 3 hours' blending process, thereby giving a fluid dispersion with the phthalocyanine pigment uniformly dispersed therein.

Next, the resultant fluid dispersion was added to a mixture solution comprising 60 g of 4% solution of methyl cellulose (Methcell K35LV commercially available from Dow Chemical Co.), 5 g of 1% solution of dioctyl sulfosuccinate soda (Nikkol OTP75 commercially available from Nikko Chemical Co.,Ltd.), as the dispersion stabilizer, and an aqueous solution comprising 0.5 g of hexametaphosphate soda (commercially available from Wako Pharmaceutical K.K.) dissolved in 1000 g of deionized water. The resultant mixture solution was agitated by TK Auto-homomixer (commercially available from Tokushu Machine Co.,Ltd.) with its revolution speed adjusted for suspension polymerization, thereby to give suspension-polymerized particles having an average particle size of 3 to 10 μm.

The resultant suspension-polymerized particles were repeatedly filtered off and washed with water and then, dried by a slurry drier (Dispercoat commercially available from Nisshin Engineering Co.,Ltd.). The particles thus dried were subject to air classification thereby to give toner particles having an average particle size of 6 μm.

Subsequently, 0.5 parts by weight of the bisphenol compound of the chemical formula (57), as the charge control agent, and 0.3 parts by weight of hydrophobic silica (H-2000/4 commercially available from Wacker) were added to 100 parts by weight of the toner particles. The mixture was blended by a Henschell mixer at revs of 3000 rpm for 2 minutes and thereafter, subject to fixing process by a hybridization system (NHS-O model commercially available from Nara Machines Co.,Ltd.) at a circumferential speed of 60 m/sec.

Next, 0.3 parts by weight of hydrophobic silica (H-2000/4 commercially available from Wacker) and 0.5 parts by weight of hydrophobic titanium oxide (T-805 commercially available from Nippon Aerosil Co.,Ltd.) were added to 100 parts by weight of the aforesaid processed product. The mixture was processed by a Henschell mixer (commercially available from Mitsui-Miike Kakoki K.K.) at revs of 1500 rpm for 1 minute thereby to give a toner of Example 17.

Comparative Example 1

A toner of Comparative Example 1 having an average particle size of 8 μm was prepared in the same manner as in Example 1, except for that the charge control agent of the bisphenol compound of the chemical formula (1) used in Example 1 was not added.

Comparative Example 2

A toner of Comparative Example 2 having an average particle size of 8 μm was prepared in the same manner as in Example 1, except for that the charge control agent of the bisphenol compound of the chemical formula (1) used in Example 1 was replaced by di-tert-butylated hydroxytoluene of the following chemical formula (a), as shown in the following Table 4. ##STR68##

Comparative Example 3

A toner of comparative Example 3 having an average particle size of 8 μm was prepared in the same manner as in Example 1, except for that the charge control agent of the bisphenol compound of the chemical formula (1) used in Example 1 was replaced by 3 parts by weight of chromic complex dye (S-34 commercially available from Orient Chemical Co.,Ltd.), as shown in the following Table 4.

Comparative Example 4

A toner of Comparative Example 4 having an average particle size of 8 μm was prepared in the same manner as in Example 1, except for that the charge control agent of the bisphenol compound of the chemical formula (1) used in Example 1 was replaced by 4,4'-dihydroxybenzophenone, as shown in the following Table 4.

Comparative Example 5

A toner of Comparative Example 5 having an average particle size of 8 μm was prepared in the same manner as in Example 1, except for that the charge control agent of the bisphenol compound of the chemical formula (1) used in Example 1 was replaced by a bisphenol compound of the following chemical formula (b), as shown in the following Table 4. ##STR69##

Comparative Example 6

A toner of Comparative Example 6 having an average particle size of 8 μm was prepared in the same manner as in Example 1, except for that the charge control agent of the bisphenol compound of the chemical formula (1) used in Example 1 was replaced by a bisphenol compound of the following chemical formula (c), as shown in the following Table 4.

              TABLE 4______________________________________1 #STR70##Toner        Type of Charge Control Agent______________________________________Ex. 1        Bisphenol compound of formula (1)Ex. 2        Bisphenol compound of formula (2)Ex. 3        Bisphenol compound of formula (4)Ex. 4        Bisphenol compound of formula (6)Ex. 5        Bisphenol compound of formula (10)Ex. 6        Bisphenol compound of formula (12)Ex. 7        Bisphenol compound of formula (14)Ex. 8        Bisphenol compound of formula (16)Ex. 9        Bisphenol compound of formula (19)Ex. 10       Bisphenol compound of formula (23)Ex. 11       Bisphenol compound of formula (24)Ex. 12       Bisphenol compound of formula (25)Ex. 13       Bisphenol compound of formula (33)Ex. 14       Bisphenol compound of formula (40)Ex. 15       Bisphenol compound of formula (44)Ex. 16       Bisphenol compound of formula (49)Ex. 17       Bisphenol compound of formula (57)C. Ex. 1     Not usedC. Ex. 2     Di-tert-butylated hydroxytolueneC. Ex. 3     Chromic complex dye of formula (a)C. Ex. 4     4,4'-dihydroxybenzophenoneC. Ex. 5     Bisphenol compound of formula (b)C. Ex. 6     Bisphenol compound of formula (c)______________________________________

There were prepared 4 types of carriers A to D to be blended with the toners for developing electrostatic latent images obtained in the aforesaid Examples and Comparative Examples.

