Optical disk-based assay devices and methods are described, in which analyte-specific signal elements are disposed on an optical disk substrate. In preferred embodiments, the analyte-specific signal elements are disposed readably with the disk's tracking features. Also described are cleavable signal elements particularly suitable for use in the assay device and methods. Binding of the chosen analyte simultaneously to a first and a second analyte-specific side member of the cleavable signal element tethers the signal-responsive moiety to the signal element's substrate-attaching end, despite subsequent cleavage at the cleavage site that lies intermediate the first and second side members. The signal responsive moiety reflects, absorbs, or refracts incident laser light. Described are nucleic acid hybridization assays, nucleic acid sequencing, immunoassays, cell counting assays, and chemical detection. Adaptation of the assay device substrate to function as an optical waveguide permits...
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1. An assay device comprising:
- a) a solid support substrate;
- b) a cleavable signal element comprising:
- a signal responsive moiety; and
- a cleavable spacer for releasably attaching said signal responsive moiety to said substrate, said cleavable spacer having an end attached to said substrate, an end attached to said signal responsive moiety and a cleavage site intermediate said substrate-attaching end and said signal responsive end;
- c) a first anchoring member comprising a first end attached to said substrate and a second end adapted to bind on a first site on a chosen analyte;
- d) a second anchoring member comprising a first end attached to said signal responsive moiety and a second end adapted to bind on a second site on said chosen analyte; and
- wherein the signal responsive moiety remains bound to the substrate after cleavage at the cleavage site only when said first and second anchoring members are bound to said chosen analyte.
2. An assay device according to claim 1, wherein said signal responsive moiety is adapted to reflect or scatter incident light.
3. An assay device according to claim 2, wherein said signal responsive moiety is a metal microsphere.
4. An assay device according to claim 3, wherein said metal microsphere consists essentially of a metal selected from the group consisting of gold, silver, nickel, platinum, chromium and copper.
5. An assay device according to claim 4, wherein said metal microsphere consists essentially of gold.
6. An assay device according to claim 3, wherein said metal microsphere is ferromagnetic.
7. An assay device according to claim 1, wherein said first anchoring member and said second anchoring member include oligonucleotides.
8. An assay device according to claim 7, wherein said first and second anchoring member oligonucleotides are 5 mers-20 mers.
9. An assay device according to claim 1, wherein
- said first anchoring member comprises a first antibody or antibody fragment, and
- said second anchoring member comprises a second antibody or antibody fragment.
10. An assay device according to claim 1, wherein said solid support substrate is a plastic selected from the group consisting of polypropylenes, polyacrylates, polyvinyl alcohols, polyethylenes, polymethylmethacrylates and polycarbonates.
11. An assay device according to claim 10, wherein said solid support substrate is polycarbonate.
12. An assay device according to claim 1, wherein said solid support substrate is fashioned as a disk.
13. An assay device according to claim 1, further comprising computer software encoded upon the support substrate.
14. An assay device according to claim 13 wherein said support substrate comprises a compact disc.
15. An assay device according to claim 13 wherein said support substrate comprises a digital video disc.