Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.

Patents

  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS6001273 A
Publication typeGrant
Application numberUS 09/014,449
Publication dateDec 14, 1999
Filing dateJan 28, 1998
Priority dateMar 11, 1994
Fee statusPaid
Also published asUS6531441, US6846792, US20040014621
Publication number014449, 09014449, US 6001273 A, US 6001273A, US-A-6001273, US6001273 A, US6001273A
InventorsDonald Bernard Bivens, Brooks Shawn Lunger, Barbara Haviland Minor
Original AssigneeMinor; Barbara Haviland, Bivens; Donald Bernard, Lunger; Brooks Shawn
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Binary azeotropes of difluoromethane and hydrocarbons
US 6001273 A
Abstract
Refrigerant compositions include mixtures of difluoromethane and isobutane, butane, propylene or cyclopropane; pentafluoroethane and propylene or cyclopropane; 1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane and propane; 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane and cyclopropane; 1,1,1-trifluoroethane and DME or propylene; 1,1-difluoroethane and propane, isobutane, butane or cyclopropane; fluoroethane and propane or cyclopropane; 1,1,1,2,2,3,3-heptafluoropropane and butane, cyclopropane, DME, isobutane or propane; or 1,1,1,2,3,3,3-heptafluoropropane and butane, cyclopropane, isobutane or propane.
Images(24)
Previous page
Next page
Claims(7)
It is claimed that:
1. An azeotropic or azeotrope-like composition consisting essentially of: 93.8-99 weight percent difluoromethane and 1-6.2 weight percent isobutane; 50-99 weight percent difluoromethane and 1-50 weight percent propylene; or 60-99 weight percent difluoromethane and 1-40 weight percent cyclopropane; wherein the vapor pressure of the composition is higher than the vapor pressure of the individual components at about 25 temperature has been adjusted to about 25
2. The azeotropic or azeotrope-like composition of claim 1, said composition consisting essentially of 70-99 weight percent difluoromethane and 1-30 weight percent propylene; or 60-99 weight percent difluoromethane and 1-40 weight percent cyclopropane.
3. A process for producing refrigeration, comprising condensing a composition of claims 1 or 2 and thereafter evaporating said composition in the vicinity of the body to be cooled.
4. A process for producing heat comprising condensing a composition of any of claims 1 or 2 in the vicinity of a body to be heated, and thereafter evaporating said composition.
5. An azeotropic composition consisting essentially of about 93.8 weight percent of difluoromethane and about 6.2 weight percent of isobutane, wherein when the temperature has been adjusted to about 25 said composition has a vapor pressure of about 249.6 psia (1721 kPa).
6. An azeotropic composition consisting essentially of about 81.0 weight percent of difluoromethane and about 19.0 weight percent of propylene, wherein when the temperature has been adjusted to about 25 said composition has a vapor pressure of about 261.5 psia (1803 kPa).
7. An azeotropic composition consisting essentially of about 85.2 weight percent of difluoromethane and about 14.8 weight percent of cyclopropane, wherein when the temperature has been adjusted to about 25 said composition has a vapor pressure of about 260.6 psia (1797 kPa).
Description
DETAILED DESCRIPTION

The present invention relates to compositions of difluoromethane (HFC-32) and isobutane, butane, propylene or cyclopropane; pentafluoroethane (HFC-125) and propylene and cyclopropane; 1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134) and propane; 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a) and cyclopropane; 1,1,1-trifluoroethane (HFC-143a) and dimethyl ether (DME) or propylene; 1,1-difluoroethane (HFC-152a) and propane, isobutane, butane and cyclopropane; fluoroethane (HFC-161) and propane or cyclopropane; 1,1,1,2,2,3,3-heptafluoropropane (HFC-227ca) and butane, cyclopropane, DME, isobutane or propane; or 1,1,1,2,3,3,3-heptafluoropropane (HFC-227ea) and butane, cyclopropane, isobutane or propane.

The present invention also relates to the discovery of azeotropic or azeotrope-like compositions of effective amounts of difluoromethane (HFC-32) and isobutane, butane, propylene or cyclopropane; pentafluoroethane (HFC-125) and propylene or cyclopropane; 1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134) and propane; 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a) and cyclopropane; 1,1,1-trifluoroethane (HFC-143a) propylene; 1,1-difluoroethane (HFC-152a and propane, isobutane, butane and cyclopropane; fluoroethane (HFC-161) and propane or cyclopropane; 1,1,1,2,2,3,3-heptafluoropropane (HFC-227ca) and butane, cyclopropane, DME, isobutane or propane; or 1,1,1,2,3,3,3-heptafluoropropane (HFC-227ea) and butane, cyclopropane, isobutane or propane to form an azeotropic or azeotrope-like composition.

By "azeotropic" composition is meant a constant boiling liquid admixture of two or more substances that behaves as a single substance. One way to characterize an azeotropic composition is that the vapor produced by partial evaporation or distillation of the liquid has the same composition as the liquid from which it was evaporated or distilled, that is, the admixture distills/refluxes without compositional change. Constant boiling compositions are characterized as azeotropic because they exhibit either a maximum or minimum boiling point, as compared with that of the non-azeotropic mixtures of the same components.

By "azeotrope-like" composition is meant a constant boiling, or substantially constant boiling, liquid admixture of two or more substances that behaves as a single substance. One way to characterize an azeotrope-like composition is that the vapor produced by partial evaporation or distillation of the liquid has substantially the same composition as the liquid from which it was evaporated or distilled, that is, the admixture distills/refluxes without substantial composition change.

It is recognized in the art that a composition is azeotrope-like if, after 50 weight percent of the composition is removed such as by evaporation or boiling off, the difference in vapor pressure between the original composition and the composition remaining after 50 weight percent of the original composition has been removed is about 10 percent or less, when measured in absolute units. By absolute units, it is meant measurements of pressure and, for example, psia, atmospheres, bars, torr, dynes per square centimeter, millimeters of mercury, inches of water and other equivalent terms well known in the art. If an azeotrope is present, there is no difference in vapor pressure between the original composition and the composition remaining after 50 weight percent of the original composition has been removed.

