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Publication numberUS607792 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJul 19, 1898
Filing dateSep 22, 1897
Publication numberUS 607792 A, US 607792A, US-A-607792, US607792 A, US607792A
InventorsOswald E. Winger
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Oswald e
US 607792 A
Abstract  available in
Images(1)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

No. 607,792. Patented July l9, I898. 0. E. WINGER.

WINDOW PANE 0R LIGHT.

(Application filed Oct. 15 1897.)

(No Model.:

ZZWifW UNITED STATES PATENT ()EEnIE.

OS\VALI) E. \VINGER, OF CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, ASSIGNOR TO RALPH I). SMALL, OF SAME PLACE.

WINDOW PANE OR LIGHT.

SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 607,792, dated July 19, 1898.

Application filed October 15, 1897. Serial No. 655,341. (No model) To aZZ whom it may concern.- ing the manner in which the pencils of light Be it known that I, OS'WALD E. WINGER, a determine the form of the cavity. citizen of the United States, residing at Ohi- Like letters refer to like parts in the sevcago, in the county of Cook and State of Illieral figures. nois, have invented a certain new and useful As illustrated in Fig. 1, the pane a has a 5 5 Improvement in Window Panes or Lights, of light-receiving surface Z) and alight-dischargwhieh the following is a full, clear, concise, ing surface 0, arranged opposite and running and exact description, reference being had to substantiallyparallel with the light-receiving the accompanying drawings, forming a part surface. Within the pane, between the said to of this specification. substantially parallel surfaces a Z), are pro- 60 My invention relates to a window pane or vided a series of cavities (Z (Z d. The wall of light, my object being to provide an improved each cavity is constructed to constitute a reconstruction of pane or light for changing or fleeting-surface e, which acts to deflect the deflecting the direction of the light passing rays striking the same by reflection. Thus I 5 therethrough to thereby render the pane more the rays ff enter the receiving-surface of the 65 effective in illumination. pane, are refracted, strike the reflecting-sur- Myinvention relates toa window-pane havfaces 6 e, and are deflected, and in passing ing substantially parallel opposed faces on from the pane through the discharging-sun the receiving and discharging sides of the face are again refracted unless, as in the pres 2o pane and having formed in the interior of the out case, the rays pass through the discharg- 7o pane one or more cavities extending longituing-surface at right angles thereto. dinally into the pane between the substan- The cavities each has its wall so constructed tiallyparallelreceivingand dischargingfaces, as to also constitute a refractingsurface It, the walls of the cavity constituting light-dethrough which some of the rays pass and are 2 5 fleeting surfaces for changing the direction refracted, and also a refracting-surface 7t, 75 of the rays of light passing through the pane, through which the rays pass after traversing whereby the rays maybe directed into any dethe cavity, being again refracted. Thus the sired position. In practice I have usually rays Z Z enter the receiving-surface Z) of the formed the interior cavity so that the walls pane and are refracted, pass through the sur- 0 thereof constitute a reflecting-surface and enface It of the cavity,are again refracted, trav- 8o tering andleavingrefraeting-surfaces,andthe erse the cavity, pass through the surface 7- of presentinvention con'teinplatesthe formation the cavity, are again refracted, and finally of one or more of the deflecting-surfaces of pass through the discharging-surface of tho the cavity with a curved transverse dini'enpane, being again refracted. The deflection 5 sion, whereby the deflected rays are caused to of the rays Z Z is thus accomplished wholly by 8 5 diverge or converge as desired to direct the refraction. I have termed the surface 171. the same into proper paths, as will be more fully entering light refracting surface of the described hereinafter. cavity and the surface 7; the leaving light I have illustrated my invention, in connecrefracting surface of the cavity and will 0 tion with a number of modifications thereof, hereinafter refer to the same by these terms. 0 in the accompanying drawings, in which-- The lower surfaces m a of the cavity are Figure l is a face View thereof. Fig. 2 is a preferably not light-deflectin g surfaces and view showing the reflecting-surface curved. may have any desired position, though pref- Fig. 3 is a view showing the leaving-surface crably so arranged as not to conflict with the 5 of the cavity curved. Fig. 4 is aview showlight-rays reflected from the reflecting-sun 5 ing the reflecting-surface and the leaving reface of the cavity just beneath, as will be f ractin g-surface of the cavity curved. Fig. more particularly set forth hereinafter. 5 is a view showing the reflecting-surface and In Fig. 2 the reflecting-surface e is illusthe entering and leaving refracting-surfaces trated as curved, whereby the parallel rays 50 of the cavity curved. Fig. 6 is a view showentering the pane are caused. to diverge after ioo leaving the pane. The refracting-surfaces h and 7c are shown as plane.