Preparation of Carrier A

100 parts by weight of polyester resin (NE-1110 commercially available from Kao Soap Co.,Ltd.), 600 parts by weight of inorganic magnetic powder (MFP-2 commercially available from TDK Corporation), and 2 parts by weight of carbon black (MA#8 commercially available from Mitsubishi Kagaku Corporation) were sufficiently blended and ground by a Henschell mixer.

The resultant particles were melt kneaded by a extruder/kneader with its cylinder body set at 180 C. and its cylinder head set at 170 C. The resultant mixture was cooled, crushed and further pulverized by a jet mill. The resultant particles were subject to air classification to give binder-type carrier particles A having an average particle size of 55 μm.

Preparation of Carrier B

The surfaces of ferrite carrier cores (F-300 commercially available from Powder Tech Corporation) were coated with thermosetting silicone resin by means of a rotary fluidizer tank (Spiller Coater commercially available from Okada Machines Co.,Ltd.) and thus were obtained carrier particles B having an average particle size of 50 μm.

Preparation of Carrier C

The surfaces of ferrite carrier cores (F-300 commercially available from Powder Tech Corporation) were coated with polyethylene resin by a polymerization surface coating method and thus were obtained carrier particles C having an average particle size of 51 μm.

Preparation of Carrier D

The surfaces of ferrite carrier cores (F-300 commercially available from Powder Tech Corporation) were coated with thermosetting acryl-modified silicone resin by dip coating and thus were obtained carrier particles D having an average particle size of 50 μm.

The average particle size of each of the aforementioned toners was determined on the basis of the particle-size-based relative weight distribution determined by the use of Coulter Counter TA-II (commercially available from Coulter Counter Inc.) and an aperture tube of 100 μm.

On the other hand, the average particle size of each of the aforementioned carrier particles was determined by the use of SALD1100 (commercially available from Shimadzu Corporation).

As shown in the following Table 5, the toners of the aforementioned Examples 1 to 13, and 15 to 17 and of Comparative Examples 1 to 6, incorporating the bisphenol compound as the charge control agent, were combined with any one of the aforesaid carrier particles A to D, respectively. The respective toners were blended with the respective carriers to form developers with a toner density thereof adjusted to 5 wt %.

In the measurement of the charge quantity of each toner, each of the developers was loaded in a rotary tumble blender to be blended and agitated for 30 minutes. Thereafter, a 1 g sample of each developer thus blended was taken by the use of a precision balance.

A device shown in FIG. 1 was used for this measurement. More specifically, each developer sample thus prepared was uniformly applied to the overall surface of a conductive sleeve 2 and a magnet roll 3 was set to the revs of 1000 rpm.

Next, 3 kV of bias voltage Vb of the same polarity with that of each toner was supplied from a bias supply 4. After 30 seconds' revolution of the above magnet roll 3, a potential Vm of a condenser 5 was read at the time when the magnet roll 3 was stopped, while a weight of toner adhered to a cylinder electrode 1 was measured by the use a precision balance, so that an average charge quantity of the toner in each developer was found. The average charge quantities of the toners thus found were summarized in the following Table 5.

The measurement of the amount of toner having low chargeability was carried out in a similar manner to the above, except for that the conductive sleeve 2 was grounded instead of applying a bias voltage to the conductive sleeve 2 from the bias supply 4. There were found ratios of respective amounts of low-charged toner flown to the cylinder electrode 1 to the total amounts of the respective toners on the conductive sleeve 2, so that each toner was rated on ∘-to-X scale. More specifically, a toner containing less than 1 wt % of toner of low-chargeability was judged ∘, a toner containing 1 to 2 wt % of toner of low-chargeability was judged Δ, and a toner containing more than 2 wt % of toner of low-chargeability was judged X , as shown in Table 5. It is to be noted that the judgments of ∘ and Δ mean an acceptable ratio of the low-charged toner.

As to the respective toners of the aforesaid developers and of Example 14, the charge stability thereof in environmental changes was examined.