Therefore, included in this invention are compositions of effective amounts of difluoromethane (HFC-32) and isobutane, butane, propylene or cyclopropane; pentafluoroethane (HFC-125) and propylene or cyclopropane; 1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134) and propane; 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a) and cyclopropane; 1,1,1-trifluoroethane (HFC-143a) and propylene; 1,1-difluoroethane (HFC-152a) and propane, isobutane, butane and cyclopropane; fluoroethane (HFC-161) and propane or cyclopropane; 1,1,1,2,2,3,3-heptafluoropropane (HFC-227ca) and butane, cyclopropane, DME, isobutane or propane; or 1,1,1,2,3,3,3-heptafluoropropane (HFC-227ea) and butane, cyclopropane, isobutane or propane such that after 50 weight percent of an original composition is evaporated or boiled off to produce a remaining composition, the difference in the vapor pressure between the original composition and the remaining composition is 10 percent or less.

For compositions that are azeotropic, there is usually some range of compositions around the azeotrope that, for a maximum boiling azeotrope, have boiling points at a particular pressure higher than the pure components of the composition at that pressure and have vapor pressures lower at a particular temperature than the pure components of the composition at that temperature, and that, for a minimum boiling azeotrope, have boiling points at a particular pressure lower than the pure components of the composition at that pressure and have vapor pressures higher at a particular temperature than the pure components of the composition at that temperature. Boiling temperatures and vapor pressures above or below that of the pure components are caused by unexpected intermolecular forces between and among the molecules of the compositions, which can be a combination of repulsive and attractive forces such as van der Waals forces and hydrogen bonding.

The range of compositions that have a maximum or minimum boiling point at a particular pressure, or a maximum or minimum vapor pressure at a particular temperature, may or may not be coextensive with the range of compositions that are substantially constant boiling. In those cases where the range of compositions that have maximum or minimum boiling temperatures at a particular pressure, or maximum or minimum vapor pressures at a particular temperature, are broader than the range of compositions that are substantially constant boiling according to the change in vapor pressure of the composition when 50 weight percent is evaporated, the unexpected intermolecular forces are nonetheless believed important in that the refrigerant compositions having those forces that are not substantially constant boiling may exhibit unexpected increases in the capacity or efficiency versus the components of the refrigerant composition.

The components of the compositions of this invention have the following vapor pressures at 25

______________________________________COMPONENTS         PSIA   KPA______________________________________HFC-32             246.7  1701HFC-125            199.1  1373HFC-134            76.1   525HFC-134a           98.3   677HFC-143a           180.6  1245HFC-152a           85.8   591HFC-161            130.2  898HFC-227ca          63.8   440HFC-227ea          66.6   459butane             35.2   243cyclopropane       105.0  724DME                85.7   591isobutane          50.5   348propane            137.8  950propylene          165.9  1144______________________________________

Substantially constant boiling, azeotropic or azeotrope-like compositions of this invention comprise the following (all compositions are measured at 25

______________________________________          WEIGHT RANGES PREFERREDCOMPONENTS     (wt. %/wt. %) (wt. %/wt. %)______________________________________HFC-32/isobutane          61-99/1-39    70-99/1-30HFC-32/butane  65-99/1-35    70-99/1-30HFC-32/propylene          26-99/1-74    70-99/1-30HFC-32/cyclopropane          54-99/1-46    54-99/1-46HFC-125/propylene           1-99/1-99    60-99/1-40HFC-125/cyclopropane          66-99/1-34    66-99/1-34HFC-134/propane           1-75/25-99   30-75/25-70HFC-134a/cyclopropane           1-99/1-99    50-99/1-50HFC-143a/propylene           1-99/1-99    70-99/1-30HFC-152a/propane           1-78/22-99   30-78/22-70HFC-152a/isobutane          44-99/1-56    60-99/1-40HFC-152a/butane          54-99/1-46    70-99/1-30HFC-152a/cyclopropane           1-99/1-99    20-99/1-80HFC-161/propane           1-99/1-99    20-99/1-80HFC-161/cyclopropane           1-99/1-99    40-99/1-60HFC-227ca/butane          61-99/1-39    70-99/1-30HFC-227ca/cyclopropane          27-82/18-73   40-82/18-60HFC-227ca/DME   1-92/8-99    60-92/8-40HFC-227ca/isobutane          53-92/8-47    60-92/8-40HFC-227ca/propane           1-79/21-99   30-79/21-70HFC-227ea/butane          61-99/1-39    70-99/1-30HFC-227ea/cyclopropane          24-83/17-76   40-83/17-60HFC-227ea/isobutane          52-99/1-48    60-99/1-40HFC-227ea/propane           1-79/21-99   40-79/21-60______________________________________

For purposes of this invention, "effective amount" is defined as the amount of each component of the inventive compositions which, when combined, results in the formation of an azeotropic or azeotrope-like composition. This definition includes the amounts of each component, which amounts may vary depending on the pressure applied to the composition so long as the azeotropic or azeotrope-like compositions continue to exist at the different pressures, but with possible different boiling points.

Therefore, effective amount includes the amounts, such as may be expressed in weight percentages, of each component of the compositions of the instant invention which form azeotropic or azeotrope-like compositions at temperatures or pressures other than as described herein.

For the purposes of this discussion, azeotropic or constant-boiling is intended to mean also essentially azeotropic or essentially-constant boiling. In other words, included within the meaning of these terms are not only the true azeotropes described above, but also other compositions containing the same components in different proportions, which are true azeotropes at other temperatures and pressures, as well as those equivalent compositions which are part of the same azeotropic system and are azeotrope-like in their properties. As is well recognized in this art, there is a range of compositions which contain the same components as the azeotrope, which will not only exhibit essentially equivalent properties for refrigeration and other applications, but which will also exhibit essentially equivalent properties to the true azeotropic composition in terms of constant boiling characteristics or tendency not to segregate or fractionate on boiling.

