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Publication numberUS613864 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateNov 8, 1898
Filing dateDec 17, 1896
Publication numberUS 613864 A, US 613864A, US-A-613864, US613864 A, US613864A
InventorsDaniel Mcfarlan Moore
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
US 613864 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
Next page
Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

No. 613,864. Patented Nov. 8, I898. D. MCF. MOORE.


(Application filed Dec. 17, 1896.) (No Model.) 4 Sheets-$heet I.

lllllllilllllllllll INVENTOR. WITNESSES firwaiifim M.


No. 6l3,864. Patented Nov. 8, I898. D. McF. MOORE.


(Application filed. Dec. 17, 1896.) (No Model.) 4 Sheets-Sheet 2.

Patented Nov. 8, I898.



(Application filed Dec. 17, 189 6.)

4 sums-sheet 3.

(No Model.)


m: Noam: Pawns c0. PHDIO-LIYHQ, WASHINGTON u. c.


(Application filed Dec. 17, 1896.)

4 Sheets-Sheet 4.

(No Model.)








SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 613,864, dated November 8, 1898.

Application filed December 17,1896. Serial No. 615,970- (No model.)

T at whom it may concern:

Be it known that I, DANIEL MCFARLAN MOORE, a citizen of the United States, and a resident of Newark, in the county of Essex and State of New Jersey, have invented a certain new and useful Improvement in Phosphorescent Electric Lighting, of which the following is a specification.

This invention relates to apparatus de- I o signed for generating electric energy by rapid and repeated interruptions of acircuit of induction, the discharges of which at each interruption of circuit are delivered into another circuit or conductor for operation di- I 5 rectly or indirectly upon any desired appara tus-as, for instance, vacuum-tubes or other devices adapted to produce light by glow or phosphorescence.

The primary object of the invention is to :0 improve the construction and operation of interrupters or contact makers and breakers which work in a vacuum, and especially those of a rotary character, in respect to the means of producing rotation of the parts contained 2 5 in the vacuum by parts located mainly outside the vacuum, in which class of devices the aim is to reduce as far as possible the amount of material Within the inclosure and liable through giving off occluded gases to impair the vacuum.

The invention relates, among other things, to the means for giving rotation to the interrupter or contact maker and breaker, to the manner of constructing the devices within 5 the inclosure and mounting them so that they shall not get out of alinement, to the partic ular material employed within the vacuum for the purpose of avoiding difficulty from the presence of occluded gases, to the means 0 for securing good and uniform contact in the rotary parts of the interrupter, and to other features of construction and details, which will hereinafter be described.

' One of the special objects of the invention is to produce an electromagnetic motor which shall operate by the simple make and break of the circuit of an electromagnet or of a number of electromagnets simultaneously operating upon a series of armatures in succession and which shall at the same time be self-start- 5o ing or have practically no dead-points. By means of such a motor a rotary interrupter may be operated in a vacuum by means of an electromagnet exterior to the exhausted receptacle and in the circuit of said interrupter and without the employment of any supplementary starting device for giving the contained rotary structure a starting momentum. This is accomplished by means of an exterior magnet having a constant action but so located as to operate upon the contained armature structure at the times the circuit of the first-named magnet is interrupted, and to thereby pull the armature structure past the dead-point.

Another object of the invention is to secure a uniform and smooth action of the interrupter and by proper organization and improvement of the same and of its circuits to secure a proper supply of energy to permit the running of a number of vacuum-tubes in multiple off the same wires in the same way as in incandescent electric lighting, thus producing a commercially-operative system of vacuum-tube lighting.

The invention consists in the features of construction and the various details and combinations of devices hereinafter set forth and then specified in the claims.

In the accompanying drawings, forming a part of this specification, Figure 1 is a side view, partially in section, showing a form of circuit-interrupter embodying the invention. Fig. 2 is a diagrammatic view of the system, with the interrupter shown in vertical section. 8 5 Fig. 3 shows a modification of the interrupter device itself. Fig. 4 illustrates another modification of the same. Fig. 5 is a perspective view of the frame upon which are mounted the circuit-interrupting parts. Fig. 6 is a diagrammatic representation of a modified form of device for rotating the interrupter. Fig.

7 shows a modification of the contact maker and breaker for the same. Fig. 8 is a diagrammatic representation of a modified form of interrupter and system.

