|Publication number||US614556 A|
|Publication date||Nov 22, 1898|
|Filing date||Mar 5, 1897|
|Publication number||US 614556 A, US 614556A, US-A-614556, US614556 A, US614556A|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (3), Classifications (1)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
NrTED STATES PATENT "FFlCE@ CARL KILLING, OF DUSSELDORF, GERMANY, ASSIGNOR, BY MESNE ASSIGN- MENTS, TO THE UNITED STATES NOMATCII LIGHT COMPANY, OF VEST VIRGINIA.
MANTLE FOR INCANDESCENT GAS-B URNERS.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 614,556, dated November 22, 1898.
Applioation filed March 5, 1897. Serial No. 626,090. (No model.)
To all whom it may concern.-
Be it known that I, CARL KILLING, a citizen of the German Empire, residing at Dusseldorf, Germany, have invented certain new 5 and useful Improvements in Mantles for Incandescent Gas-Burners, of which the following is a specification.
This invention has been patented to me in the following countries: Italy July 15, 1896,
I 1 0. 42,115, additional patent December 16,
1896, No. 43,316; France July 8, 1896, No.
257,921; Belgium July 8, 1896, No. 122,400,
additional patent December 16, 1896, No.
125,210, and Luxemburg July 14,1896, No. 1 2,560.
My invention pertains to mantles for use with gas for producing light by incandescence; and it consists in mechanically combining with a relatively large body of the oxid of zirconium with or without the oxid of calcium or oxid of magnesium,either or both,a relatively small or minute quantity of a metal of the platinum group applied in solution, and consequently present in an infinitesimally small quantity over or throughout the entire mantle.
Prior to my invention it had been demonstrated that a mantle formed essentially or wholly of oxid of thorium could be rendered o incandescent, but that its light-giving power was relatively low. It had further been shown that if the oxid of cerium was combined in relatively small quantity with the oxid of thorium or with the oxids of some other earths 3 5 the light-giving capacity of the mantle produced from the compound was greatly increased and was greater than the sum of that due to such earths separately considered plus that due to the cerium. In other words, the
0 cerium was found to act upon and to excite the thorium oxid or other oxid or to have a catalytic effect,resultin g in a marked increase in illuminating power. It was also supposed and was asserted that various other combi- 5 nations or compounds possessed like properties, thorium oxid being usually proposed as the main body or ingredient, with a small quantity of the oxid or oxids of one or more of such rare earths as yttrium, ytterbium,
terbium, erbium or its elements, lanthanum, 5o neodymium, Samarium, and praseodymium oxids added thereto or mechanically combined therewith as a catalytic or exciting agent. I have found, however, by prolonged. and thorough investigation that in the absence of cerium none of the earths mentioned have the power of appreciably increasing the lightgiving effect of a mantle composed mainly of thorium oxid or of the oxid of other earths and that wherever such result has seemingly been attained it has been due to the presence of at least a trace of cerium,
an exceedingly small quantity of which will give highly beneficial results.
Oxid of cerium is the only one of the rare earths that exists, both as a peroxid and as a protoxid, a peculiarity which enables it to transmit oxygen to gas in the manner herein set forth. The protoxid takes up oxygen from the atmosphere and is thereby changed to peroxid; but the oxygen thus taken up is immediately given to the gas, thuschanging the peroxid back to protoxid. This action takes place constantly, and oxygen is in this manner taken from the atmosphere and delivered to the gas Without perceptible periods of change. In fact the action is to all appearances continuous, though this transformation goes on constantly, as indicated by the result. 8o
Zirconium, calcium, and magnesium oxids and different compounds and mixtures thereof or of other earths of no considerable value in themselves for the production of mantles for incandescent lighting have been proposed to be rendered serviceable by the addition of cerium oxid in small quantity.
So far as I am aware no one has hitherto been able to produce the effects noted otherwise than through the employment of an oxid of a rare earth, such as cerium, and according to my own investigation they are attainable with the oxid of no other substance than cerium. I have, however, discovered that metals of the platinum group, which do not exist in the ashed mantles either as salts or as oxids, but which may be brought to the form of chlorids, and thus used in solutions,
mixtures, or compounds, have an effect similar to that produced by the oxid of cerium. I have also ascertained that notwithstanding the fact that these metals are, weight for weight, more expensive than cerium they may nevertheless be used in so much smaller quantity than the cerium as to reduce the cost of mantles materially as compared with those with which cerium is employed.
The theory upon which my experiments were conducted and the above-indicated re sultwas reached is that the metal employedas platinum, iridium, or the like-having a great avidity for oxygen and having the power of attracting the same from the atmosphere and holding it in large quantity upon its surface, though incapable of chemically combining with oxygen, collects and maintains a large supply of oxygen over the surface of the mantle, which oxygen, uniting with the gas of the burner and supplied constantly to the flame thereof, causes a far more perfect combustion, and consequently a much higher temperature, than would be possible from the combustion of merely the mingled gas and atmospheric air of the burner. This greater heat more readily and more perfectly produces incandescence of the mantle than would be possible in the absence of this added oxygen, and the mantle thus heated serves as a radiating, diffusing, or distributing body for throwing off the light so produced. It is apparently also true that the metal, though present in such minute quantity, itself adds to the radiating capacity of the mantle.
