US 599549 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
(No Model.) 2 Sheets-Sheet 1.
W. L. BREATH. PNEUMATIC GUN.
No. 599,549. Pat-ented'Peb. 22, 1898 WITNESSES: TWENmR ATTORNEY 2 Sheets-Sheet 2.
W. L. BREATH. PNEUMATIC GUN.
Patented Feb. 22, 1898.
UNITED STATES PATENT 7 OFFICE.
IVILLIAM L. BREATH, OF BROOKLYN, NEW YORK, ASSIGNOR TO THE DYNA- MITE ORDNANOE AND ARMAMENTS COMPANY, OF NEW JERSEY.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 599,549, dated February 22, 1898.
Application filed November 16, 1896. Serial No. 612,192. (No model.)
To all whom it may concern.-
Be it known that I, WILLIAM L. BREATH, a citizen of the United States, and a resident of Brooklyn, in the county of Kings and State of New York, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Pneumatic Guns, of which the following is a specification.
My invention relates to the construction and arrangement of the parts of a pneumatic gun of the class in which a charge of suitable explosive material is burned in a so-called combustion-chamber and employed as the means for generating the air or gas compression, which, being permitted to act on the projectile located in an adjoining chamber or barrel, forcibly ejects it therefrom. A serious objection to such guns as heretofore constructed is that the initial explosion of the black powder or equivalent material used to fire the charge blows the same (most of it in an unconsumed, if not unignited, condition) toward the barrel or chamber in which the projectile is placed, with the result that a large part of the combustion of the charge proper takes place at or near the rear end or breech of the barrel, at about the place where the projectile rests, with the inevitable result that excessive heat is generated at that point, so that it soon becomes too hot to permit safe reloading. Thus rapid firing of ordnance of this class is not feasible. By my invention I overcome the stated objection by so constructing and arranging the parts that the method of the discharge is fundamentally changed that is to say, instead of locating the charge relative to the combustion-chamber in such manner that the initial explosion will blow the unconsumed portions of the charge through or along that chamber toward the projectile in the barrel of the piece I locate the charge in such manner that the initial explosion will blow it into and along the combustion-chamber, avoiding the projectile, and so that upon reaching the other end of the combustion-chamber, which of course is securely closed, the products of combustion will be compelled to double upon themselves and return again through the combustionchamber and, passing thence into the breech of the barrel proper, act upon the projectile and forcibly eject it; and it will be observed that by this construction of the gun and this method of firing I not only practically confine the combustion of the charge and the heat generated thereby to the combustionchamber, but also that the excessive pressures generated therein secure the complete consumption of the charge there, so that none or practically none of it is blown out of the muzzle of the piece, and also most of the fouling of the gun is confined to the combustionchamber, and in order that it may be quickly and easily cleaned I provide special appliances for closing the forward end of the chamber, as described hereinafter.
In the drawings hereof, Figure 1 illustrates a view, partly in elevation and partlyin longitudinal vertical section, of the combustionchamber and barrel, with coacting parts of a gun, embodying the invention. Fig. 2 illus- 7o trates a sectional view of the breech mechanism at the end of the barrel, the breech being closed. Fig. 3 illustrates a sectional view of the parts shown in Fig. 2, the breech being open. 7 5
A represents the combustion-chamber; B, the barrel; 0, the projectile with wingplate D.
E is a breech casting or forging into which the rear ends of both the combustion-cham- 8o ber and the barrel may be rigidly set.
F is a breech-block of any preferred construction.
G is the firing-pin, which may be actuated by any suitable mechanism, and H is the cartridge which contains the charge of explosive.
I is a breech mechanism which closes the front end of the combustion-chamber.
J is a yoke or frame which supports the barrel and the combustion-chamber and upon 0 which the trunnions are arranged.
It will be particularly noted that the cartridge is so supported upon the breech-block that its open end discharges directly into the rear end or throat of the combustion-chamber. Any suitable means may be employed for supporting the cartridge in this position, many devices being now well known for so doing, although never before, so far as I am aware, has there been a cartridge supported 10o upon a breech-block in such manner as to discharge into a combustion-chamber so as to avoid the projectile and so that the products of combustion, or at least the major portion of them, will have to traverse that chamber twice before passing into the barrel.