In Fig. 3 the leaving-surface it of the cavity is illustrated as curved, while the entering-surface h and the reflecting-surface e are plane. Parallel rays pass through the receiving-surface Z) and the entering-surface 72 without diffusion and are diffused by the nonplanular surface In Fig. 4 the reflecting-surface e and the leaving refracting-surface 7.2 are curved,while the entering refracting-surface is plane.

In Fig. 5 all of the deflecting-surfaces are curvedthat is, the reflecting-surface e, the entering-surface of the cavity h, and the leaving-surface of the cavity 70 are curved. By this construct-ion each of the deflectingsurfaces serves to diffuse the light-rays.

When it is'desired to cause the rays acted upon by one of the deflecting-surfaces to diverge or converge, the transverse dimension of the deflecting-surface is curved-t-hat is, the dimension of the deflecting-surface which lies in the plane which includes the deflected ray before and after deflection is curved whereby the angle of deflection will vary throughout the width or transverse dimension of the deflecting-surface. As shown in the drawings, one or more of the deflectingsurfaces may be curved, as desired.

In Fig. 6 I have illustrated the light as entering and passing through the pane in penoils and have shown how the pencils determine the form of the cavity. In the present instance the lowermost ray of the pencil enters the pane at an angle of seventy degrees. The panes are preferably designed for the particular conditions of use, and the principal element in this consileration is the nature of the pencil of light as determined by surrounding objects or buildings which intercept light which would otherwise pass through the pane. Thus in cities, and particularly in the business districts, the lowermost ray of the pencil will be determined by the height of the building across the way. The angle which the lowermost ray passing over the opposite building makes with the pane is the angle which in practice I preferably employ as defining the lowermost ray of the pencil of light which I employ in designing the cavities in the pane. For the purpose of illustration I have chosen this angle as seventy degrees. The pencil of light 0 is shown as entering the pane, being refracted into the pencil 0, striking the reflecting-surface c and being reflected into the pencil 0 and then passing from the pane, being refracted into the pencil 0 The portion of the pencil striking the retracting-surface h is refracted into the pencil 0 and in passing the retractingsurface k is refracted into the pencil o and, finally, into the pencil 0. The uppermost ray of the pencil 0 determines the preferable position for the reflecting-surface, which should be so situated that the uppermost ray of this pencil 0 will not strike the reflecting-surface, but will pass through the refracting-surface 7c. The pencil of light 1) is refracted into the pencil p, passes through the retracting-surface h, is refracted into the pencil p thence into the pencil 19 and finally into the pencil 19 The portion of the pencil passing just below the end of the refracting-surface h, forming the pencil p strikes the reflectingsurface e of the next cavity below, is reflected into the pencil 19, and then refracted into the pencil 19 The lower surface m should coincide with the uppermost ray of the pencil p in order that interference may not result. The extreme upper ray of the pencil p determines the position of the lower surface on of the cavity. The pencil r refracts into the pencil 1', which strikes the extreme rightward end of the reflecting-surface e, andis reflected into the pencil which is finally refracted into the pencil T The uppermost ray of the pencil '1" determines the position of the surface a of the cavity. The entering-surface h and the leaving-surface 7c of the cavity may occupy such angular positions relatively as to direct the rays at the desired angle. The lower end of the leaving-surface 7c should be located at the intersection of the uppermost ray of the pencil r and the lowermost ray of the pencil p".

In practice I preferably form the window light or pane of a number of small panes or lights 0 1/12 secured together at the edges by any preferred form of framework, Fig. 1. These smaller panes are each preferably formed in a single and integral piece and are molded of glass, having the interior cavity or cavities extending longitudinally through the pane. These lengthwise cavities may be open at one end, as shown in the pane e, or open at both ends, as shown in pane v, or sealed atboth ends,as shown in pane v The receiving and discharging surfaces of the pane are illus trated herein as plane surfaces; but they may have other form, as desired, without departing from my invention.