In the examination of the charge stability of each toner, there were measured charge quantities (QL/L) of the respective toners of the aforesaid developers and of Example 14 having been allowed to stand for 24 hours under conditions (L/L environment) of 5 C. in ambient temperature and 15% in relative humidity; charge quantities (QH/H) of the same having been allowed to stand for 24 hours under conditions (H/H environment) of 35 C. in ambient temperature and 85% in relative humidity; and charge quantities (QN/N) of the same having been allowed to stand for 24 hours under conditions (N/N environment) of 23 C. in ambient temperature and 55% in relative humidity.

Then, the values A and B were calculated based on the following equations. A toner presenting both values of A and B smaller than 15% was judged ∘, a toner presenting either of the values of A and B not smaller than 15% was judged Δ, and a toner presenting both values of A and B not smaller than 15% was judged X. It is to be noted that the judgments of ∘ and Δ mean acceptable charge stability in the environmental changes.

A(%)=|(QL/L -QN/N)/(QN/N)|100

B(%)=|(QN/N -QH/H)/(QN/N)|100

Next, each of the aforesaid developers and the toner of Example 14 was loaded in an image forming apparatus to form an image of an original document having a ratio of black to white (B/W ratio) at 6%. At the production of a first copy and a 10000-th copy, each of the resultant images was visually inspected to judge the presence of toner fogs in a white area and the results are shown in the following Table 5. As to the presence of toner fogs, a copy suffering no toner fogs was judged ∘, a copy acceptable in practical use despite some degrees of toner fogs was judged Δ, and a copy suffering heavy toner fogs was judged X as unacceptable in practical use.

Incidentally, the toners of Examples 1 to 9 and 16 and of Comparative Examples 1 to 6 were each applied to Minolta's copier EP-570Z, the toners of Examples 10 to 13 and 17 were each applied to Minolta's digital full-color copier CF-80, the toner of Example 14 was applied to Minolta's printer SP-101, and the toner of Example 15 was applied to Minolta's printer SP-500, for the image forming process. Further, Minolta's digital full-color copier CF-80 is of a type wherein a separator oil is applied to the surface of a fixing roller whereas Minolta's printer SP-101 features a fixing temperature of 130 C.

              TABLE 5______________________________________           Amount   Stability    Toner  of Toner against    Charge of Low   Environ-    Quantity           charge-  mental   Toner FogToner  Carrier (μC/g)                   ability                          Changes                                 1st  10000th______________________________________Ex. 1  A       -25      ◯                          ◯                                 ◯                                      ◯Ex. 2  A       -27      ◯                          ◯                                 ◯                                      ◯Ex. 3  A       -26      ◯                          ◯                                 ◯                                      ◯Ex. 4  A       -24      ◯                          ◯                                 ◯                                      ◯Ex. 5  A       -28      ◯                          ◯                                 ◯                                      ◯Ex. 6  A       -24      ◯                          ◯                                 ◯                                      ◯Ex. 7  A       -25      ◯                          ◯                                 ◯                                      ◯Ex. 8  A       -27      ◯                          ◯                                 ◯                                      ◯Ex. 9  A       -28      ◯                          ◯                                 ◯                                      ◯Ex. 10 A       -29      ◯                          ◯                                 ◯                                      --Ex. 11 D       -27      ◯                          ◯                                 ◯                                      --Ex. 12 D       -30      ◯                          ◯                                 ◯                                      --Ex. 13 B       -27      ◯                          ◯                                 ◯                                      --Ex. 14 --      --       --     ◯                                 ◯                                      --Ex. 15 C       -29      ◯                          ◯                                 ◯                                      ◯Ex. 16 A       -26      ◯                          ◯                                 ◯                                      --Ex. 17 D       -31      ◯                          ◯                                 ◯                                      --C. Ex. 1  A       -13      X      --     X    --C. Ex. 2  A       -16      X      --     X    XC. Ex. 3  A       -18      Δ                          X      Δ                                      XC. Ex. 4  A       -15      X      --     X    --C. Ex. 5  A       -19      Δ                          ◯                                 Δ                                      XC. Ex. 6  A       -22      Δ                          ◯                                 ◯                                      X______________________________________

The results show that the toners for developing electrostatic latent images of Examples 1 to 17, each comprising, as the charge control agent, the bisphenol compound of the general formula (I) free from heavy metal, generally surpass the toners for developing electrostatic latent images of Comparative Example 1 free from the charge control agent, of Comparative Examples 2 to 4 comprising the charge control agents other than the bisphenol compound, and of Comparative Examples of 5 and 6 comprising the bisphenol compounds other than the bisphenol compound of the general formula (I), in terms of quick start of charging, charge stability, spent-resistance and insusceptibility to environmental changes. In addition, the toners of the above Examples present excellent color reproducibility and light transmitting property.

