Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.


  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS6232870 B1
Publication typeGrant
Application numberUS 09/368,826
Publication dateMay 15, 2001
Filing dateAug 5, 1999
Priority dateAug 14, 1998
Fee statusPaid
Also published asCA2338601A1, CA2338601C, CA2649129A1, CA2649129C, CN1158636C, CN1293507C, CN1312933A, CN1516054A, DE1105855T1, DE69935017D1, DE69935017T2, DE69937373D1, DE69937373T2, DE69939064D1, DE69941523D1, DE69942259D1, DE69942322D1, DE69942811D1, EP1105855A1, EP1105855B1, EP1326219A2, EP1326219A3, EP1326219B1, EP1339032A2, EP1339032A3, EP1339032B1, EP1770591A2, EP1770591A3, EP1770591B1, EP1770592A2, EP1770592A3, EP1770592B1, EP1770593A1, EP1770593B1, EP1862981A1, EP1862981B1, EP1862982A1, EP1862982B1, EP1901251A2, EP1901251A3, EP1901251B1, EP2259239A2, EP2259239A3, EP2259239B1, US6448886, US6486780, US6768419, US7113094, US7123151, US7471205, US7728732, US8502673, US20020008623, US20020167406, US20040201479, US20060145854, US20070011893, US20090102609, US20100176936, WO2000010144A1
Publication number09368826, 368826, US 6232870 B1, US 6232870B1, US-B1-6232870, US6232870 B1, US6232870B1
InventorsSharon R. Garber, Bernard A. Gonzalez, Mitchell B. Grunes, Richard H. Jackson, Gerald L. Karel, John M. Kruse, Richard W. Lindahl, James E. Nash, Chester Piotrowski, John D. Yorkovich
Original Assignee3M Innovative Properties Company
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Applications for radio frequency identification systems
US 6232870 B1
The present invention relates to RFID devices, including handheld RFID devices, and applications for such devices. The devices and applications may be used in connection with items that are associated with an RFID tag, and optionally a magnetic security element. The devices and applications are described with particular reference to library materials such as books, periodicals, and magnetic and optical media.
Previous page
Next page
We claim:
1. A method of using a portable RFID device with a group of items each having an RFID tag, comprising the steps of:
(a) inputting information to the device describing a certain item or class of items;
(b) scanning the RFID tags associated with each item in the group of items;
(c) receiving signals from each of the scanned RFID tags; and
(d) comparing the received signals to the information input to the device to determine whether the certain item or class of items are present among the group of items.
2. The method of claim 1, wherein the information is selected from information describing missing items, items that have not been used within a specified period of time, items that have not been checked into inventory, items that have been designated for hold status, and the owner of the items.
3. The method of claim 1, wherein the information is contained within and available from the RFID element itself.
4. The method of claim 1, wherein the method further includes the step of:
(c) providing an indication in real time to a user that the item or class of items of interest were located.
5. The method of claim 4, wherein the method further includes the step of:
(d) recording in a database that the item or items of interest were located.
6. A method of using a portable RFID device, comprising the steps of:
(a) inputting an algorithm to the device that describes an ordered set of items;
(b) scanning a plurality of items having RFID elements to obtain information from those elements; and
(c) comparing a description of the items obtained using the information obtained from the RFID elements to the algorithm to determine whether the scanned items are in the algorithm order.
7. The method of claim 6, wherein the method further comprises the step of:
(d) providing an indication to a user of any item that is not in the algorithm order.
8. The method of claim 7, wherein the indication is provided in real time.
9. The method of claim 7, wherein the indication is provided in response to information obtained from a database separate from the RFID device and the RFID tag.
10. The method of claim 6, wherein the algorithm is based on an ordering system that is selected from the Dewey Decimal System, the Library of Congress System, an alphabetical listing of authors, and an alphabetical listing of topics.
11. A method of using a portable RFID device to associate a certain item bearing an RFID element with a location having a group of items each also bearing an RFID element, comprising the steps of:
(a) scanning the RFID element associated with the item;
(b) scanning the RFID elements of at least one additional item within the group of items; and
(c) determining whether the certain item belongs with the group of items.
12. The method of claim 11, wherein the method further comprises the step of:
(d) providing an indication of the determination made in step (c) to the user in real time.
13. A method of using a portable RFID device, comprising the steps of:
(a) obtaining an item having an RFID element associated therewith;
(b) using the portable RFID device to interrogate the RFID element and obtain information therefrom; and
(c) having a user input information to the RFID device as to that item.
14. The method of claim 13, wherein the method further includes the step of:
(d) using the information input in step (c) to update a database that includes information as to that item.
15. The method of claim 14, wherein the database is updated when the portable RFID device is connected to a docking station to download information to that database.
16. A method of using a portable RFID device with an item having an RFID element associated therewith, comprising the steps of:
(a) interrogating the RFID element with the RFID device to obtain information therefrom;
(b) identifying the item using the information obtained;
(c) requesting and obtaining from the portable RFID device further information regarding the item.
17. The method of claim 16, wherein the information requested in step (c) is obtained from memory contained within the portable RFID device.
18. The method of claim 16, wherein the information requested in step (c) is obtained from memory that is separate from the portable RFID device and is transferred to the device.
19. A method of using an RFID device, comprising the steps of:
(a) interrogating a group of items each bearing an RFID tag;
(b) providing to the RFID device information identifying a certain class of items; and
(c) receiving in real time from the RFID device information identifying items that are not within the certain class of items.
20. The method of claim 19, wherein the class of items are items associated with a particular location, and the information provided in step (b) includes that location.
21. A method of using an RFID device with items of interest that bear an RFID tag, comprising the steps of:
(a) interrogating a tagged item with the RFID device;
(b) entering information into the RFID device describing the location of the item of interest; and
(c) collecting in a database the information entered in step (b) regarding the item that was interrogated, wherein the database is separate from the RFID device, and the information is transferred to that database.