Having described my invention, what I claim as new, and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is v 1. As a new article of manufacture, a pane formed of a single and integral piece of transparent material, as glass, having formed therein and inclosed between the light-receiving and light-discharging surfaces one or more interior cavities, the walls of which are constructed to form curved light-reflecting and curved entering and leaving light-re fracting surfaces, substantially as described.

2. A pane formed of a single and integral piece of glass having opposed and substantially parallel light-receiving and light-discharging surfaces and having formed therein an interior cavity extending longitudinally into the pane between said substantially parallel receiving and discharging surfaces, said cavity having a wall constituting a light-defleeting surface and havingits transverse disaid surfaces with a cavity having walls eonniension curved, substantially as described. stituting entering and leaving light-refract- 3. A pane formed of a single and integral ing surfaces, one of said surfaces being piece ofglasshavinglight-receivingand lightcurved, substantially as described. I 5 5 dischargingsurfaeesand forinedbetweensaid In witness whereof I have hereunto subsurfaces with acavity, having walls constitutscribed my name in the presence of two witin g curved entering and leaving light-refractnesses.

ing surfaces, substantially as described. OSVALD E. \VINGER.

4:. A pane formed of a single and integral \Vitnesscs: 10 piece of glasshavinglight-receivingandlight- XV. CLYDE JONEs,

discharging surfaces and formed between R. S. LUDINGTON Correction in Letters Patent No.

Letters Paten t No. 607,79

the application of Oswald E. W'inger, of Chicago, Illinois,

indow Panes or correction and sealed this lltl [snAn] Oountersigned O. H. DUELL,

Commissioner of Patents.

, as follows: After line 38, page 1, the following 22, 1897, Serial 1V0. 652,5

the pane shown her 73, and

, granted July 19, 1898, upon for an improvement in r appears in the printed specification requiring paragraph should be inserted also in an application illustrated and described window panes of ein, and I hereby reserve for said applications 1 day of October, A. D., 1898.

First Assistant AS THUS. RYAN, 'eeretary of the Interior.

Correction in Letters Patent No. 607,792.

[SEAL] THOS. RYAN,

First Assistant Secretary of the Intem'or. Countersigned O. H. DUELL,

Commissionea" of Patents.

Referenced by
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US4557565 *Apr 3, 1984Dec 10, 1985Unisearch LimitedBeam sunlighting device for building interiors
US5295051 *Sep 7, 1990Mar 15, 1994Queensland University Of TechnologyIlluminating apparatus
US6356391Oct 8, 1999Mar 12, 20023M Innovative Properties CompanyOptical film with variable angle prisms
US6447135Oct 8, 1999Sep 10, 20023M Innovative Properties CompanyLightguide having a directly secured reflector and method of making the same
US6560026Jan 16, 2002May 6, 2003Mark E. GardinerOptical film with variable angle prisms
US6707611Jan 29, 2003Mar 16, 20043M Innovative Properties CompanyOptical film with variable angle prisms
US6845212Oct 8, 1999Jan 18, 20053M Innovative Properties CompanyOptical element having programmed optical structures
US7046905Jul 11, 2000May 16, 20063M Innovative Properties CompanyBlacklight with structured surfaces
US7221847Aug 3, 2004May 22, 20073M Innovative Properties CompanyOptical elements having programmed optical structures
US7873256Sep 14, 2005Jan 18, 20113M Innovative Properties CompanyBacklight with structured surfaces
US8588574Oct 30, 2007Nov 19, 20133M Innovative Properties CompanyBacklight with structured surfaces
US20050001043 *Aug 3, 2004Jan 6, 20053M Innovative Properties CompanyOptical elements having programmed optical structures
US20060051048 *Sep 14, 2005Mar 9, 2006Gardiner Mark EBacklight with structured surfaces
US20080050088 *Oct 30, 2007Feb 28, 20083M Innovative Properties CompanyBacklight with structured surfaces
Classifications
Cooperative ClassificationF21S11/00