It is possible to characterize, in effect, a constant boiling admixture which may appear under many guises, depending upon the conditions chosen, by any of several criteria:

The composition can be defined as an azeotrope of A, B, C (and D . . . ) since the very term "azeotrope" is at once both definitive and limitative, and requires that effective amounts of A, B, C (and D . . . ) for this unique composition of matter which is a constant boiling composition.

It is well known by those skilled in the art, that, at different pressures, the composition of a given azeotrope will vary at least to some degree, and changes in pressure will also change, at least to some degree, the boiling point temperature. Thus, an azeotrope of A, B, C (and D . . . ) represents a unique type of relationship but with a variable composition which depends on temperature and/or pressure. Therefore, compositional ranges, rather than fixed compositions, are often used to define azeotropes.

The composition can be defined as a particular weight percent relationship or mole percent relationship of A, B, C (and D . . . ), while recognizing that such specific values point out only one particular relationship and that in actuality, a series of such relationships, represented by A, B, C (and D . . . ) actually exist for a given azeotrope, varied by the influence of pressure.

An azeotrope of A, B, C (and D . . . ) can be characterized by defining the compositions as an azeotrope characterized by a boiling point at a given pressure, thus giving identifying characteristics without unduly limiting the scope of the invention by a specific numerical composition, which is limited by and is only as accurate as the analytical equipment available.

The azeotrope or azeotrope-like compositions of the present invention can be prepared by any convenient method including mixing or combining the desired amounts. A preferred method is to weigh the desired component amounts and thereafter combine them in an appropriate container.

Specific examples illustrating the invention are given below. Unless otherwise stated therein, all percentages are by weight. It is to be understood that these examples are merely illustrative and in no way are to be interpreted as limiting the scope of the invention.

EXAMPLE 1 Phase Study

A phase study shows the following composition is azeotropic. The temperature is 25

______________________________________                  Vapor Press.Composition     Weight Percents                        psia   kPa______________________________________HFC-32/isobutane           93.8/6.2     249.6  1721HFC-32/butane   99.0/1.0     246.8  1702HFC-32/propylene           81.0/19.0    261.5  1803HFC-32/cyclopropane           85.2/14.8    260.6  1797HFC-125/propylene           79.5/20.5    229.1  1580HFC-125/cyclopropane           91.3/8.7     209.6  1445HFC-134/propane 52.3/47.7    164.3  1132HFC-134a/cyclopropane           65.5/34.5    137.5  948HFC-143a/propylene           89.6/10.4    181.2  1249HFC-152a/propane           45.9/54.1    155.1  1069HFC-152a/isobutane           75.5/24.5    97.0   669HFC-152a/butane 85.0/15.0    90.5   624HFC-152a/cyclopropane           44.3/55.7    117.8  812HFC-161/propane 44.5/55.5    161.2  1111HFC-161/cyclopropane           63.4/36.6    140.8  971HFC-227ca/butane           84.4/15.6    77.5   534HFC-227ca/cyclopropane           55.8/44.2    126.5  872HFC-227ca/DME   75.6/24.4    101.0  696HFC-227ca/isobutane           76.8/23.2    90.0   621HFC-227ca/propane           51.6/48.4    159.8  1102HFC-227ea/butane           85.8/14.2    76.8   530HFC-227ea/cyclopropane           55.2/44.8    125.1  863HFC-227ea/isobutane           77.6/22.4    88.8   612HFC-227ea/propane           50.4/49.6    157.4  1085______________________________________
EXAMPLE 2 Impact of Vapor Leakage on Vapor Pressure at 25

A vessel is charged with an initial liquid composition at 25 liquid, and the vapor above the liquid, are allowed to come to equilibrium, and the vapor pressure in the vessel is measured. Vapor is allowed to leak from the vessel, while the temperature is held constant at 25 at which time the vapor pressure of the composition remaining in the vessel is measured. The results are summarized below.