This patent application claims priority from U.S. application Ser. No. 09/134,686, filed Aug. 14, 1998 with the same title, and U.S. application Ser. No. 09/344,758, filed Jun. 25, 1999 with the same title, both of which were assigned to the assignee of the present invention, and the contents of both of which are incorporated by reference herein.


This patent application is a continuation-in-part of U.S. application Ser. No. 09/344,758, filed Jun. 25, 1999, now abandoned which is a continuation-in-part of U.S. application Ser. No. 09/134,686, filed Aug. 14, 1998 now abandoned.


The invention relates to applications for radio frequency identification (RFID) systems, and particularly to the use of such systems in libraries.


Electronic article surveillance (“EAS”) systems detect the presence of small electronic devices placed on or in an article or carried by a person of interest, and are often used in retail or library environments to deter theft or other unauthorized removal of articles. These devices, which are commonly known as tags or markers, have in the past contained only information regarding the presence of an item. This information could be obtained by electronically interrogating the tag, either intermittently or continuously. At least four distinct types of EAS systems have evolved over the years, based on how this interrogation was carried out: magnetic, magnetomechanical, radio frequency (RF), and microwave. Of these four, magnetic systems have provided the highest level of security in most applications. Magnetic tags are easily hidden in or on an object, difficult to detect (because they are less susceptible to shielding, bending, and pressure), and easy to deactivate and reactivate, thereby providing a high degree of security and some information regarding the status of the tagged article.

Many users of EAS systems desire to know more than just whether a tagged object is present. They also want to know which tagged object is present, for example. Detailed information regarding the characteristics of objects, such as their date of manufacture, inventory status, and owner have generally been communicated to automated handling and control systems through an optical bar code. While inexpensive and effective, the optical bar code system has certain limitations. Bar codes must be visible, which limits the locations in which they may be placed, and bar codes can easily be obscured, either accidentally or intentionally. The range at which a detector can sense the bar code is also comparatively small. The bar code may also have to be appropriately positioned for detection. Also, because bar codes are often exposed to permit detection, the barcode is susceptible to damage that can result in detection failures. Lastly, multiple items must be processed one at a time. These constraints of bar code systems make them undesirable or inefficient for some applications, such as marking library media.