In order, however, that the invention may be more fully understood, I illustrate in Figs. 2 and 3 one form of several designed by me in which the breech mechanism may be constructed. In them a illustrates the breechblock proper,provided with any suitable form of firing-pin, such as b, which may have a spring 0 and a trigger. The block is supported upon a bracket e, which may be pivoted at f 'to the rear of the gun. g is the locking-dog, which is held to the breechblock, on which it oscillates, by nut h, and it is turned by handled the same as usual. j and 7c are the lugs formed integral with the dog g, and which engage with corresponding lugsections 1 Z on the gun. m is a charge- -holder, which may be an inclined frame and pivoted at n to the breech-block and may be held to it when in operative position by a spring-actuated hook 0, which may engage with and lock in a recess 19 in the breechblock. This charge-holder should obviously be of sufficient strength and of such construction as to control the direction in which the charge initially mo vesthat is to say, first into the combustion-chamber. After the discharge the breech may be opened, the shellholding frame be tilted on its pivot, as shown in Fig; 3, by disengaging the hook o from the recess 19, and then the spent shell may be easily withdrawn and a new one inserted.
From the foregoing the method of operationis obvious. The primary explosion of the black powder or its equivalent blows the charge, of Whatever nature it may be,directly into the throat or rear end of the combustionchamber and along it until the breech mechanism I arrests its advance. Thereupon for an instant the gases and air are in a condition of relative immobility, if such a condition can be said to exist at all under the circumstances, and then a rebound takes place and the entire contents of the combustion-chamber-i. 6., the gases and compresed airrushes rearwardly, passes again through the throat of the combustion-chamber into the breech of the barrel, and, impinging on the rear of the wing-plate of the projectile or upon its base, as the case may be, ejects it through the barrel.
During the time the charge is in the combustion-chamber, traversing it twice under great pressure, its complete combustion is effected, and when it is desired to clean the combustion-chamber the breech-block F and .the breech mechanism I may be quickly and easily removed, and then a direct opening from end to end of the combustion-chamber is afforded for cleaning.
It will be obvious to those skilled in this art that various modifications of the details of construction may be made without departing from the essentials of the invention. I therefore do not limit'myself to any of the details.
I claim 1. A pneumatic gun having a breech-block in rear of the barrel, a combustion-chamber communicating with the breech, and means on the breech-block for supporting a cartridge in such position as that it shall discharge into the combustion-chamber, for the purposes set forth.
2. A pneumatic gun having a barrel and a combustion-chamber which communicate with each other at or near the breech, and
means to support the charge in such manner as that it shall, when fired, discharge into the combustion chamber, for the purposes set forth.
3. The combination in a pneumatic gun of a barrel and a combustion-chamber communicating with each other, at or near the breech, and breech mechanism having a seat for the charge or cartridge, located at an angle relative to the barrel, but substantially in line with the opening into the combustion-chamber, for the purposes set forth.
4. A pneumatic gun provided with a holder for the explosive charge, and with a chamber or space in front of the charge into which it is projected when fired, said chamber being closed at its forward end, and a projectilechamber or barrel communicating with the first-named chamber at or near its rear end, for the purposes set forth.
5. In a pneumatic gun,a combustion-chamber provided at one end with a support for the explosive charge, and closed at the opposite end, a projectile-chamber or barrel communicating therewith by a passage opening laterally into the combustion-chamber at a point adjacent to the support for the charge, whereby the unburned portion of the charge willbe carried beyond said passage and caused to burn at the opposite end of the combustion-chamber, for the purposes set forth.
6. In a pneumatic gun, a projectile-chamber or barrel and a combustion-chamber, the combustion-chamber being open at one end to the proj ectile-chamber or barrel and closed at the other, and provided with a support for the charge at or near its open end, for the purposes set forth.
7. In a pneumatic gun, the combination of