______________________________________Refrigerant   0 wt % evaporated                50 wt % evaporated                             0% change inComposition   psia     kPa     psia   kPa   vapor pressure______________________________________HFC-32/isobutane93.8/6.2   249.6    1721    249.6  1721  0.099/1    247.8    1709    247.5  1706  0.170/30   240.8    1660    230.3  1588  4.460/40   234.8    1619    209.6  1445  10.761/39   235.5    1624    212.3  1464  9.9HFC-32/butane99.0/1.0   246.8    1702    246.8  1702  0.070/30   232.3    1602    217.4  1499  6.465/35   229.1    1580    206.6  1424  9.8HFC-32/propylene81.0/19.0   261.5    1803    261.5  1803  0.099/1    248.8    1715    248.0  1710  0.370/30   259.3    1788    257.7  1777  0.660/40   254.3    1753    248.8  1715  2.250/50   246.7    1701    235.7  1625  4.540/60   236.6    1631    219.6  1514  7.230/70   223.8    1543    202.6  1397  9.529/71   222.3    1533    200.9  1385  9.627/73   219.3    1512    197.6  1362  9.926/74   217.8    1502    196.0  1351  10.0HFC-32/cyclopropane85.2/14.8   260.6    1797    260.6  1797  0.099/1    249.3    1719    248.2  1711  0.460/40   250.5    1727    236.5  1631  5.654/46   246.0    1696    222.5  1534  9.653/47   245.2    1691    219.7  1515  10.4HFC-125/propylene79.5/20.5   229.1    1580    229.1  1580  0.090/10   224.8    1550    222.4  1533  1.199/1    203.9    1406    201.8  1391  1.070/30   227.4    1568    225.9  1558  0.750/50   217.2    1498    206.5  1424  4.940/60   209.9    1447    194.1  1338  7.530/70   201.2    1387    183.1  1262  9.020/80   191.1    1318    174.8  1205  8.510/90   179.3    1236    169.3  1167  5.61/99    167.4    1154    166.2  1146  0.7HFC-125/cyclopropane91.3/8.7   209.6    1445    209.6  1445  0.099/1    202.2    1394    201.3  1388  0.466/34   194.9    1344    176.5  1217  9.465/35   194.1    1338    174.2  1201  10.3HFC-134/propane90/10   140.0    965     83.6   576   40.375.6/24.4   158.9    1095    143.0  986   10.052.3/47.7   164.3    1132    164.3  1132  0.025/75   157.3    1085    152.1  1049  3.31/99    138.5    955     137.8  950   0.5HFC-134a/cyclopropane65.5/34.5   137.5    948     137.5  948   0.090/10   126.8    874     116.8  805   7.995/5    117.1    807     106.2  732   9.399/1    103.2    712     99.5   686   3.630/70   129.4    892     119.4  823   7.715/85   120.2    829     109.5  755   8.910/90   115.9    799     107.5  741   7.21/99    106.3    733     105.2  725   1.0HFC-143a/propylene89.6/10.4   181.2    1249    181.2  1249  0.099/1    180.7    1246    180.7  1246  0.060/40   178.4    1230    178.1  1228  0.240/60   174.7    1205    174.2  1201  0.320/80   170.5    1176    170.0  1172  0.31/99    166.2    1146    166.1  1145  0.1HFC-152a/propane45.9/54.1   155.1    1069    155.1  1069  0.060/40   153.7    1060    152.2  1049  1.070/30   151.0    1041    146.1  1007  3.278/22   147.5    1017    134.5  927   8.879/21   147.0    1014    131.9  909   10.330/70   153.2    1056    152.0  1048  0.820/80   149.9    1034    147.6  1018  1.510/90   144.8    998     142.6  983   1.51/99    138.6    956     138.2  953   0.3HFC-152a/isobutane75.5/24.5   97.0     669     97.0   669   0.090/10   94.7     653     92.5   638   2.399/1    87.3     602     86.3   595   1.160/40   95.7     660     93.9   647   1.940/60   90.4     623     79.2   546   12.443/57   91.5     631     82.3   567   10.144/56   91.8     633     83.3   574   9.3HFC-152a/butane85.0/15.0   90.5     624     90.5   624   0.095/5    88.9     613     88.2   608   0.899/1    86.6     597     86.2   594   0.570/30   89.0     614     87.4   603   1.860/40   87.1     601     82.4   568   5.453/47   85.3     588     76.7   529   10.154/46   85.6     590     77.6   535   9.3HFC-152a/cyclopropane44.3/55.7   117.8    812     117.8  812   0.070/30   113.8    785     110.9  765   2.590/10   100.4    692     94.3   650   6.199/1    87.6     604     86.5   596   1.320/80   114.6    790     113.0  779   1.41/99    105.8    729     105.4  727   0.4HFC-161/propane44.5/55.5   161.2    1111    161.2  1111  0.070/30   156.0    1076    153.2  1056  1.890/10   142.2    980     137.9  951   3.099/1    131.6    907     130.9  903   0.520/80   156.0    1076    153.2  1056  1.81/99    139.3    960     138.5  955   0.6HFC-161/cyclopropane63.4/36.6   140.8    971     140.8  971   0.080/20   138.9    958     138.4  954   0.499/1    130.8    902     130.7  901   0.130/70   134.2    925     129.8  895   3.315/85   125.2    863     116.3  802   7.110/90   120.4    830     111.6  769   7.31/99    107.1    738     105.5  727   1.5HFC-227ca/butane84.4/15.6   77.5     534     77.5   534   0.092/8    76.4     527     74.5   514   2.599/1    67.3     464     64.8   447   3.760/40   75.4     520     67.8   467   10.161/39   75.5     521     69.0   476   8.6HFC-227ca/cyclopropane55.8/44.2   126.5    872     126.5  872   0.080/20   121.4    837     112.6  776   7.285/15   117.0    807     102.1  704   12.783/17   119.1    821     106.8  736   10.382/18   119.9    827     108.9  751   9.230/70   124.8    860     116.5  803   6.725/75   123.9    854     110.4  761   10.926/74   124.1    856     111.5  769   10.227/73   124.3    857     112.7  777   9.3HFC-227ca/DME75.6/24.4   101.0    696     101.0  696   0.090/10   98.1     676     94.3   650   3.992/8    96.9     668     90.0   621   7.193/7    96.1     663     86.1   594   10.440/60   95.1     656     92.7   639   2.520/80   90.3     623     88.5   619   2.11/99    85.9     592     85.8   592   0.1HFC-227ca/isobutane76.8/23.2   90.0     621     90.0   621   0.090/10   87.5     603     81.8   564   6.595/5    82.0     565     70.6   487   13.993/7    85.0     586     75.3   519   11.492/8    86.0     593     77.6   535   9.850/50   88.0     607     75.2   518   14.555/45   88.6     611     83.0   572   6.353/47   88.4     610     80.5   555   8.952/48   88.3     609     79.0   545   10.5HFC-227ca/propane51.6/48.4   159.8    1102    159.8  1102  0.030/70   157.9    1089    152.1  1049  3.720/80   155.0    1069    143.8  991   7.215/85   152.6    1052    140.9  971   7.710/90   149.3    1029    139.2  960   6.81/99    139.4    961     137.9  951   1.180/20   153.6    1059    136.8  943   10.978/22   154.9    1068    142.2  980   8.279/21   154.3    1064    139.7  963   9.5HFC-227ea/butane85.8/14.2   76.8     530     76.8   530   0.092/8    76.0     524     75.1   518   1.299/1    69.0     476     67.7   467   1.960/40   73.8     509     66.1   456   10.461/39   74.0     510     67.2   463   9.2HFC-227ea/cyclopropane55.2/44.8   125.1    863     125.1  863   0.080/20   119.7    825     111.8  771   6.690/10   107.4    741     89.5   617   16.785/15   115.2    794     102.3  705   11.283/17   117.3    809     106.5  734   9.284/16   116.3    802     104.5  721   10.130/70   123.3    850     116.7  805   5.425/75   122.4    844     111.5  769   8.923/77   122.0    841     109.7  756   10.124/76   122.2    843     110.6  763   9.5HFC-227ea/isobutane77.6/22.4   88.8     612     88.8   612   0.085/15   88.2     608     87.1   601   1.299/1    71.0     490     67.6   466   4.850/50   86.3     595     74.9   516   13.255/45   87.0     600     81.5   562   6.353/47   86.8     598     79.4   547   8.552/48   86.6     597     78.1   538   9.8HFC-227ea/propane50.4/49.6   157.4    1085    157.4  1085  0.070/30   155.2    1070    150.8  1040  2.890/10   133.7    922     91.5   631   31.680/20   150.0    1034    133.6  921   10.979/21   150.8    1040    136.3  940   9.630/70   155.7    1074    151.4  1044  2.820/80   153.0    1055    144.3  995   5.710/90   147.8    1019    139.6  963   5.51/99    139.1    959     137.9  951   0.9______________________________________