EXAMPLES 18 to 21

Toners of Examples 18 to 21 were prepared in the same manner as in Example 1 except for that the charge control agent used in Example 1 was replaced by the charge control agent of the phenol derivative of the chemical formula (79) in Example 18, by the charge control agent of the phenol derivative of the chemical formula (81) in Example 19, by the charge control agent of the phenol derivative of the chemical formula (82) in Example 20 and by the charge control agent of the phenol derivative of the chemical formula (83) in Example 21, respectively, as shown in the following Table 6.

EXAMPLES 22 to 25

Toners of Examples 22 to 25 were prepared in the same manner as in Example 5 except for that the charge control agent used in Example 5 was replaced by the charge control agent of the phenol derivative of the chemical formula (87) in Example 22, by the charge control agent of the phenol derivative of the chemical formula (88) in Example 23, by the charge control agent of the phenol derivative of the chemical formula (89) in Example 24 and by the charge control agent of the phenol derivative of the chemical formula (90) in Example 25, respectively, as shown in the following Table 6.

EXAMPLE 26

A toner of Example 26 was prepared in the same manner as in Example 9 except for that the charge control agent used in Example 9 was replaced by the charge control agent of the phenol derivative of the chemical formula (92), as shown in the following Table 6.

EXAMPLE 27

A toner of Example 27 was prepared in the same manner as in Example 10 except for that the charge control agent used in Example 10 was replaced by the charge control agent of the phenol derivative of the chemical formula (93), as shown in the following Table 6.

EXAMPLE 28

A toner of Example 28 was prepared in the same manner as in Example 11 except for that the charge control agent used in Example 11 was replaced by the charge control agent of the phenol derivative of the chemical formula (96), as shown in the following Table 6.

EXAMPLE 29

A toner of Example 29 was prepared in the same manner as in Example 12 except for that the charge control agent used in Example 12 was replaced by the charge control agent of the phenol derivative of the chemical formula (98), as shown in the following Table 6.

EXAMPLE 30

A toner of Example 30 was prepared in the same manner as in Example 13 except for that the charge control agent used in Example 13 was replaced by the charge control agent of the phenol derivative of the chemical formula (100), as shown in the following Table 6.

EXAMPLE 31

A toner of Example 31 was prepared in the same manner as in Example 14 except for that the charge control agent used in Example 14 was replaced by the charge control agent of the phenol derivative of the chemical formula (102), as shown in the following Table 6.

EXAMPLE 32

A toner of Example 32 was prepared in the same manner as in Example 15 except for that the charge control agent used in Example 15 was replaced by the charge control agent of the phenol derivative of the chemical formula (106), as shown in the following Table 6.

EXAMPLE 33

A toner of Example 33 was prepared in the same manner as in Example 16 except for that the charge control agent used in Example 16 was replaced by the charge control agent of the phenol derivative of the chemical formula (108), as shown in the following Table 6.

EXAMPLE 34

A toner of Example 34 was prepared in the same manner as in Example 17 except for that the charge control agent used in Example 17 was replaced by the charge control agent of the phenol derivative of the chemical formula (110), as shown in the following Table 6.

              TABLE 6______________________________________Toner         Type of Charge Control Agent______________________________________Ex. 18        Phenol derivative of formula (79)Ex. 19        Phenol derivative of formula (81)Ex. 20        Phenol derivative of formula (82)Ex. 21        Phenol derivative of formula (83)Ex. 22        Phenol derivative of formula (87)Ex. 23        Phenol derivative of formula (88)Ex. 24        Phenol derivative of formula (89)Ex. 25        Phenol derivative of formula (90)Ex. 26        Phenol derivative of formula (92)Ex. 27        Phenol derivative of formula (93)Ex. 28        Phenol derivative of formula (96)Ex. 29        Phenol derivative of formula (98)Ex. 30        Phenol derivative of formula (100)Ex. 31        Phenol derivative of formula (102)Ex. 32        Phenol derivative of formula (106)Ex. 33        Phenol derivative of formula (108)Ex. 34        Phenol derivative of formula (110)______________________________________

As shown in the following Table 7, the toners of the aforementioned Examples 18 to 30, and 32 to 34 were combined with any one of the aforesaid carrier particles A to D, respectively. The respective toners were blended with the respective carriers to form developers with a toner density thereof adjusted to 5 wt %.

The charge quantities and the amounts of toner with low chargeability of the respective toners of the aforesaid Examples 18 to 30, and 32 to 34 were found in the same manner as aforementioned. The results are shown in the following Table 7.

As to the respective toners of the aforesaid developers and of Example 31, the charge stability thereof in environmental changes was examined. The results are shown in the following Table 7.

