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Publication numberUS618280 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJan 24, 1899
Filing dateSep 16, 1897
Publication numberUS 618280 A, US 618280A, US-A-618280, US618280 A, US618280A
InventorsCharles E. Manning
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Window and light-reflecting device
US 618280 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Patented Jan. 24, I899.

No. 6l8,280.



(Application filed Sept. 16, 1897.)

(No Model.)




SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 618,280, dated January 24, 1899.

Application filed September 16,1897. Serial No. 651,988. (No model.)

T0 at whom it may concern:

Be it known that 1, CHARLES E. MANNING,- a citizen of the United States, residing at Chicago, in the county of Cook, State of Illinois, have invented an Improvement in Reflecting Devices, of which the following is a specification.

My invention relates to an improvement in windows usedfor the purpose of admitting light into rooms.

It applies particularly to windows of a limited horizon-that is, to windows opening into streets, courts, alleys, or other spaceso that other buildings or obstructions render only a portion of the open sky visible from the window.

The object of my invention is to increase the virtual horizon of a window by means of reflectors properly located, and also to increase the distribution of light in a room by a particular kind of glass in the window and method of constructing such glass in the window.

It also provides a means of obstructing the direct View from a window which opens into an ill-appearing. alley or against a discolored wall and still admits as large a quantity of light into the room as a transparent windowglass would, or, in fact, a much larger quan tity.

My invention will be understood by reference to the accompanying drawings, wherein the same parts are indicated by the same letters throughout.

Figure I shows a vertical cross-section of a window and the attachment thereto according to my invention. Fig. II shows a vertical elevation of a sash of a window as it would appear from the inside. Fig. III shows a vertical cross-section of the upper part of the sash enlarged to more clearly show the construction thereof. Fig. IV shows an enlarged vertical elevation of a part of a sash. Fig. V shows an enlarged cross-section of a portion of the central section of glass, showing the ridges or angular surface thereof.

In the drawings, A represents the glass in a window of limited horizon, supported in a sash B B. Outside the window are two lightrefiecting surfaces G D, either of mirror-glass or enameled iron or paint work inclosed in a supporting; and protecting framework and secured together by hinges at E and resting upon brackets M and supported from the top by a chain II. The back; of the mirrors can be of woodwork arranged to resemble a blind as shown at D, or could be painted so as to correspond with the other work of the building. The mirror 0 is placed approximately horizontal, secured in its position by one or more supporting-brackets M, which are bolted or screwed to the sill or sash of the window or to the wall of the building. The mirror D is hinged to C, so as to be set at any angular position thereto and can be closed up at night, if desirable.

The window-glass A is made up of three sections, two panes of ordinary window-glass 7t h, Fig. III, between which is a layer or section of glass, one side of which is formed into ridges e c 6, generally known as prismatic glass. The outside pane of-glass h rests in a rabbet in the sash B. Next to it is the section or layer of prismatic glass, on top of which is the second pane of ordinary glass, resting in a second rabbet in the sash. The three are secured together and to the sash by a stop 0, Fig. III, which overlaps the inside pane of glass and is screwed or nailed to the broad surface of the sash. Between the stop and the glass h is a small strip or layer of rubber p for the purpose of forming a dust-proof joint and of also allowing a little spring when setting upon the stop 0.

From the exigencies of manufacture the prismatic glass is made in small pieces or plates of various shapes, square or rectangular, as shown at A, Fig. II, the lines Z Z indicating the junction of such plates. Hitherto it has been customary to set these plates in metallic framework; but by my method of mounting these plates, butt edge to edge, they are supported laterally by the glasses h h. In order to erect the'small plates against vertical surfaces, it is necessary in windows already in position to secure the plates in position by means of small wire, resting in the angles of the glass w w w and secured at the ends by screws sunk into notches or grooves, as shown at N N N, Fig. IV. These notches extend beyond the edge of the top pane of glass h, so that after the top and bottom stops have been secured the wires can be withdrawn, if desired.


In Fig. V is shown the exact shape of the angular side of the prismatic glass being two angles a and [J and the sides Q R, R S, and S T. The relative length of the sides and of the angles being dependent upon the conditions of the light distribution-that is, for each angle of visible horizon-there exists a form of glass two sides of which are parallel and the other two angular, which will allow the greatest quantity of light to be distributed in a certain direction. Formoderate-length rooms the angles a and /0 are approximately forty-five degrees each, and R S is parallel to the other side.

The theoretical increase of light given by my window construction and attachment thereto is seen in Fig. 1. Suppose O and D (the mirrors) to be equal in size to the window and a line drawn across from the bottom of the window to the upper edge of D just touches the lower edge of the Visible horizon. Then all rays of light, like R R, include all the light which falls direct on the window. lVith my attachment an equal number of rays, like R R, are once reflected against the window. An equal number of rays, like R R, are reflected from 0 against the window.

Another set of rays R R also reach the window by two reflections from both C and D. These last two rays of R R" are of great importance. By the arrangement shown practically double the amount of light (other thin being equal) will be thrown into the room than would be the case if only one reflector were used. The question of determining the angles of prismatic glass to deliver the greatest quantity of rays throughout the desired space is therefore one of the conditions of the size of the reflectors and the angle of Visible horizon.

Having thus described my inventionnvhat I claim as new and original is The combination of a window, a bracket be low said window, a horizontal reflector supported by said bracket and a second reflector mounted on hinges and simulating a blind on the outside, substantially as described.

In testimony whereof I affix my signature in presence of two witnesses.



Referenced by
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US4368725 *Nov 11, 1977Jan 18, 1983Mcclintock MichaelSolar energy collector
US4575196 *Jul 25, 1984Mar 11, 1986Clegg John EConical beam concentrator
US5461496 *Jun 16, 1993Oct 24, 1995Figla Co., Ltd.Light transmitting panels, and methods for adjusting the natural lighting quantity and range using any of the light transmitting panels
US9013788 *Nov 26, 2013Apr 21, 2015SunCentral Inc.Dual-stage sunlight redirection system
US20140085728 *Nov 26, 2013Mar 27, 2014SunCentral Inc.Dual-Stage Sunlight Redirection System
Cooperative ClassificationE06B9/24