The mode or method of forming or producing the mantle may vary; but in some respects it may be deemed advantageous first to knit or otherwise produce the cotton body or skeleton, then to impregnate this skeleton with a solution of a salt of zirconium, with or without a salt of calcium or m agnesium,either or both, and thereafter, either before or after burning out the mantle, dip it into or pour over its surface a solution of a salt of the metal of the platinum group. In this way the oxid of which the mantle consists after the skeleton is burned out is coated with the metal, which is thus exposed where needed and is not hidden or covered by the oxid or main body of the mantle. I may, however, incorporate the metal in the main solution and apply it to the mantle in the act of applying the zirconium or other salt for the production and deposit of the oxid and formation of the mantle.
It will be found in many respects advantageous to proceed as follows: A skeleton or body of cotton or other suitable fibrous material is produced by knitting or in any of the customary ways to serve as a foundation for the mantle and is thoroughly impregnated with a solution of zirconium and calcium or zirconium and magnesium in the proportions of eighty parts of zirconium to twenty parts of calcium or of magnesium to which is added one drop of platinum chlorid, one to ten. The
zirconium solution is formed by dissolving four grams of nitrate of zirconium and nitrate of magnesium or calcium combined in the proportions of eighty to twenty in ten cubic centimeters of water-that is to say, the total quantity of nitrates is four grams, of which four parts are zirconium and one part. is cal cium or magnesium. After the skeleton is duly impregnated with the solution stated the mantle is dried and burned out, leaving as a result of such treatment a mantle composed approximately of 90.00 per cent. of zirconium and 0.04. per cent. of platinum. The light given off by a mantle thus produced affords a light of yellowish color or tinge.
If it be desired to produce a very white light, there is substituted for the one drop of platinum chlorid eight drops of an iridium solution composed of thirty-three ten-thousandths (0.0033) of one gram of iridium chlo rid in one cubic centimeter of water, and this will be found to give higher light effect than the platinum solution.
Other metals of the platinum group may be used instead of platinum or iridiumas, for instance, gold, rhodium, and rutheninm-but for practical or commercial purposes platinum or iridium will generally be found best because of their being not readily vaporizable.
IVhile preferring the mode of manufacture set forth, I do not intend to restrict myself thereto, as the metal may be introduced at any stage in the production of the mantle; nor do I deem material the theory or statement of the physical law underlying the ac tion of the metal. IVhile I am satisfied that the theory is correct, since it is borne out by results, it is nevertheless sufficient to say that by carefully following the instructions or the mode of procedure above stated the results claimed will invariably be secured. This has been proven by numerous experiments and by extensive commercial use as well.
I do not mean to restrict myself absolutely to the proportions stated, but claim the right to vary them within somewhat narrow limits. Thus with 0.04; per cent. of platinum I obtain most satisfactory results; but if the proportion of platinum be reduced to 0.02 orincreased to 0.08 per cent. the benefit due to platinum at once disappears and no more light radiation is obtainable than would he were the metal entirely absent. Within these limits the light is increased by the presence of the metal as the stated proportion of 0.04- per cent. is approached.
I am aware that it has been proposed to employ platinum, iridium, gold, and other metals in mantles for incandescent lighting; but so far as I am advised no one has ever before discovered the possibility of attaining the result herein set forth or of securing a catalytic action in such a mantle through the use of any of these metals, nor has any one proposed a relative proportion capable of producin g such result.
- ture of mantles for the trade.
The metals which I have found useful for the purposes of this invention are comprised within the platinum group. While some metals outside of said group possess the requisite properties to a limited degree, they do not, so far as my investigations have enabled me to observe, posses them sufficiently to permit the use of such metals in the manufac- In other Words, they are but theoretically useful and not practically so.
I claim as my invention 1. As a new article of manufacture, a mantle for incandescent gas-lighting, consisting of zirconium oxid With or without the oXid of magnesium or of calcium; and a metal of the platinum group, said metal being present in substantially the minute proportion stated.
2. A mantle for incandescent lighting, consisting of a body of oxid of an earth or earths, of relatively low light-giving capacity in itself, combined with a metal of the platinum group, the latter being present in substantially the exceedingly minute quantity stated.
A mantle for incandescent lighting, consisting of a body of zirconium oxid with or Without oxid of magnesium or of calcium, and a metal of the platinum group distributed in minute and invisible quantity over the surface of the oxid.
4. A mantle for incandescent gas-lighting, consisting of a skeleton or body of oxid of an earth or earths, said body being of relatively low light-giving capacity in itself; and a metal of the platinum group combined with the oXid in substantially the proportion of four one-hundredths of one per cent, Whereby a catalytic action is secured.
In Witness whereof I hereunto set my hand in the presence of two Witnesses.
CARL KILLING. [L. s]
Witnesses: THos. ADAMS, Jr. L. s] L. s.]
CHAS. W. SEDDON.
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