Sprinkler-head for automatic
US 608677 A
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No. 608,677. Patented Aug. 9, I898. G. E. HIBBARD.
SPRINKLER HEAD FDR AUTOMATIC FIRE EXTINGUISHERS.
(Application filed. Oct. 21, 1895.)
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GEORGE E. HIBBARD, OF CHICAGO, ILLINOIS.
SPRINKLER-HEAD FOR FlRE EXTINGUISHERS.
srncIFIoA'rIon forming part f Letters rare t No. 608,677; 'dated August 9, 1898. application moms. 21, 1895. Serial to. 565,310. (No niodeL) To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, GEORGE E. 'HIBBARD,a
citizen of the United States, residing at Chi".
cago, in the county of Cook and State of Illinois, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Sprinkler-Heads for Auto'- matic Fire-Extinguishers, of which the following is a specification.
The present invention relates to that class of sprinkler-heads that are controlled by a thermostatic element, by which is meant an element comprising two bodies of different expansibility so related to each other that the one of less expansibility acts as a resistance for the one of greater expansibility, the latter being so arranged with relation to some other part of the device that when it expands to a certain predetermined extent it will bring about such an alteration in the relations of the parts that the system is opened. Accord in g to the present invention the thermostatic element is preferably so arranged that it performs the single function of releasing the closure; but the generic features of the invention are not limited in this-respect, but, on the con trary, they include such an arrangement of the thermostatic element that in addition to serving as a releasing device it assists in holding the closure in place. In either case its expansion will establish the condition'necessary to open the system.
The invention consists inthe features of novelty that are particularly pointed out in the claims hereinafter, and in order that it may be fully understood 1 will describe it with reference to the accompanying drawings, which are made a part hereof, and in which- Figure 1 is a sectional elevation of a sprinkler-head embodying the invention in its pre ferred form. Fig. 2 is a sectional elevation of a portion thereof viewed in the direction of the arrow, Fig. 1. Fig. 3 is an under side View of the improved deflector. Fig. 4 is a sectional elevation of a portion of a sprinklerhead differing somewhat from the one shown in Fig. 2,but embodying the principal features of the invention so far as it relates to the use of a thermostatic element. Fig. 5 is an elevation of a strut diifering in construction from those shown in Figs. 1 and 4, but capable of use in a sprinkler-head embodying the invention.
A represents the discharge-nozzle ;-B,a-yoke,
- which may be of any desired construction; 0, the cap for closing the nozzle; D E, a two-part strut bearing at oneend upon the cap and at the otherend uponthescrew F, by which the strut is put under pressure, and G is the deflector. l
Secured to the yoke B, is a hollow truncated cone G, which acts as a base or foundation for supporting and holding in place the thermostatic element H. As shown in the draw- I ings, this element is in the. form of a coil that is firmly anchored and is so related to the strut thatwhen subjected to a predetermined degree of heat it either exerts an undue pressure upon the strut, and thus displaces it, (see 1 Figs. 1 and 5,) or else it releases its restraint uponthestrut and permitsit to be displaced. (See. Fig. 4.) As shown in Fig. 1, the part D of the strut has an arm (1, that bears against the yoke, whereby the strut is prevented from buckling in'one direction, its buckling in, the other direction being prevented by the fact that the point'of contact between the two parts of thestrut is upon; that side of the central line of force passing through the strut toward which the strut tends to buckle. This arm is arranged opposite the end of the thermostatic element, but normally they do not have contact, because since the temperature of the atmosphere surrounding the head is constantly changing it follows that the length of the thermostatic element is constantly changing, and if it were normally in contact with the strut the position of the-latter would be constantly changing also. i
. I do not desire to be understood as intimating that a constant contact between the strut and thethermostaticYelement would be fatal to the 1 operation 'of. the device, for it would n0t,'and I have shown in the drawings and will presently describe a head having this arrangement. It is not preferred, however, because it necessitates great nicety in constructing, proportioning, and adjusting the parts and care must 'be taken in the choice of the materials of which the thermostatic element is made up, to the end that the differential in the expansion shall be just exactly what is required, no more and "no less. 1 I prefer to so arrange the parts that normallythe thermostatic element is out of contact with the strut or equivalent part, as shown in Figs. 1 and 5, and comes in contact with it only when a temperature, say, of 100 Fahrenheit is reached, and I prefer to have the differential in the expansion and the construction and arrangement of the parts such that an increase of or after the 100 Fahrenheit is reached will cause the head to open. IVith such an arrangement the expansion and contraction of the thermostatic element in temperatures below 100 Fahrenheit can take place without disturbing the conditions that make the closing of the system a certainty. In order to enable the adjustment of the thermostatic element so that it will come in contact with the strut at any given temperature, it is provided at its end with the adjustable plug h. The position of the arm (I with relation to the end of the thermostatic element beingknown, place the head, minus the strut, in water the temperature of which is that at which it is desired the thermostatic element shall come in contact with said arm. Then after the expansion under this temperature is complete adjust the screw-plug so that its end will be where it is known that the end of the arm d will be when in place.
If the strut be constructed, as shown in Fig. 5, of two parts D and E having bearingpoints upon opposite sides of the line of force passing through the strut, its parts will need no lateral bracing, such as is given the strut shown in Fig. 1 by the arm d. They will be self-sustaining and capable of sustaining great endwise pressure, and at the same time the two bearing-points maybe located so close to the central line of force and the thermostatic element may be so arranged with relation to them that when it expands it will exert against them sufiicient pressure to displace them.