The results of this Example show that these compositions are azeotropic or azeotrope-like because when 50 wt. % of an original composition is removed, the vapor pressure of the remaining composition is within about 10% of the vapor pressure of the original composition, at a temperature of 25

EXAMPLE 3 Impact of Vapor Leakage at 0

A leak test is performed on compositions of HFC-32 and cyclopropane, at the temperature of 0

______________________________________Refrigerant   0 wt % evaporated                50 wt % evaporated                             0% change inComposition   psia     kPa     psia   kPa   vapor pressure______________________________________HFC-32/cyclopropane83.7/16.3   126.6    873     126.6  873   0.099/1    119.7    825     118.9  820   0.760/40   122.5    845     116.4  803   5.053/47   120.2    829     108.5  748   9.752/48   119.8    826     107.1  738   10.6______________________________________
EXAMPLE 4 Refrigerant Performance

The following table shows the performance of various refrigerants in an ideal vapor compression cycle. The data are based on the following conditions.

______________________________________Evaporator temperature                 48.0'F (8.9'C)Condenser temperature 115.0'F (46.1'C)Liquid subcooled to   120'F (6.7'C)Return Gas            65'F (18.3'C)Compressor efficiency is 75%.______________________________________

The refrigeration capacity is based on a compressor with a fixed displacement of 3.5 cubic feet per minute and 75% volumetric efficiency. Capacity is intended to mean the change in enthalpy of the refrigerant in the evaporator per pound of refrigerant circulated, i.e. the heat removed by the refrigerant in the evaporator per time. Coefficient of performance (COP) is intended to mean the ratio of the capacity to compressor work. It is a measure of refrigerant energy efficiency.