Next, each of the aforesaid developers and the toner of Example 31 was loaded in the image forming apparatus to form an image of an original document having a ratio of black to white (B/W ratio) at 6%. Similarly to the foregoing, at the production of a first copy and a 10000th copy, each of the resultant images was visually inspected to judge the presence of toner fogs and the results are shown in the following Table 7. Incidentally, the toners of Examples 18 to 26 and 33 were each applied to Minolta's copier EP-570Z, the toners of Examples 27 to 30 and 34 were each applied to Minolta's digital full-color copier CF-80, the toner of Example 31 was applied to Minolta's printer Sp101, and the toner of Example 32 was applied to Minolta's printer SP-500, for the image forming process. Further, Minolta's digital full-color copier CF-80 is of a type wherein a separator oil is applied to the surface of a fixing roller whereas Minolta's printer Sp-101 features a fixing temperature of 130 C.

              TABLE 7______________________________________           Amount   Stability    Toner  of Toner against    Charge of Low   Environ-    Quantity           charge-  mental   Toner FogToner  Carrier (μC/g)                   ability                          Changes                                 1st  10000th______________________________________Ex. 18 A       -25      ◯                          ◯                                 ◯                                      ◯Ex. 19 A       -25      ◯                          ◯                                 ◯                                      ◯Ex. 20 A       -26      ◯                          ◯                                 ◯                                      ◯Ex. 21 A       -26      ◯                          ◯                                 ◯                                      ◯Ex. 22 A       -27      ◯                          ◯                                 ◯                                      ◯Ex. 23 A       -27      ◯                          ◯                                 ◯                                      ◯Ex. 24 A       -26      ◯                          ◯                                 ◯                                      ◯Ex. 25 A       -27      ◯                          ◯                                 ◯                                      ◯Ex. 26 A       -28      ◯                          ◯                                 ◯                                      ◯Ex. 27 A       -27      ◯                          ◯                                 ◯                                      --Ex. 28 D       -28      ◯                          ◯                                 ◯                                      --Ex. 29 D       -29      ◯                          ◯                                 ◯                                      --Ex. 30 B       -30      ◯                          ◯                                 ◯                                      --Ex. 31 --      --       --     ◯                                 ◯                                      --Ex. 32 C       -28      ◯                          ◯                                 ◯                                      ◯Ex. 33 A       -27      ◯                          ◯                                 ◯                                      --Ex. 34 D       -30      ◯                          ◯                                 ◯                                      --______________________________________

The results show that the toners for developing electrostatic latent images of Examples 18 to 34, each comprising, as the charge control agent, the phenol derivative of the general formulas (II) to (V) free from heavy metal, generally present quick start of charging, good charge stability, good spent-resistance and insusceptibility to environmental changes like the toners for developing electrostatic latent images of the aforesaid Examples 1 to 17 using the bisphenol compound of the general formula (I). In addition, the toners of the above Examples present excellent color reproducibility and light transmitting property.

EXAMPLES 35 to 38

Toners of Examples 35 to 38 were prepared in the same manner as in Example 1 except for that the charge control agent used in Example 1 was replaced by the charge control agent of the phenol compound of the chemical formula (122) in Example 35, by the charge control agent of the phenol compound of the chemical formula (123) in Example 36, by the charge control agent of the phenol compound of the chemical formula (124) in Example 37 and by the charge control agent of the phenol compound of the chemical formula (127) in Example 38, respectively, as shown in the following Table 8.

EXAMPLES 39 to 42

Toners of Examples 35 to 38 were prepared in the same manner as in Example 5 except for that the charge control agent used in Example 5 was replaced by the charge control agent of the phenol compound of the chemical formula (129) in Example 39, by the charge control agent of the phenol compound of the chemical formula (130) in Example 40, by the charge control agent of the phenol compound of the chemical formula (132) in Example 41 and by the charge control agent of the phenol compound of the chemical formula (135) in Example 42, respectively, as shown in the following Table 8.

EXAMPLE 43

A toner of Example 43 was prepared in the same manner as in Example 9 except for that the charge control agent used in Example 9 was replaced by the charge control agent of the phenol compound of the chemical formula (136), as shown in the following Table 8.

EXAMPLE 44

A toner of Example 44 was prepared in the same manner as in Example 10 except for that the charge control agent used in Example 10 was replaced by the charge control agent of the phenol compound of the chemical formula (145), as shown in the following Table 8.

EXAMPLE 45

A toner of Example 45 was prepared in the same manner as in Example 11 except for that the charge control agent used in Example 11 was replaced by the charge control agent of the phenol compound of the chemical formula (147), as shown in the following Table 8.

EXAMPLE 46

A toner of Example 46 was prepared in the same manner as in Example 12 except for that the charge control agent used in Example 12 was replaced by the charge control agent of the phenol compound of the chemical formula (152), as shown in the following Table 8.

EXAMPLE 47

A toner of Example 47 was prepared in the same manner as in Example 13 except for that the charge control agent used in Example 13 was replaced by the charge control agent of the phenol compound of the chemical formula (153), as shown in the following Table 8.

