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Publication numberUS6229134 B1
Publication typeGrant
Application numberUS 09/357,605
Publication dateMay 8, 2001
Filing dateJul 20, 1999
Priority dateOct 13, 1998
Fee statusPaid
Also published asUS6441357, US20010017343
Publication number09357605, 357605, US 6229134 B1, US 6229134B1, US-B1-6229134, US6229134 B1, US6229134B1
InventorsLin Ping Ang, Sandor L. Barna
Original AssigneePhotobit Corporation
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Using cascaded gain stages for high-gain and high-speed readout of pixel sensor data
US 6229134 B1
Abstract
A sampling and readout system including a cascaded stage charge amplifier samples, amplifies, and outputs pixel sensor data from an array of pixel sensors. The charge amplifier divides the gain into several gain stages. Each gain stage amplifies the pixel sensor data.
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Claims(15)
What is claimed is:
1. A pixel sensor readout system comprising:
a sampling circuitry configured to sequentially sample pixel sensor data from an array of pixel sensors, said pixel sensor data representing photons integrated as charge and collected by said pixel sensors;
a charge amplifier having at least two cascaded gain stages, the charge amplifier coupled to said sampling circuitry and configured to amplify the pixel sensor data in both of said cascaded gain stages; and
a readout circuitry coupled to said charge amplifier and configured to sequentially output an analog voltage corresponding to each of the amplified pixel sensor data.
2. The system of claim 1, wherein each gain stage of the charge amplifier has an input terminal and an output terminal and includes:
an op-amp having a positive and a negative inputs and an output, the op-amp configured to amplify a voltage present at the negative input with respect to some reference voltage at the positive input, and to drive the output with the amplified voltage;
a feedback capacitor connected between the output and the negative input of the op-amp; and
an input capacitor connected between the input terminal of the gain stage and the negative input of the op-amp, such that the gain of the op-amp is determined by the ratio of the value of the feedback capacitor and the input capacitor.
3. The system of claim 2, further comprising:
a reset switch connected between the output and the negative input of the op-amp, where the reset switch is configured to remain closed until a signal to initiate amplification operation opens the reset switch.
4. The system of claim 1, further comprising:
a source-follower buffer having an input and an output and placed between the gain stages, the input connected to a preceding gain stage and the output connected to a succeeding gain stage, where the buffer operates to isolate the high-resistance preceding gain stage from the low-resistance succeeding gain stage.
5. The system of claim 1, wherein the sampling circuitry includes two branches, each branch including:
a sampling switch to sample the pixel sensor data from an array of pixel sensors at a particular time, the sampling switches in the two branches operating sequentially to generate a difference voltage between the two sampled pixel sensor data, where the difference voltage represents a difference in the photon count collected by two branches at different times; and
a holding capacitor to store the sampled pixel sensor data.
6. The system of claim 5, wherein the sampling circuitry further includes:
a double sampling circuit configured to short the two sampled pixel sensor data present on the holding capacitors of the two branches to reduce noise in the sensor data.
7. The system of claim 5, wherein the array of pixel sensors are arranged in rows of columns, such that the sampling circuitry includes column selection switches to sample the pixel sensor data from sequential columns in a row.
8. The system of claim 7, wherein the readout circuitry is configured to be capable of addressing and reading out the pixel sensor data from any pixel sensor in the array of pixel sensors.
9. A charge amplifier for use in amplifying pixel sensor data from image sensors, the charge amplifier having a cascade of gain stages, each gain stage including:
an op-amp having a positive and a negative inputs and an output, the op-amp configured to amplify a voltage present at the negative input with respect to some reference voltage at the positive input, and to drive the output with the amplified voltage;
a feedback capacitor connected between the output and the negative input of the op-amp; and
an input capacitor connected between the input terminal of the gain stage and the negative input of the op-amp, such that the gain of the op-amp is determined by a ratio of the value of the feedback capacitor and the input capacitor.
10. The system of claim 9, further comprising:
a reset switch connected between the output and the negative input of the op-amp, where the reset switch is configured to remain closed until a signal to initiate amplification operation opens the reset switch.
11. An active pixel sensor system having an output port, the system comprising:
a pixel sensor array arranged in an array of rows and columns, the pixel sensor array configured to form an electrical representation of an image being sensed;
a row-select element coupled to the pixel sensor array and configured to select a row of pixel sensors;
a sampling and readout circuitry configured to sequentially sample sensor data from the pixel sensor array and output an analog voltage corresponding to each of the pixel sensor data, said sampling and readout circuitry including a charge amplifier having at least two cascaded gain stages, and a readout circuit coupled to the charge amplifier and configured to sequentially output an analog voltage; and
an analog-to-digital converter circuit configured to convert analog voltage outputted by the sampling and readout circuitry to digital pixel data, and to transfer the digital pixel data to the output port.
12. The system of claim 11, further comprising:
a timing and control unit coupled to the row-select element, the sampling and readout circuitry, and the analog-to-digital converter circuit, where the timing and control unit is configured to generate timing and control signals that select appropriate pixel data for sampling and transferring the data to the output port.
13. An active pixel sensor camera system for converting an array of pixel data to a visual image, the system comprising:
a pixel sensor array arranged in an array of rows and columns, the pixel sensor array configured to form an electrical representation of an image being sensed;
a row-select element coupled to the pixel sensor array and configured to select a row of pixel sensors;
a sampling and readout circuitry configured to sequentially sample sensor data from the pixel sensor array, and output an analog voltage corresponding to each of the pixel sensor data;
an analog-to-digital converter circuit configured to convert analog voltage outputted by the sampling and readout circuitry to digital pixel data, and to transfer the digital pixel data to the output port; and
an image display device coupled to the analog-to-digital converter circuit and having a display screen, the image display device configured to transfer pixel data from the output port, such that the device arranges the pixel data in sequential order of rows to display the visual image on the display screen.
14. The system of claim 13, wherein the sampling and readout circuitry includes:
a sampling circuitry configured to sequentially sample pixel sensor data from an array of pixel sensors, the pixel sensor data representing photons integrated as electrons and collected by the pixel sensors;
a charge amplifier having a cascade of gain stages, the charge amplifier coupled to the sampling circuitry and configured to amplify the pixel sensor data; and
a readout circuitry coupled to the charge amplifier and configured to sequentially output an analog voltage corresponding to each of the amplified pixel sensor data.
15. The system of claim 13, further comprising:
a timing and control unit coupled to the row-select element, the sampling and readout circuitry, and the analog-to-digital converter circuit, where the timing and control unit is configured to generate timing and control signals that select appropriate pixel data for sampling and transferring the data to the output port.
Description
CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