The interrupter comprises as to working parts a contact maker and breaker located in an exhausted receiver, preferably of glass, and acting to alternately make and break the circuit of induction through the operation of a continuously-revolving rotating device within said receiver. These parts may be of any suitable material and constructed in various forms. The rotary part is preferably operated by any suitable means exterior to the air-tight chamber. It is desirable that as high a vacuum as possible shall be produced and maintained in the air-tight chamber or receiver, and for this reason it is necessary that the parts located within the chamber shall contain a minimum amount of occluded gases. It is also essential that these parts shall be made of material such that in forming the chamber about them, which chamber is by preference made of glass, they will not crack the chamber; also, that in heating the chamber during the operation of exhausting it said parts will not become destroyed or by their expansion break the chamber.

Glass has been found to be the best material for making the air-tight chamber or receiver, and in the drawings A represents such chamber.

Aluminium, whose coeffecient of expansion closely approximates that of glass, has been found to be the best adapted for the construction of the framework or the support of the contained parts. This metal is also well adapted for this purpose because it contains a very small amount of occluded gases. One form of aluminium frame that may be used consists of the plates B and C, which are preferably joined together by rods connected to their edges, which rods consist of an outer strip D of aluminium, faced by a reinforcingstrip of iron E, the two strips being riveted together, as indicated. The iron prevents the collapse of the aluminium strips during the heating of the apparatus.

In the center of the lower plate 0 is mounted a jeweled bearing F, which receives the lower end of the shaft G, the upper end of which is journaled in a bearing H, mounted in the center of the plate B, which bearing gives lateral support to the shaft, while allowing vertical play therein. Upon the shaft Gis mounted the break-wheel I. This wheel is engaged by one or more brushes J, preferably spring-brushes, which are pivoted upon conducting-studs K, secured in insulatingblocks of porcelain or similar vitreous material L, which are mounted upon the plate B. I find by test that porcelain gives excellent results, not attainable by the use of many insulating materials, owing to its apparent freedom from occluded gases. Also upon the shaft G are mounted armatures M,which may be of any number desired. I find Swedish iron to be the best suited for these armatures and for such other parts within the vacuous space as it is necessary to make from magnetic material, since it contains a very small amount of occluded gases and readily gives them up.

To insure a constant pressure between the brushes and the break-wheel, the former are provided upon their outer ends with armatures N, which lie within the field of the magnet, such as 0, located outside of the vacuous receptacle, and which is preferably adapt ed to vary the pressure of said brushes.

In constructing the apparatus the working parts are properly assembled and alined upon the stiif metal framework, and the frame and working parts are then given to the glassblower, who places them within the glass i11- closure as a whole and fixes the frame in any desired position therein. This he may do by forcing the walls of the glass receptacle in, after softening by heat, at points to form lugs above and below the frame, as shown, thus anchoring it in place. By this con struction and operation absolute alinement of the working parts may be secured and will be maintained without impairment from the operation of completing the apparatus by sealing and exhausting the receiver. In this respect there is a great advantage oversealed rotary interrupter-s which have their Various parts supported separately by various parts of the glass walls of the receiver or by glass projections within the same and properly located to permit the parts to be assembled in proper relative position after their introduction separately into the receiver. By the improved construction described absolute alinement is secured and maintained, and the bearings are not liable to bind by expansion or contraction, results notattainable by the other method referred to.

The rotation of the wheel I may be produced in various ways. In Figs. 1 and 2 the receptacle A is shown as held stationary by any suitable clamp, portions of which are indicated at P, and magnets in whose field lie the armatures M are mounted to rotate about said receptacle. These magnets (illustrated at Q) maybe, as shown in Fig. 1, mounted in pairs upon the rotary frame It, which has thereon a pulley S for connecting the frame to any suitable rotating mechanism. The magnetcores are secured to the iron ring or yoke-piece R. Brushes, as T, convey current to suitable rings upon the frame R, which are connected by suitable conductors to the magnets Q. By mounting the magnets Qin pairs, as indicated, and making their poles north and south, as indicated by the letters as, each of the armatures will lie within the magnetic circuit from one magnet-pole to the other,

tion of the circuit-breakin g wheel the brushes bearing thereon are bound to wear away; but by employing the magnets O and using ornot in connection therewith some means for regulating the pull of the magnets upon the armatures N the brushes may be made to bear evenly and with a uniform pressure upon the break-wheel. In Fig. 2 one of these magnets is shown as having a resistance-box in its circuit, as at U, for regulating the attraction of said magnet, while the other magnet is provided with a movable core V for regulating the action thereof upon its respective brush. Other insulating material may be used in the place of the porcelain L; but porcelain or other vitreous substance is preferred because of the small amount of occluded gases contained therein.