EXAMPLE 48

A toner of Example 48 was prepared in the same manner as in Example 14 except for that the charge control agent used in Example 14 was replaced by the charge control agent of the phenol compound of the chemical formula (157), as shown in the following Table 8.

EXAMPLE 49

A toner of Example 49 was prepared in the same manner as in Example 15 except for that the charge control agent used in Example 15 was replaced by the charge control agent of the phenol compound of the chemical formula (161), as shown in the following Table 8.

EXAMPLE 50

A toner of Example 50 was prepared in the same manner as in Example 16 except for that the charge control agent used in Example 16 was replaced by the charge control agent of the phenol compound of the chemical formula (165), as shown in the following Table 8.

EXAMPLE 51

A toner of Example 51 was prepared in the same manner as in Example 17 except for that the charge control agent used in Example 17 was replaced by the charge control agent of the phenol compound of the chemical formula (169), as shown in the following Table 8.

              TABLE 8______________________________________Toner         Type of Charge Control Agent______________________________________Ex. 35        Phenol compound of formula (122)Ex. 36        Phenol compound of formula (123)Ex. 37        Phenol compound of formula (124)Ex. 38        Phenol compound of formula (127)Ex. 39        Phenol compound of formula (129)Ex. 40        Phenol compound of formula (130)Ex. 41        Phenol compound of formula (132)Ex. 42        Phenol compound of formula (135)Ex. 43        Phenol compound of formula (136)Ex. 44        Phenol compound of formula (145)Ex. 45        Phenol compound of formula (147)Ex. 46        Phenol compound of formula (152)Ex. 47        Phenol compound of formula (153)Ex. 48        Phenol compound of formula (157)Ex. 49        Phenol compound of formula (161)Ex. 50        Phenol compound of formula (165)Ex. 51        Phenol compound of formula (169)______________________________________

As shown in the following Table 9, the toners of the aforementioned Examples 35 to 47, and 49 to 51 were combined with any one of the aforesaid carrier particles A to D, respectively. The respective toners were blended with the respective carriers to form developers with a toner density thereof adjusted to 5 wt %.

The charge quantities and the amounts of toner with low chargeability of the respective toners of the aforesaid Examples 35 to 47, and 49 to 51 were found in the same manner as aforementioned. The results are shown in the following Table 9.

As to the respective toners of the aforesaid developers and of Example 48, the charge stability thereof in environmental changes was examined. The results are shown in the following Table 9.

Next, each of the aforesaid developers and the toner of Example 48 was loaded in the image forming apparatus to form an image of an original document having a ratio of black to white (B/W ratio) at 6%. Similarly to the foregoing, at the production of a first copy and a 10000-th copy, each of the resultant images was visually inspected to judge the presence of toner fogs and the results are shown in the following Table 9. Incidentally, the toners of Examples 35 to 43 and 50 were each applied to Minolta's copier EP-570Z, the toners of Examples 44 to 47 and 51 were each applied to Minolta's digital full-color copier CF-80, the toner of Example 48 was applied to Minolta's printer SP-101, and the toner of Example 49 was applied to Minolta's printer SP-500 for the image forming process. Further, Minolta's digital full-color copier CF-80 is of a type wherein a separator oil is applied to the surface of a fixing roller whereas Minolta's printer SP-101 features a fixing temperature of 130 C.

              TABLE 9______________________________________           Amount   Stability    Toner  of Toner against    Charge of Low   Environ-    Quantity           charge-  mental   Toner FogToner  Carrier (μC/g)                   ability                          Changes                                 1st  10000th______________________________________Ex. 35 A       -26      ◯                          ◯                                 ◯                                      ◯Ex. 36 A       -25      ◯                          ◯                                 ◯                                      ◯Ex. 37 A       -24      ◯                          ◯                                 ◯                                      ◯Ex. 38 A       -26      ◯                          ◯                                 ◯                                      ◯Ex. 39 A       -27      ◯                          ◯                                 ◯                                      ◯Ex. 40 A       -26      ◯                          ◯                                 ◯                                      ◯Ex. 41 A       -26      ◯                          ◯                                 ◯                                      ◯Ex. 42 A       -27      ◯                          ◯                                 ◯                                      ◯Ex. 43 A       -26      ◯                          ◯                                 ◯                                      ◯Ex. 44 A       -28      ◯                          ◯                                 ◯                                      --Ex. 45 D       -27      ◯                          ◯                                 ◯                                      --Ex. 46 D       -29      ◯                          ◯                                 ◯                                      --Ex. 47 B       -28      ◯                          ◯                                 ◯                                      --Ex. 48 --      --       --     ◯                                 ◯                                      --Ex. 49 C       -28      ◯                          ◯                                 ◯                                      ◯Ex. 50 A       -27      ◯                          ◯                                 ◯                                      --Ex. 51 D       -30      ◯                          ◯                                 ◯                                      --______________________________________

The results show that the toners for developing electrostatic latent images of Examples 35 to 51, each comprising, as the charge control agent, the phenol compound of the general formulas (VI) to (IX) free from heavy metal, generally present quick start of charging, good charge stability, good spent-resistance and insusceptibility to environmental changes like the toners for developing electrostatic latent images of the aforesaid Examples 1 to 17 using the bisphenol compound of the general formula (I). In addition, the toners of the above Examples present excellent color reproducibility and light transmitting property.