This application claims benefit of the priority of U.S. Provisional Application Ser. No. 60/104,174, filed Oct. 13, 1998 and entitled “High Gain High Speed Readout with Cascaded Gain.”

BACKGROUND

The present specification generally relates to high-gain amplifiers and particularly to pixel sensor readout amplifiers.

Image sensors, such as active pixel sensors described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,841,126, require that the number of photons that are received be accurately counted. Accurate counting often requires small level signals to be amplified. The amplifiers in certain cases are charge amplifiers.

A charge amplifier can be conceptually thought of as an operational amplifier “op-amp” with capacitors at the input and the feedback between the output and the input. The gain is proportional to the ratio of the values of these capacitors. However, making a larger capacitor requires more area on the substrate. Therefore, a high gain device requires a very large gain area. Each double in gain requires a double in area on the substrate. It also requires a more complicated op-amp, since it requires the op-amp output to drive a larger capacitor. In addition, a single-stage high-speed application requires high power consumption.

SUMMARY

The techniques described herein address this problem using two special cascaded stages. The stages are arranged to have a multiplying effect on the resultant signal.

For example, in one embodiment, a 256× gain amplifier can be cascaded into two 16× gain amplifiers. Each of the 16× gain amplifiers requires {fraction (1/16)} the area on the chip as the 256× gain amplifier. Therefore, two of the 16× gain stages require only ⅛ or 12.5% of the area.

In one aspect, the present specification involves sampling and readout of pixel data. The sampling and readout is performed by a pixel sensor readout system. The system includes a sampling circuitry, a charge amplifier, and a readout circuitry.

The sampling circuitry sequentially samples pixel sensor data from an array of pixel sensors. The pixel sensor data represents photons integrated as electrons and collected by the pixel sensors. The charge amplifier has a cascade of gain stages. Each gain stage amplifies the pixel sensor data sampled by the sampling circuitry. The readout circuitry sequentially outputs an analog voltage corresponding to each of the amplified pixel sensor data.

Each gain stage of the charge amplifier includes an op-amp, a feedback capacitor, and an input capacitor.