Instead of using a contact wheel and brushes for the contact maker and breaker in the circuit of self-induction it is preferable to use a reciprocating contact maker and breaker and a spur-wheel operating mechanically upon the same, as indicated in Fig. 3, where a contact-lever is shown arranged to reciprocate to and from the contact-points L both said parts being mounted,as before,upon the stationary frame, but insulated from one another. The toothed or spur wheel 1 engages the end of lever J to first withdraw it from contact L thus breaking circuit, and then releases it, so that it may reengage and close circuit, being forced against said contact L by a spring or by the magnet.

In Fig. 4 the contact-arm is made like a spring, the bias of the spring being in a direction to close the circuit. An elbow-lever K actuated by the magnet 0 outside the vacuum, assists the spring or assures the closing of circuit in case the spring fails. By this construction of circuit-interrupter, Figs. 8 and 4, very certain and uniform results can be obtained.

In Fig. 2 the system diagrammatically represented derives its current from a generator represented at W, whence the circuit passes through self-induction coils X X, located in the respective branches of the circuit, and through the brushes and break-wheel when the circuit is completed at that point. When the circuit is broken at the break-wheel, then the energy resulting from the break of the circuit of self-induction discharges itself into the circuit which feeds the vacuum-tubes Y,

" shown located in multiple across the circuit.

Another means of rotating the break-wheel is illustrated in Fig. 6, wherein the receptacle A is fixed as above described and one or more constantly-energized magnets Q are located in fixed position at the side of said receptacle and one or more variably or intermittently energized magnets Q are located in a fixed position at the side of receptacle A and angularly removed from magnet Q to such an extent that said two magnets shall act upon the armatures M in a manner to rotate them and the break-wheel I, mounted upon the same shaft with said armatures. Magnet Q is preferably of greater power than Q and is in circuit with a circuit-breaker car ried by the revolving member of the apparatus, whereby it may be intermittently enermagnet Q performs this dual oflice.

gized. The circuit-breaker may be, as shown, the one which breaks the circuit of induction or one in an independent circuit so formed and the brush J so located that the magnet Q shall be energized and deenergized at the proper intervals to attract the armatures M and lose its attraction therefor as said armatures pass the pole of the magnet, at which time a cooperating armature will have entered the field of the magnet Q and will be pulled around thereby, so as to move another armature into the field of Q, at which time the brush again closes the circuit. By making the magnet Q of greater power than the magnet Q it is only necessary that the magnetism of one of the magnets shall be varied, and as it is necessary to break the circuit of a magnet in order to develop the desired energy for operating the vacuum tubes the As will be seen, the magnet Q operates to pull the armature structure around past the deadpoints, where the magnet Q owing to the action of its circuit-breaker, is inactive.

As will be obvious, any number of magnets Q might be arranged in a circle to act on the armatures at the same time.

It will be observed that with the form of circuit-breaker shown in Fig. 6 the magnet Q has to do its greatest work in operating the device when the armature is farthest from the magnet, because at that time the forward edge or corner of a tooth on the wheel engages the spring J and operates at a mechanical disadvantage until the spring is fully lifted onto the curved exterior periphery of the tooth. The circuit-breaker of Figs. 3 or 4 may be advantageously used to overcome the difficulty, as indicated in Fig. 7. Here, as will be seen, the arm passes off instead of onto a tooth at the time the circuit is to be closedthat is, when the armature is far away from the magnet-poleand the mag net does the work of lifting the arm onto the tooth at the time when the armature is near the pole, and therefore is subjected to the strongest torque.

As shown in Fig. 8, the variable magnet operating in connection with magnet Q to rotate the circuit-breaking wheel may be in a circuit entirely independent of the lightingcircuit, such a magnet being shown at Q in the circuit whose source of energy is represented at W. In this instance the commutator or break-wheel I for the magnet Q is mounted upon the same shaft Gwith and insulated from break-wheel I for the circuit of self-induction. I11 this instance, as in the previous one, the magnet Q is constantly energized and the magnet Q is of greater power. Q simply performs the function of rotating the armature M, the self-induction in the lighting-circuit being furnished from coils X X in circuit with the break-wheel 1 In this construction the contacts of the interrupter are independent of those of the motor commutator. This allows for the use of a greater number of makes and breaks in the circuit of induction and produces a more efficient apparatus, since in practical operation the divisions of the break-wheel or commutator I in the motor-circuit are limited, while those of the break-wheel I in the inductioncircuit may be of a far greater number.

Many changes in the construction of parts and in their arrangement may be made without departing from my invention.

In Fig. 6 I show the interrupter constructed with contacts arranged to successively break the circuit of induction; but this arrangement I do not claim herein, as it forms the subject of claims in another application for patent filed by me April 15, 1898, Serial No. 677,706.