__________________________________________________________________________      Evap. Cond.            CapacityRefrig.    Press.            Press.                  Comp. Dis. BTU/minComp.      Psia         kPa            Psia               kPa                  Temp. F                       C  COP                             kw__________________________________________________________________________HFC-32/isobutane 1.0/99.0  32 221            93 641                  135  57 4.91                             148                                2.693.8/6.2   154         1062            409               2820                  205  96 4.32                             605                                10.799.0/1.0   155         1069            416               2868                  214  101                          4.33                             623                                11.0HFC-32/butane 1.0/99.0  22 152            68 469                  137  58 5.03                             110                                1.999.0/1.0   154         1062            413               2848                  214  101                          4.34                             621                                10.9HFC-32/propylene 1.0/99.0  110         758            276               1903                  162  72 4.50                             403                                7.181.0/19.0  163         1124            422               2910                  197  92 4.25                             609                                10.799.0/1.0   156         1076            418               2882                  215  102                          4.32                             626                                11.0HFC-32/cyclopropane  1/99     68 469            183               1262                  175  79 4.89                             299                                5.385.2/14.8  163         1124            425               2930                  203  95 4.28                             622                                11.0  99/1     156         1076            419               2889                  215  102                          4.32                             628                                11.1HFC-125/propylene 1.0/99.0  109         752            275               1896                  161  72 4.49                             400                                7.079.5/20.5  124         855            318               2193                  149  65 4.12                             413                                7.399.0/1.0   128         883            337               2324                  144  62 3.84                             401                                7.1HFC-125/cyclopropane  1/99     67 462            180               1241                  175  79 4.85                             293                                5.291.3/8.7   133         917            343               2365                  147  64 3.92                             421                                7.4  99/1     129         889            340               2344                  144  62 3.83                             402                                7.1HFC-134/propane 1.0/99.0  90 621            232               1586                  150  66 4.52                             336                                5.952.3/47.7  107         738            270               1862                  148  64 4.37                             375                                6.699.0/1.0   50 345            149               1020                  150  66 5.04                             243                                4.3HFC-134a/cyclopropane  1/99     66 455            180               1241                  175  79 4.85                             292                                5.165.5/34.5  86 593            229               1579                  159  71 4.61                             344                                6.1  99/1     60 414            177               1220                  151  66 4.69                             269                                4.7HFC-143a/DME 1.0/99.0  52 357            150               1034                  168  75 4.91                             243                                4.390.9/9.1   116         801            302               2084                  183  84 4.29                             429                                7.699.0/1.0   118         813            322               2221                  194  90 3.93                             422                                7.4HFC-143a/propylene 1.0/99.0  109         752            274               1889                  161  72 4.50                             400                                7.089.6/10.4  115         793            298               2055                  155  68 4.28                             408                                7.299.0/1.0   115         793            301               2075                  155  68 4.24                             406                                7.1HFC-152a/propane 1.0/99.0  89 614            229               1579                  150  66 4.54                             333                                5.945.9/54.1  79 545            211               1455                  156  69 4.63                             317                                5.699.0/1.0   52 359            156               1076                  168  76 4.82                             248                                4.4HFC-152a/isobutane 1.0/99.0  31 214            91 627                  135  57 4.78                             139                                2.475.5/24.5  49 338            142               979                  156  69 4.80                             222                                3.999.0/1.0   52 359            154               1062                  167  75 4.81                             245                                4.3HFC-152a/butane 1.0/99.0  21 145            65 448                  138  59 4.89                             103                                1.885.0/15.0  45 310            135               931                  162  72 4.87                             215                                3.899.0/1.0   51 352            153               1055                  168  76 4.82                             243                                4.3HFC-152a/cyclopropane 1.0/99.0  66 455            179               1234                  175  79 4.84                             290                                5.144.3/55.7  60 414            169               1165                  173  78 4.83                             272                                4.899.0/1.0   52 359            155               1069                  168  76 4.82                             246                                4.3HFC-161/propane 1.0/99.0  90 621            229               1579                  150  66 4.53                             334                                5.944.5/55.5  94 648            244               1682                  159  71 4.56                             361                                6.499.0/1.0   83 572            229               1579                  175  79 4.69                             356                                6.3HFC-161/cyclopropane 1.0/99.0  66 455            178               1227                  174  79 4.87                             289                                5.163.4/36.6  75 517            206               1420                  174  79 4.79                             328                                5.899.0/1.0   84 579            230               1586                  174  79 4.70                             357                                6.3HFC-227ca/butane 1.0/99.0  21 145            65 448                  137  58 4.89                             103                                1.884.4/15.6  34 234            103               710                  129  54 4.61                             149                                2.699.0/1.0   38 262            115               793                  127  53 4.45                             160                                2.8HFC-227ca/cyclopropane 1.0/99.0  66 455            177               1220                  174  79 4.88                             289                                5.155.8/44.2  76 524            202               1393                  154  68 4.65                             303                                5.399.0/1.0   40 276            124               855                  130  54 4.24                             164                                2.9HFC-227ca/DME 1.0/99.0  52 359            149               1027                  167  75 4.90                             242                                4.375.6/24.4  66 455            184               1267                  142  61 4.48                             260                                4.699.0/1.0   41 283            122               841                  128  53 4.49                             170                                3.0HFC-227ca/isobutane 1.0/99.0  31 214            90 621                  135  57 4.79                             138                                2.476.8/23.2  36 248            106               731                  130  54 4.61                             155                                2.799.0/1.0   38 262            115               793                  127  53 4.45                             160                                2.8HFC-227ca/propane 1.0/99.0  88 607            226               1558                  145  63 4.53                             326                                5.751.6/48.4  76 524            205               1413                  141  61 4.46                             288                                5.199.0/1.0   40 276            120               827                  127  53 4.47                             167                                2.9HFC-227ea/butane 1.0/99.0  21 145            65 448                  137  58 4.90                             103                                1.885.8/14.2  34 234            102               703                  129  54 4.60                             148                                2.699.0/1.0   37 255            113               779                  127  53 4.46                             157                                2.8HFC-227ea/cyclopropane 1.0/99.0  66 455            179               1234                  175  79 4.85                             291                                5.155.2/44.8  75 517            201               1386                  154  68 4.61                             300                                5.399.0/1.0   42 290            125               862                  128  53 4.45                             173                                3.0HFC-227ea/isobutane 1.0/99.0  31 214            89 614                  135  57 4.79                             138                                2.477.6/22.4  36 248            105               724                  130  54 4.60                             153                                2.799.0/1.0   38 262            113               779                  127  53 4.46                             157                                2.8HFC-227ea/propane 1.0/99.0  88 607            226               1558                  145  63 4.53                             326                                5.750.4/49.6  76 524            204               1407                  141  61 4.47                             288                                5.199.0/1.0   39 269            119               820                  129  54 4.35                             160                                2.8__________________________________________________________________________
EXAMPLE 5

This Example is directed to measurements of the vapor pressure of the following liquid mixtures of this invention at 25 HFC-32/isobutane; HFC-32/butane; HFC-32/propylene; HFC-125/propylene; HFC-143a/propylene; HFC-152a/propane; HFC-152a/isobutane; HFC-152a/butane; HFC-152a/cyclopropane; HFC-161/propane; HFC-161 /cyclopropane; HFC-227ca/butane; HFC-227ca/cyclopropane; HFC-227ca/DME; HFC-227ca/isobutane; HFC-227ca/propane; HFC-227ea/butane; HFC-227ea/cyclopropane; HFC-227ea/isobutane; and HFC-227ea/propane. The vapor pressures for these mixtures are shown in FIGS. 1-3, 5 and 9-24.

The vapor pressure data for the graph in FIG. 1 are obtained as follows. A stainless steel cylinder is evacuated, and a weighed amount of HFC-32 is added to the cylinder. The cylinder is cooled to reduce the vapor pressure of HFC-32, and then a weighed amount of isobutane is added to the cylinder. The cylinder is agitated to mix the HFC-32 and isobutane, and then the cylinder is placed in a constant temperature bath until the temperature comes to equilibrium, at which time the vapor pressure of the HFC-32 and isobutane in the cylinder is measured. This procedure is repeated at the same temperature with different weight percents of the components, and the results are plotted in FIG. 1.

Data are obtained in the same way for the mixtures plotted in FIGS. 2, 3, 5 and 9-24.

The data in FIGS. 1-3, 5 and 9-24 show that at 25 ranges of compositions that have vapor pressures higher than the vapor pressures of the pure components of the composition at that same temperature.

EXAMPLE 6

This Example is directed to the measurements of the vapor pressure of the following liquid mixtures of this invention: HFC-32/cyclopropane; HFC-125/cyclopropane; HFC-134/propane; and HFC-134a/cyclopropane. The vapor pressures of these mixtures were measured at particular compositions as shown by the asterisks in FIG. 4 and 6-8, and a best fit curve was drawn through the asterisks.