EXAMPLES 52 to 56

Toners of Examples 52 to 56 were prepared in the same manner as in Example 1 except for that the charge control agent used in Example 1 was replaced by the charge control agent of the resorcin allene derivative of the chemical formula (172) in Example 52, by the charge control agent of the resorcin allene derivative of the chemical formula (173) in Example 53, by the charge control agent of the resorcin allene derivative of the chemical formula (175) in Example 54, by the charge control agent of the resorcin allene derivative of the chemical formula (177) in Example 55, and by the charge control agent of the resorcin allene derivative of the chemical formula (178) in Example 56, respectively, as shown in the following Table 10.

EXAMPLES 57 to 61

Toners of Examples 57 to 61 were prepared in the same manner as in Example 5 except for that the charge control agent used in Example 5 was replaced by the charge control agent of the resorcin allene derivative of the chemical formula (181) in Example 57, by the charge control agent of the resorcin allene derivative of the chemical formula (182) in Example 58, by the charge control agent of the resorcin allene derivative of the chemical formula (185) in Example 59, by the charge control agent of the resorcin allene derivative of the chemical formula (188) in Example 60, and by the charge control agent of the resorcin allene derivative of the chemical formula (189) in Example 61, respectively, as shown in the following Table 10.

EXAMPLE 62

A toner of Example 62 was prepared in the same manner as in Example 9 except for that the charge control agent used in Example 9 was replaced by the charge control agent of the resorcin allene derivative of the chemical formula (192), as shown in the following Table 10.

EXAMPLE 63

A toner of Example 63 was prepared in the same manner as in Example 10 except for that the charge control agent used in Example 10 was replaced by the charge control agent of the resorcin allene derivative of the chemical formula (193), as shown in the following Table 10.

EXAMPLE 64

A toner of Example 64 was prepared in the same manner as in Example 11 except for that the charge control agent used in Example 11 was replaced by the charge control agent of the resorcin allene derivative of the chemical formula (201), as shown in the following Table 10.

EXAMPLE 65

A toner of Example 65 was prepared in the same manner as in Example 12 except for that the charge control agent used in Example 12 was replaced by the charge control agent of the resorcin allene derivative of the chemical formula (203), as shown in the following Table 10.

EXAMPLE 66

A toner of Example 66 was prepared in the same manner as in Example 13 except for that the charge control agent used in Example 13 was replaced by the charge control agent of the resorcin allene derivative of the chemical formula (209), as shown in the following Table 10.

EXAMPLE 67

A toner of Example 67 was prepared in the same manner as in Example 14 except for that the charge control agent used in Example 14 was replaced by the charge control agent of the resorcin allene derivative of the chemical formula (218), as shown in the following Table 10.

Comparative Example 7

A toner of Comparative Example 7 was prepared in the same manner as in Example 1 except for that the charge control agent used in Example 1 was replaced by the charge control agent of a resorcin allene derivative of the following chemical formula (d), as shown in the following Table 10. ##STR71##

Comparative Example 8

A toner of Comparative Example 8 was prepared in the same manner as in Example 1 except for that the charge control agent used in Example 1 was replaced by the charge control agent of a resorcin allene derivative of the following chemical formula (e), as shown in the following Table 10.

              TABLE 10______________________________________2 #STR72##Toner       Type of Charge Control Agent______________________________________Ex. 52      resorcin allene derivative of formula (172)Ex. 53      resorcin allene derivative of formula (173)Ex. 54      resorcin allene derivative of formula (175)Ex. 55      resorcin allene derivative of formula (177)Ex. 56      resorcin allene derivative of formula (178)Ex. 57      resorcin allene derivative of formula (181)Ex. 58      resorcin allene derivative of formula (182)Ex. 59      resorcin allene derivative of formula (185)Ex. 60      resorcin allene derivative of formula (188)Ex. 61      resorcin allene derivative of formula (189)Ex. 62      resorcin allene derivative of formula (192)Ex. 63      resorcin allene derivative of formula (193)Ex. 64      resorcin allene derivative of formula (201)Ex. 65      resorcin allene derivative of formula (203)Ex. 66      resorcin allene derivative of formula (209)Ex. 67      resorcin allene derivative of formula (218)C. Ex. 7    resorcin allene derivative of formula (d)C. Ex. 8    resorcin allene derivative of formula (e)______________________________________

As shown in the following Table 11, the toners of the aforementioned Examples 52 to 67 and of Comparative Examples 7 and 8 were combined with any one of the aforesaid carrier particles A to D, respectively. The respective toners were blended with the respective carriers to form developers with a toner density thereof adjusted to 5 wt %.