The op-amp is configured to amplify a difference voltage present at a negative input of the op-amp with respect to some reference voltage at a positive input of the op-amp, and to drive the output according to the amplified difference voltage. The gain of the op-amp is determined by the ratio of the value of the feedback capacitor and the input capacitor.

In another aspect, an active pixel sensor (APS) system having an output port is disclosed. The APS system includes a pixel sensor array, a row-select element, a sampling and readout circuitry and an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) circuit.

The pixel sensor array forms an electrical representation of an image being sensed. The row-select element selects a row of pixel sensors. The sampling and readout circuitry sequentially samples sensor data from the pixel sensor array, and outputs an analog voltage corresponding to each of the pixel sensor data. The analog-to-digital converter circuit converts analog voltage outputted by the sampling and readout circuitry to digital pixel data, and transfers the digital pixel data to the output port.

In some embodiments, the APS system further includes a timing and control unit to generate signals that select appropriate pixel data for sampling and transferring the data to the output port.

In another aspect, an APS camera system for converting an array of pixel data to a visual image is disclosed. The camera system includes all the elements in the APS system and an image display device. The display device arranges the pixel data from the output port in sequential order of rows to display the visual image on the display screen.

The details of one or more embodiments are set forth in the accompanying drawings and the description below. Other embodiments and advantages will become apparent from the following description and drawings, and from the claims

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

These and other aspects will be described in reference to the accompanying drawings wherein:

FIG. 1 is one embodiment of signal chain electronics in an image sensor;

FIG. 2 is a conventional single stage gain amplifier in a sampling and readout circuitry;

FIG. 3 is one embodiment of a sample and readout circuitry that includes a cascaded-stage amplifier;

FIG. 4 is a modified cascaded-stage amplifier;

FIG. 5A is a plot of the input difference voltage in a charge amplifier;

FIG. 5B is a plot of the output difference voltage at the output of the first stage;

FIG. 5C is a plot of the output difference voltage at the output of the second stage;

FIG. 6 is an APS system using the cascaded-stage charge amplifier; and

FIG. 7 is an APS camera system that includes the APS system.

Like reference numbers and designations in the various drawings indicate like elements.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

A conventional active pixel sensor (APS) includes an on-chip timing and control circuit, and a sampling and readout circuitry. FIG. 1 illustrates one embodiment of the sampling and readout circuitry 100 of the conventional APS. The sampling and readout circuitry 100 include a pixel unit, a sampling circuitry 102, and a readout circuitry 104.

The pixel unit includes a photodiode that stores incident photons using a photoreceptors, e.g. a photodiode or a photogate. If the photogate is used, the photons are integrated as electrons within the photogate well. The output of the pixel unit is buffered by a source-follower transistor and a reset transistor. In an APS array, a particular row is selected by a row selection transistor. This allows the information from within the selected pixel to be passed to the sampling circuitry 102.

The sampling circuitry 102 is located at the bottom of each column of pixels. The sampling circuitry 102 includes a load transistor 106 and two output branches 108, 110. The output branches 108, 110 store the reset and signal levels, respectively. Each branch 108 or 110 includes a holding capacitor 112 or 114 and a sampling switch 116 or 118. Each branch also includes a source-follower transistor 120 or 122 and a column-selection switch 124 or 126.

The column readout cycle begins when a row is selected by the row selection transistor in the pixel. First a reset value for correlated double sampling is obtained by sampling the reset value onto the reset holding capacitor 114. This is done by activating the reset sampling (SHR) switch 118 during the time of reset. Reset is removed, and sampling is initiated by activating the signal sampling (SHS) switch 116 to place the signal from each column pixel in the selected row onto the signal holding capacitor 112.

After the current pixel value has been transferred to the holding capacitor 112, the pixel in the selected row is reset by biasing reset transistor to a low level.

The reset and signal levels are read out differentially, allowing correlated double sampling to suppress 1/f noise and fixed pattern noise (FPN) from the pixel. The reset and signal outputs are placed on the output data bus by the column-selection switches 124, 126.

A double delta sampling (DDS) circuit 128 shorts the sampled signals during the readout cycle, thereby reducing column FPN.

Sequential readout of each column is as follows. First, a column is selected by the column-selection switches 124, 126. After a settling time equivalent to one-half the column selection period, the DDS is performed to remove column FPN. In this operation, a DDS transistor 132 and two column-selection transistors 130, 134 on either side are used to short together the two holding capacitors 112, 114.

Prior to the DDS operation, the reset and signal outputs 136, 138 contain their respective signal values plus a source-follower 120 or 122 voltage threshold component.