\Vith the arrangements shown in Figs. 1 and 5 the thermostatic element serves as a releasing device pure and simple; but as shown in Fig 4, in addition to serving as a releasing device, it assists in holding the closure in place.
The member D of the strut is substantially the same as the corresponding member of the strut shown in Fig. 1, and the memberE' is similar in construction to the member D, and the two members are held normally in place by the tensile strength of a wire I, one end of which is securely anchored to the thermostatic element II and the other end of which has a cross-head e, that rests upon the extremities of the arms d e of the two parts of the strut. By increasing the tension upon the wire the point of contact between the two parts of the strut will be brought nearer the line of force passing through the strut, and the two parts will act as a toggle and hold the cap 0 upon its seat, and, on the other hand, by decreasing the tension the two parts of the strut are permitted to move in the direction of the arrow, and when they shall have moved in this direction far enough to disengage the arms d e from the cross-piece eor permit them to disengage the two parts of the strut will fall apart and permit the cap to be dislodged.
As shown in the drawings, the thermostatic element consists of a tube h, of metal, preferably aluminium-bronze, within which is a core h, preferably of vulcanite; but I desire to have it understood that anyother two materials that will produce the desired result may be used. As shown in the drawings, the tube h has one of its ends screwed into the yoke B, as shown at b,so that the tube itself is incapable of moving in the direction of its eonvolutions, and its other end is passed through a perforated lug or ear g on the base G. The tube may or may not be secured in this lug so as to be incapable of movement, or, if desired, it may be secured here and left free at the point I), the requirements of the device being met by simply anchoring it securely at one point or another. This thermostatic element is coiled around the outside of the frusto-conical base G, and near one of its ends it is curved abruptly, as shown at H, in order to lead its end into the yoke B and in position to engage the strut. At the other end of the thermal element the core and the surrounding tube are permanently and immovably secured, so that it is impossible for the core to move relatively to the tube, and, if desired, in order to insure this the end of the tube may be closed up. A core made wholly of vulcanite will give satisfactory results; but in order to increase its strength (especially where it is to be used as shown in Fig. 4;) I prefer to mold it around a coil h2 of wire, preferably copper. In constructing this element the core is inserted in the tube while both are straight. The end of the tube is then screwed into the yoke, and the element is then coiled around the frustoconical base G, and then its end inserted in the perforation of the lug g. In operation both the tube and the core will expand under the influence ofheat; but the core being of a material which expands more readily and to a greater extent than the tube it will creep within the tube, so that when'arranged as shown in Figs. 1 and 5 the plug h is forced against the strut with sufficient force to buckle it, and when arranged as shown in Fig. 4 the tension on the wire I decreases and permits the strut to buckle.
The working surface of the cap 0 is spherical, so that the cap may be rocked or slipped without moving its working surface away from its seat. The cap is provided in its top with a socket in which the lower end of the part D of the strut fits, so that the cap must partake of the lateral movements of said part, and in this way as the head is firing any possible corrosion is broken away and the head left free to be dislodged.
Secured to the top side of the cap is a spring 0, constructed in the form of a diaphragm having concentric corrugations. This spring has a central opening through which the reduced end of the strutpasses, and the spring bears against the shoulder resulting from this reduced end, so that when the strut buckles the spring in resuming its normal position (indicated by dotted lines) will give the part D of the strut a slip and insure its perfect dislodgment, the reaction of the spring serving also to dislodge the cap.
The novel features of the deflector D are its cup shape, its wings g, arranged within the cup so as to chord the periphery thereof, said wings extending below the bottom thereof, and openings g, located adjacent to the wings, which openings when viewed in the direction of the arrow as are elliptical in shape and are located in the downturned flange of the cup.
Having thus described my invention, the following is what I claim as new therein and desire to secure by Letters Patent:
1. In a sprinkler head the combination with the closure and means including a strut for holding it in normal position, of a releasing device consisting of a thermostatic ele-' ment made of materials of different expansibility, said element being so arranged with relation to the strut that when subjected to a predetermined degree of heat its expansion causes the displacement of the strut, substantially as set forth.
2. In a sprinkler head the combination with the closure, of a releasing device consisting of a thermostatic element made of a tube and a core fitting within the tube and having embedded in it a coil of wire, the tube and core being of materials of different eX- pansibility and so arranged with relation to the other parts that when subjected to apredetermined degree of heat their differential expansion will cause the closure to be released, substantially as set forth.
3. In a sprinkler head the combination with the closure and means by which it is held normally closed, of a releasing device consisting of a thermostatic element made of a tube and a core within the tube, the tube and core being of materials of different expansibility, and means for anchoring the tube, the thermostatic element being coiled and having one of its ends arranged in operative proximity to the holding means aforesaid, substantially as set forth.
4. In a sprinkler head the combination with the closure and means for holding it normally closed, of a releasing device consisting of a thermostatic element made of a tube and a core within the tube, the tube and core being of materials of different expansibility, means for anchoring the tube and an adjustable plug arranged in the tube at the end of the core and in operative proximity to the holding means aforesaid, substantially as set forth.
5. In a sprinkler-head, the combination of a nozzle, a cap closing it, a strut engaging the cap, and a diaphragm engaging the cap and strut, the diaphragm being provided with an opening through which the strut engages the cap, substantially as set forth.
6. In a sprinkler-head the combination of a nozzle, a cap having a socket, a strut having a reduced end fitted in said socket, and a diaphragm secured to the cap and having a perforation through which the strut passes, said diaphragm having concentric corrugations and arranged to bear against the shoulder resulting from the reduced end of the strut, substantially as set forth.
GEORGE E. IIIBBARD. W itnesscs L. M. HOPKINS, S. E. SHARON.