The charge quantities and the amounts of toner with low chargeability of the respective developers were measured.

In the measurement of the charge quantity of each toner, each of the developers was loaded in a rotary tumble blender to be blended and agitated for 5 minutes, 90 minutes or 900 minutes each time. Thereafter, a 1 g sample of each developer thus blended was taken by the use of a precision balance.

In the same manner as in the foregoing wherein the device shown in FIG. 1 was used, the average charge quantity of toner of each of the developers blended and agitated for different periods of time was found and the results are shown in the following Table 11.

As to the above developers, the amount of toner with low chargeability of the respective toners of Examples 52 to 67 and of Comparative Examples 7 and 8 was found and the results are shown in the following Table 11. As to the toner of Comparative Example 7, scatter of toner occurred after a lapse of 5 minutes. As to the toner of Comparative Example 8, scatter of toner also occurred.

              TABLE 11______________________________________                       Amount                       of Toner    Toner Charge Quantity (μC/g)                       of Low          5 minutes'                   90 minutes'                           900 minutes'                                   charge-Toner  Carrier blending blending                           blending                                   ability______________________________________Ex. 52 A       -30      -28     -32     ◯Ex. 53 A       -32      -30     -33     ◯Ex. 54 A       -28      -30     -31     ◯Ex. 55 A       -31      -30     -33     ◯Ex. 56 A       -29      -30     -32     ◯Ex. 57 A       -31      -33     -35     ◯Ex. 58 A       -28      -28     -30     ◯Ex. 59 A       -27      -30     -30     ◯Ex. 60 A       -30      -29     -31     ◯Ex. 61 A       -27      -30     -33     ◯Ex. 62 A       -28      -27     -30     ◯Ex. 63 A       -31      -33     -35     ◯Ex. 64 D       -30      -29     -30     ◯Ex. 65 A       -31      -33     -34     ◯Ex. 66 B       -28      -29     -33     ◯Ex. 67 C       -29      -30     -34     ◯C. Ex. 7  A       -15      -23     -35     ΔC. Ex. 8  A       -25      -35     -45     ◯______________________________________

The results show that the toners for developing electrostatic latent images of Examples 52 to 67, each comprising, as the charge control agent, the resorcin allene derivative of the general formula (X) free from heavy metal, generally present quick start of charging, good charge stability, good spent-resistance and insusceptibility to environmental changes like the toners for developing electrostatic latent images of the aforesaid Examples 1 to 17 using the bisphenol compound of the general formula (I). In addition, the toners of the above Examples present excellent color reproducibility and light transmitting property.

Although the present invention has been fully described by way of example, it is to be noted that various changes and modifications will be apparent to those skilled in the art.

Therefore, unless otherwise such changes and modifications depart from the scope of the invention, they should be construed as being included therein.

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US6534231 *Sep 21, 1999Mar 18, 2003Orient Chemical Industries, Ltd.Control agent is a meta compound obtainable by reacting compound having a phenolic hydroxy group comprising calixarenes or derivatives thereof; and a metal alkoxide, wherein the metal of the metal alkoxide
US6762004 *Sep 11, 2002Jul 13, 2004Orient Chemical Industries, Ltd.Charge control agent and toner for developing electrostatic images
US7989071May 3, 2005Aug 2, 2011Merck Patent GmbhOrganic electronic devices
US8118748Apr 28, 2005Feb 21, 2012Medtronic, Inc.Implantable capacitive pressure sensor system and method
US8685602 *Aug 16, 2011Apr 1, 2014Fuji Xerox Co., Ltd.Toner for electrophotography, developer for electrophotography, toner cartridge, image forming apparatus, and image forming method
US20120251935 *Aug 16, 2011Oct 4, 2012Fuji Xerox Co., Ltd.Toner for electrophotography, developer for electrophotography, toner cartridge, image forming apparatus, and image forming method
WO2002032891A1 *Oct 18, 2001Apr 25, 2002Mohammad Michel AfsharFlavan compounds, their preparation and their use in therapy
WO2003050201A1 *Dec 6, 2002Jun 19, 2003Kawabata YuichiroOrganic electroluminescent materials
Classifications
U.S. Classification430/108.1
International ClassificationG03G9/097
Cooperative ClassificationG03G9/09733, G03G9/09775
European ClassificationG03G9/097D6, G03G9/097D
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