A threshold removing circuit 140 is used to remove the threshold voltage of the source-followers 120, 122 during the DDS operation. Initially, the charge capacitors 142, 144 are pre-charged to a clamp voltage at node 150 through clamp transistors 146, 148. Immediately after the clamp is released, the DDS transistors 130, 132, 134 are turned on. When the transistors 130, 132, 134 are shorted, the voltage that is applied to the output drivers 152, 154 includes a voltage that is free of the voltage threshold component. The difference output voltage is obtained by a difference amplifier 164.

The PMOS transistors 156, 158 act as load transistors for the PMOS source-follower transistors 120, 122. The NMOS transistors 160, 162 act as load transistors for the output drivers 152, 154.

The sampling circuitry 102 is common to an entire column of pixels. The readout circuitry 104 is common to the entire APS array.

FIG. 2 shows an APS sample and readout circuitry including a single stage gain amplifier 200. The gain amplifier 200 operates as a charge amplifier with an op-amp 202 and two capacitors 204, 206 in a switched capacitor configuration.

The charge amplifier 200 outputs a voltage proportional to the charge coming from the pixel unit according to the relation

V out=(I*T int)/C f=−(C v /C f)*V in,

where Tint is the charge integration time, Cf is the integration capacitance of the feedback capacitor 206, and I is the current representing the charge coming from the pixel unit. The output voltage 210 of the charge amplifier 200 also can be expressed as a ratio of the values of an input capacitor 204 and a feedback capacitor 206 multiplied by an input voltage 208. Therefore, the gain of the charge amplifier 200 is proportional to the ratio of the two capacitors 204, 206.

The current pixel value present on each column pixel is sampled by a sampling switch 212 and placed onto a holding capacitor 214. The activation of the sampling switch 212 allows the current coming from the pixel unit to initiate the charge amplification by activating a source-follower transistor 216. The transistors 218, 220 are NMOS and PMOS load transistors, respectively.

Initially, the charge amplifier 200 is placed in a voltage following mode with a reset switch 222 closed. This keeps the charge amplifier 200 in a unity gain mode with a high input resistance and a low output resistance. The charge amplification is initiated by opening the reset switch 222. A signal to initiate the amplification operation is generated by the timing and control circuit. The output voltage 210 has a gain based on the ratio between the two capacitors 204, 206.

FIG. 3 shows one embodiment of a sample and readout circuitry 300 that includes a cascaded-stage charge amplifier 302. The charge amplifier 302 is cascaded into two stages 304, 306.

The first stage 304, which is in an identical configuration as the single stage charge amplifier 200, amplifies the input voltage with a gain of G1=−(Cv1/Cf1). The second stage 306, again identical to the single stage amplifier 200, amplifies the output voltage of the first stage 304 with a gain of G2=−(Cv2/Cf2). The total gain, G=G1*G2, has a multiplying effect on the resultant output voltage.

FIG. 4 shows a modified cascaded-stage charge amplifier 400. The modified amplifier 400 includes the two stages 304, 306 shown in FIG. 3. However, the two stages 304, 306 are separated by a source-follower/buffer 402 to reduce the load capacitance of the first stage 304. An important characteristic of the source-follower/buffer 402 is its ability to isolate a high-resistance source from a low-resistance load. To provide this isolation, the buffer has a very high input resistance and a very low output resistance.

The cascaded-stage charge amplifier 302 or 400 has several advantages over the single stage charge amplifier 200 shown in FIG. 2. One of the advantages includes smaller silicon area occupied by capacitors. Since the size of a capacitor is proportional to its value, the single stage amplifier with a gain of G requires a capacitor ratio size of some value, Atotal. The amplifier with two cascaded gains of G1 and G2 requires a capacitor ratio size of A1+A2.

For example, in a configuration requiring a gain of 256, the capacitor size (Atotal) for a single stage would be 256 units versus 32 units (A1 +A2) for two stages of 16× gains. Therefore, the two stages of the cascaded-stage 16× gain amplifier require only 12.5% of the area required for the single stage 256× gain amplifier.

Another advantage includes simplicity of frequency response design in a high speed readout. For example, to increase the gain of a high speed amplifier by a factor of four, such as from 16 to 64, the gain bandwidth of an op-amp would have to be increased proportionately. This is necessary to maintain the frequency of signal response. However, a high gain op-amp requires a very high performance design which can be complex. On the other hand, increasing the gain for a low gain two-stage amplifier while maintaining the frequency response is a simpler task. The gain of each stage can be increased two-fold to eight without substantial degradation in the frequency response because the amplifier gain is sufficiently low.