In Fig. 8 of the accompanying drawings I show the interrupter as organized to break the circuit of induction simultaneously at two points within the vacuum; but this arrangement or organization I do not herein claim, as it forms the subject of claims in said application for patent, Serial No. 677,706.

What I claim as my invention is 1. The combination with the vacuous receptacle, of a frame consisting of aluminium plates joined together by rods of aluminium, said frame being held in place by portions of the walls of the receptacle forced inward at the sides of said plates, a shaft journaled in bearings in this frame, a break-wheel on said shaft, a contact-brush bearing thereon, magnet-armatures also 011 said shaft, and means exterior to said receptacle for rotating said armature with a continuous motion.

2. The combination with the vacuous receptacle, of a frame consisting of aluminium plates joined together by rods of aluminium faced with iron, said frame being held in place by portions of the walls of the receptacle forced inward at the sides of said plates, and circuit-interrupting mechanism mounted in said frame.

3. The combination with the vacuous receptacle and the frame mounted therein, of a jeweled stepbearing in the lower end of said frame, a rotary shaft mounted in said bearing, and a bearing in the upper end of the frame constructed to support said shaft laterally while allowing a vertical movement thereof, a break-wheel mounted on said shaft, a brush bearing upon said break-wheel, and means for rotating said shaft.

4. The combination with the vacuous receptacle, of the metallic frame mounted therein, a break-wheel mounted to rotate in said frame, plates of vitreous material mounted upon said frame, brushes pivoted on studs fixed in said vitreous plates, and means for regulating the pressure of said brushes upon the breakwheel.

5. The combination with a vacuous chamher and a rotary break-wheel therein, of a brush bearing on said wheel, and a magnet whose power is independent of the variations in the circuit of the break-wheel located out- 4 eiasei side of said chamber and in position to main tain the pressure between the brush and wheel.

6. The combination with a vacuu1n-chamber, of the rotary break-wheel located therein, a pivoted brush bearing on the break-wheel and having an armature secured to its free end, and a magnet outside of said chamber for attracting said armature to maintain the brush in engagement wit-h the wheel.

7. The combination with a sealed chamber, of a rotary break-wheel located therein, a brush bearing thereon and carrying an armature, a magnet acting upon said armature, and means for regulating the attraction of the magnet to control the pressure of the brush upon the break-wheel.

8. The combination of a break-wheel and contact-brush mounted within an inclosure, and magnetic means exterior thereto for producing continuous uniform pressure between the brush and wheel.

9. The combination with a break-wheel and rotary armatures for operating the same, of a constantly-energized magnet operating upon said armatures, and a magnet with variable energy cooperating with the aforesaid magnet to rotate said armatures.

10. The combination with a rotary armature, an operating-magnet therefor, and a circuit-breaker adapted to cause an intermittent action of said magnet on the rotary structure, and a constantly-acting magnet for carrying the armatures past the dead-points.

11. The combination with a vacuous receptacle, of a circuit of induction, a rotary i11- terrupter in said circuit having contacts inclosed in said receptacle, and a rotary magnetic motor having a commutator inclosed in said receptacle and independent of said interrupter, the magnets of the motor being located exterior to said receptacle, as and for the purpose described.

12. The combination with a rotary structure in a sealed receptacle, of a series of armatures therefor, a magnet or magnets exterior to the receptacle, acting on said armatures and in the circuit of a rotary interrupter within the receptacle, and a constantlyacting magnet of less power also acting on said armatures to carry the structure over the dead-points, as and for the purpose described.

13. In a circuit-interrupter working in a vacuous receptacle exhausted to a high degree, a supporting frame for the working parts composed of aluminium, as and for the purpose described.

14. In a circuit-interrupter working in a vacuous chamber or receptacle exhausted to a high degree, an actuating armature or armatures therefor also located within the chamber and composed of Swedish iron.

15. In a rotating interrupter contained in a sealed receptacle, a supporting aluminium frame anchored in the receptacle by indentations of its walls and having the working IOC IIC

parts assembled upon it, said frame consisting of the end pieces B and C, and connect-- ing rods or strips, as and for the purpose described.

16. In a rotary interrupter, the combination with a sealed glass receptacle, of an aluminium frame independent of the structure of the receptacle consisting of the end pieces 13 and G, and connecting rods or strips and carrying the rotary parts properly assembled upon it, in combination with means for supporting said frame Within the receptacle, as

and for the purpose described.

17. The combination in a rotary circuit- Gil

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2428162 *Nov 6, 1943Sep 30, 1947Electrical Engineering And MfgEnd bell for electrical machines
US4146805 *Dec 3, 1975Mar 27, 1979Compagnie De Construction Mecanique SulzerMagnetic drive
Cooperative ClassificationH01H3/004