The procedure for measuring the vapor pressures for mixtures of HFC-32 and cyclopropane was as follows. A stainless steel cylinder was evacuated, and a weighed amount of HFC-32 was added to the cylinder. The cylinder was cooled to reduce the vapor pressure of HFC-32, and then a weighed amount of cyclopropane was added to the cylinder. The cylinder was agitated to mix the HFC-32 and cyclopropane, and then the cylinder was placed in a constant temperature bath until the temperature came to equilibrium at 0 cylinder was measured. This procedure was repeated for various mixtures of HFC-32 and cyclopropane as indicated in FIG. 4.

The data in FIG. 4 show that at 0 compositions that have vapor pressures higher than the vapor pressures of the pure components of the composition at that same temperature.

The procedure for measuring the vapor pressure of mixtures of HFC-32/cyclopropane was carried out in the same way for mixtures of HFC-125/cyclopropane, HFC-1 34/propane and HFC-1 34a/cyclopropane, except that the measurements of the vapor pressure of mixtures of HFC-134/propane were taken at 15 mixtures of HFC-134a/cyclopropane were taken at 0.01.degree. C.

ADDITIONAL COMPOUNDS

Other components, such as aliphatic hydrocarbons having a boiling point of -60 to +60 -60 to +60 between -60 to +60 between -60 to +60 point between -60 to +60 point of -60 to +60 between -60 to +60 can be added to the azeotropic or azeotrope-like compositions described above.

Additives such as lubricants, surfactants, corrosion inhibitors, stabilizers, dyes and other appropriate materials may be added to the novel compositions of the invention for a variety of purposes provides they do not have an adverse influence on the composition for its intended application. Preferred lubricants include esters having a molecular weight greater than 250.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is a graph of the vapor pressure of liquid mixtures of HFC-32 and isobutane at 25

FIG. 2 is a graph of the vapor pressure of liquid mixtures of HFC-32 and butane at 25

FIG. 3 is a graph of the vapor pressure of liquid mixtures of HFC-32 and propylene at 25

FIG. 4 is a graph of the vapor pressure of liquid mixtures of HFC-32 and cyclopropane at 0

FIG. 5 is a graph of the vapor pressure of liquid mixtures of HFC-125 and propylene at 25

FIG. 6 is a graph of the vapor pressure of liquid mixtures of HFC-125 and cyclopropane at 0

FIG. 7 is a graph of the vapor pressure of liquid mixtures of HFC-134 and propane at 15

FIG. 8 is a graph of the vapor pressure of liquid mixtures of HFC-134a and cyclopropane at 0.01.degree. C.;

FIG. 9 is a graph of the vapor pressure of liquid mixtures of HFC-143a and propylene at 25

FIG. 10 is a graph of the vapor pressure of liquid mixtures of HFC-152a and propane at 25

FIG. 11 is a graph of the vapor pressure of liquid mixtures of HFC-152a and isobutane at 25

FIG. 12 is a graph of the vapor pressure of liquid mixtures of HFC-152a and butane at 25

FIG. 13 is a graph of the vapor pressure of liquid mixtures of HFC-152a and cyclopropane at 25

FIG. 14 is a graph of the vapor pressure of liquid mixtures of HFC-161 and propane at 25

FIG. 15 is a graph of the vapor pressure of liquid mixtures of HFC-161 and cyclopropane at 25

FIG. 16 is a graph of the vapor pressure of liquid mixtures of HFC-227ca and butane at 25

FIG. 17 is a graph of the vapor pressure of liquid mixtures of HFC-227ca and cyclopropane at 25

FIG. 18 is a graph of the vapor pressure of liquid mixtures of HFC-227ca and DME at 25

FIG. 19 is a graph of the vapor pressure of liquid mixtures of HFC-227ca and isobutane at 25

FIG. 20 is a graph of the vapor pressure of liquid mixtures of HFC-227ca and propane at 25

FIG. 21 is a graph of the vapor pressure of liquid mixtures of HFC-227ea and butane at 25

FIG. 22 is a graph of the vapor pressure of liquid mixtures of HFC-227ea and cyclopropane at 25

FIG. 23 is a graph of the vapor pressure of liquid mixtures of HFC-227ea and isobutane at 25

FIG. 24 is a graph of the vapor pressure of liquid mixtures of HFC-227ea and propane at 25

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

This invention relates to refrigerant compositions that include a hydrofluorocarbon as a component. These compositions are also useful as cleaning agents, expansion agents for polyolefins and polyurethanes, aerosol propellants, refrigerants, heat transfer media, gaseous dielectrics, fire extinguishing agents, power cycle working fluids, polymerization media, particulate removal fluids, carrier fluids, buffing abrasive agents, and displacement drying agents.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Fluorinated hydrocarbons have many uses, one of which is as a refrigerant. Such refrigerants include dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12) and chlorodifluoromethane (HCFC-22).

In recent years it has been pointed out that certain kinds of fluorinated hydrocarbon refrigerants released into the atmosphere may adversely affect the stratospheric ozone layer. Although this proposition has not yet been completely established, there is a movement toward the control of the use and the production of certain chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) under an international agreement.

Accordingly, there is a demand for the development of refrigerants that have a lower ozone depletion potential than existing refrigerants while still achieving an acceptable performance in refrigeration applications. Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) have been suggested as replacements for CFCs and HCFCs since HFCs have no chlorine and therefore have zero ozone depletion potential.

In refrigeration applications, a refrigerant is often lost during operation through leaks in shaft seals, hose connections, soldered joints and broken lines. In addition, the refrigerant may be released to the atmosphere during maintenance procedures on refrigeration equipment. If the refrigerant is not a pure component or an azeotropic or azeotrope-like composition, the refrigerant composition may change when leaked or discharged to the atmosphere from the refrigeration equipment, which may cause the refrigerant to become flammable or to have poor refrigeration performance.

Accordingly, it is desirable to use as a refrigerant a single fluorinated hydrocarbon or an azeotropic or azeotrope-like composition that includes at least one fluorinated hydrocarbon.