FIGS. 5A through 5C illustrate the performance of the cascaded-stage charge amplifier.

A plot of the input difference voltage at the input of the charge amplifier is shown in FIG. 5A. The sampled difference voltage is approximately one millivolt.

A plot of the output difference voltage at the output of the first stage is shown in FIG. 5B. The difference voltage is calculated to be approximately 34 millivolts for a gain of about 32.

A plot of the output difference voltage at the output of the second stage is shown in FIG. 5C. The difference voltage is calculated to be approximately 1.02 volts for a gain of about 1024.

FIG. 6 shows an APS system using the cascaded-stage charge amplifier 302 or 400. The APS system 600 includes a pixel sensor array 602, a timing and control unit 604, a row-select element 606, the sample and readout circuitry 300 including the cascaded-stage charge amplifier 302 or 400, and an array of analog-to-digital converter (ADC) circuit 608.

The timing and control unit 604 commands the row-select element 606 to select a row of the pixel sensor array 602 to read out to the output port 610. The sampling and readout circuitry 300 converts the pixel-sensed charge to an analog difference voltage. The analog voltage is amplified by the cascaded-stage charge amplifier 302 or 400 in the sample and readout circuitry 300. A converter in the ADC circuit 608 converts the analog voltage to digital data and stores that data in a register array. The digital pixel data are then channeled to the output port 610.

FIG. 7 shows an APS camera system that includes the APS system 600 described above. The camera system also includes an image display device 700. The image display device 700 displays the digital pixel data transported to the output port 610 from the APS system 600 for viewing.

Although only a few embodiments have been described in detail above, those of ordinary skill in the art certainly understand that modifications are possible. For example, even though the invention has been described in terms of an APS system, the invention is useful in other pixel based imaging systems. Also, while the preferred aspect shows two cascaded stages, the actual implementation can have more stages. In addition, even though this system is described as being used for reading a row of columns at a time, it should be understood that it can be used for reading a column of rows instead. All such modifications are intended to be encompassed within the following claims, in which:

Patent Citations
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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US6712506 *Oct 22, 2001Mar 30, 2004Commissariat A L'energie AtomiqueReader for electromagnetic radiation detection element, sensor, and the corresponding read process
US6819280Nov 12, 2003Nov 16, 2004Micron Technology, Inc.Readout of array-based analog data in semiconductor-based devices
US6861637Oct 22, 2003Mar 1, 2005Micron Technology, Inc.Providing current to compensate for spurious current while receiving signals through a line
US6881942Apr 1, 2002Apr 19, 2005Micron Technology, Inc.Readout of array-based analog data in semiconductor-based devices
US6927434Aug 12, 2002Aug 9, 2005Micron Technology, Inc.Providing current to compensate for spurious current while receiving signals through a line
US7068319 *Feb 1, 2002Jun 27, 2006Micron Technology, Inc.CMOS image sensor with a low-power architecture
US7286180May 5, 2006Oct 23, 2007Micron Technology, Inc.CMOS image sensor with a low-power architecture
US7471231Apr 24, 2007Dec 30, 2008Forza Silicon CorporationColumn parallel readout with a differential sloped A/D converter
US7601999Jul 26, 2005Oct 13, 2009Aptina Imaging CorporationMethod and apparatus for reading signals through a line
US8031260 *Jan 27, 2005Oct 4, 2011Aptina Imaging CorporationTechnique for flagging oversaturated pixels
US8159007Aug 31, 2009Apr 17, 2012Aptina Imaging CorporationProviding current to compensate for spurious current while receiving signals through a line
US8218051 *Feb 27, 2009Jul 10, 2012Aptina Imaging CorporationLow-power signal chain for image sensors
US20130256547 *Mar 28, 2012Oct 3, 2013Luxen Technologies, Inc.Increasing dynamic range for x-ray image sensor
WO2007085942A2 *Jan 25, 2007Aug 2, 2007Melexis NvImage sensor with a photodiode readout circuit
Classifications
U.S. Classification250/208.1, 348/E05.091, 348/300
International ClassificationH04N5/378, H04N5/357, H04N5/335, H01L27/14, H01L27/148, H01L27/146
Cooperative ClassificationH04N5/335, H01L27/14601
European ClassificationH01L27/146A, H04N5/335
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