Mixtures that include a fluorinated hydrocarbon may also be used as a cleaning agent or solvent to clean, for example, electronic circuit boards. It is desirable that the cleaning agents be azeotropic or azeotrope-like because in vapor degreasing operations the cleaning agent is generally redistilled and reused for final rinse cleaning.

Azeotropic or azeotrope-like compositions that include a fluorinated hydrocarbon are also useful as blowing agents in the manufacture of closed-cell polyurethane, phenolic and thermoplastic foams, as propellants in aerosols, as heat transfer media, gaseous dielectrics, fire extinguishing agents, power cycle working fluids such as for heat pumps, inert media for polymerization reactions, fluids for removing particulates from metal surfaces, as carrier fluids that may be used, for example, to place a fine film of lubricant on metal parts, as buffing abrasive agents to remove buffing abrasive compounds from polished surfaces such as metal, as displacement drying agents for removing water, such as from jewelry or metal parts, as resist developers in conventional circuit manufacturing techniques including chlorine-type developing agents, or as strippers for photoresists when used with, for example, a chlorohydrocarbon such as 1,1,1-trichloroethane or trichloroethylene.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to the discovery of refrigerant compositions of difluoromethane (HFC-32) and isobutane, butane, propylene or cyclopropane; pentafluoroethane (HFC-125) and propylene or cyclopropane; 1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134) and propane; 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a) and cyclopropane; 1,1,1-trifluoroethane (HFC-143a) and dimethyl ether (DME) or propylene; 1,1-difluoroethane (HFC-152a) and propane, isobutane, butane or cyclopropane; fluoroethane (HFC-161) and propane or cyclopropane; 1,1,1,2,2,3,3-heptafluoropropane (HFC-227ca) and butane, cyclopropane, DME, isobutane or propane; or 1,1,1,2,3,3,3-heptafluoropropane (HFC-227ea) and butane, cyclopropane, isobutane or propane. These compositions are also useful as cleaning agents, expansion agents for polyolefins and polyurethanes, aerosol propellants, heat transfer media, gaseous dielectrics, fire extinguishing agents, power cycle working fluids, polymerization media, particulate removal fluids, carrier fluids, buffing abrasive agents, and displacement drying agents.

Further, the invention relates to the discovery of binary azeotropic or azeotrope-like compositions comprising effective amounts of difluoromethane (HFC-32) and isobutane, butane, propylene or cyclopropane; pentafluoroethane (HFC-125) and propylene or cyclopropane; 1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134) and propane; 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a) and cyclopropane; 1,1,1-trifluoroethane (HFC-143a) and propylene; 1,1-difluoroethane (HFC-152a) and propane, isobutane, butane and cyclopropane; fluoroethane (HFC-161) and propane or cyclopropane; 1,1,1,2,2,3,3-heptafluoropropane (HFC-227ca) and butane, cyclopropane, DME, isobutane or propane; or 1,1,1,2,3,3,3-heptafluoropropane (HFC-227ea) and butane, cyclopropane, isobutane or propane to form an azeotropic or azeotrope-like composition.

This is a division of application Ser. No. 08/842,164, filed on Apr. 23, 1997, now U.S. Pat. No. 5,785,883, which is a divisional of Ser. No.08/435,108, filed on May 4, 1995, now U.S. Pat. No. 5,672,293, granted Sep. 30, 1997, which is a divisional of Ser. No. 08/208,777, filed on Mar. 11, 1994, now U.S. Pat. No. 5.417,871 granted May 23, 1995.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4174295 *Aug 9, 1977Nov 13, 1979Montedison S.P.A.Aerosol propellant compositions
US4482465 *Mar 7, 1983Nov 13, 1984Phillips Petroleum CompanyHydrocarbon-halocarbon refrigerant blends
US5492541 *Jan 5, 1990Feb 20, 1996Clairol IncorporatedDye compositions containing 5,6-dihydroxy indoles and a foam generator
US5538661 *Aug 3, 1994Jul 23, 1996Albemarle CorporationEster lubricants
US5601753 *Jun 17, 1996Feb 11, 1997Daikin Industries, Ltd.Blowing composition, method for producing foam using the composition and foam
US5624596 *May 8, 1995Apr 29, 1997E. I. Dupont De Nemours And CompanyComposition with pentafluoroethane, difuoromethane, and a C4-C9 hydrocarbon
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US6649079Sep 6, 2001Nov 18, 2003Acm TechComposition of refrigerant mixtures for low back pressure condition
US6846792Dec 20, 2002Jan 25, 2005E. I. Du Pont De Nemours And CompanyHydrofluorocarbon compositions
US7252779Aug 2, 2001Aug 7, 2007Mj Research Limited PartnershipTransesterification composition of fatty acid esters, and uses thereof
US7862739May 21, 2007Jan 4, 2011Nicholas CoxRefrigerant
US7968504Jun 25, 2007Jun 28, 2011MJ Research and Development, LPTransesterification composition of fatty acid esters, and uses thereof
US8029691Dec 14, 2010Oct 4, 2011Nicholas CoxRefrigerant
WO2002020689A1 *Sep 6, 2001Mar 14, 2002Acm TechThe composition of refrigerant mixtures for low back pressure condition
Classifications
U.S. Classification252/67, 510/408, 62/114
International ClassificationC08J9/14, C11D7/50, C09K5/04, C09K3/30
Cooperative ClassificationC09K5/045, C09K2205/11, C11D7/5068, C09K3/30, C08J9/149, C09K2205/32, C09K2205/12, C11D7/5072
European ClassificationC08J9/14P, C11D7/50D4B, C11D7/50D4, C09K5/04B4B, C09K3/30
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
May 18, 2011FPAYFee payment
Year of fee payment: 12
May 18, 2007FPAYFee payment
Year of fee payment: 8
May 20, 2003FPAYFee payment
Year of fee payment: 4