More recently, electronic identification (also known as radio frequency identification or RFID) techniques have been developed to address the limitations of optical barcodes. RFID systems have succeeded in providing object identification and tracking, but are deficient in providing object security because most RFID systems operate in frequency ranges (˜1 MHz and above) in which the tag is easily defeated. The security deficiency associated with radio frequency tags arises because they can be “shielded” by, for example, covering the tag with a hand or aluminum foil, or even placing the tag in a book. Even battery-powered radio frequency tags may be blocked, although their range is superior and blocking would be more difficult. Thus, objects tagged with an RFID tag may escape detection, either inadvertently or intentionally. This greatly reduces their effectiveness as security devices. RFID markers are also related to “smart cards.” Both contact and contactless smart cards have appeared in commercial applications. Smart cards tend to be associated with a specific person rather than with a tagged object. Issues related to the security and tracking of the smart card (or of the person carrying it) are similar to those discussed above for RFID markers.

The security issues associated with RFID markers are similar to those familiar to anyone skilled in the art of radio frequency- and microwave-based EAS tags. Substantial effort has been expended in attempts to remedy the deficiencies of radio frequency- and microwave-based EAS tags. However, none has substantially improved their performance as security tags. U.S. Pat. No. 5,517,195 (Narlow et al.), entitled “Dual Frequency EAS Tag with Deactivation Coil,” describes a dual frequency microwave EAS tag that includes an antenna circuit having a diode, and a deactivation circuit. The deactivation circuit responds to a low energy alternating magnetic field by inducing a voltage in the diode of the antenna circuit so as to disable the diode and the antenna, thereby deactivating the tag. Although useful for some applications, the capacitor-based tag disclosed in Narlow et al. may leak electrical charge over time, which could cause the tag to become activated unintentionally.

Radio frequency EAS tags of the type disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,745,401 (Montean et al.) include a magnetic element. The magnetic element alters the tuning of the tag when it has been suitably magnetized by an accessory device, and thereby blocks the radio frequency response of the tag. Although these tags have a certain utility, they still do not address the issues of enhanced security and identification.

Radio frequency identification technology has been developed by a number of companies, including Motorola/Indala (see U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,378,880 and 5,565,846), Texas Instruments (see U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,347,280 and 5,541,604), Mikron/Philips Semiconductors, Single Chip Systems (see U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,442,507; 4,796,074; 5,095,362; 5,296,722; and 5,407,851), CSIR (see European document numbers 0 494 114 A2; 0 585 132 A1; 0 598 624 A1; and 0 615 285 A2), IBM (see U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,528,222; 5,550,547; 5,521,601; and 5,682,143), and Sensormatic Electronics (see U.S. Pat. No. 5,625,341). These tags all attempt to provide remote identification without the need for a battery. They operate at frequencies ranging from 125 KHz to 2.45 GHz. The lower frequency tags (˜125 KHz) are moderately resistant to shielding, but have only limited radio frequency functionality due to bandwidth constraints. In particular, systems based on these markers generally operate reliably only when a single tag is in the interrogation zone at a time. They also tend to be relatively bulky and expensive to manufacture. At higher frequencies, (typically 13.56 MHz, 915 MHz, and 2.45 GHz), the added bandwidth available has permitted the development of systems which can reliably process multiple tags in the interrogation zone in a short period of time. This is highly desirable for many product applications. In addition, some of the tag designs hold the promise of being relatively inexpensive to manufacture and therefore more attractive to a customer. However, these higher frequency devices share to varying degrees the susceptibility to shielding discussed earlier. Thus, they cannot provide the high level of security demanded in certain applications, such as a library.

From the foregoing discussion, it should be clear that there are a number of applications for RFID tags in various environments in which the identity of the tagged item is important. For example, PCT Publication WO 99/05660, published Feb. 4, 1999 and assigned to Checkpoint Systems, Inc., describes an inventory system using articles with RFID tags. The preferred embodiment described therein contemplates the use of RFID tags in library materials, which may then be checked out automatically by interrogating the RFID tag to determine the identity of the material. However, a number of important or desirable library or other inventory functions remain that are not described or suggested in the '660 publication.


The present invention relates to RFID devices, including handheld RFID devices, and applications for such devices. The devices and applications may be used in connection with items that are associated with an RFID tag, and optionally a magnetic security element. The devices and applications are described with particular reference to library materials such as books, periodicals, and magnetic and optical media. Other applications for the present invention are also envisioned.


The present invention is described in greater detail with reference to the attached Figures, in which like numbers represent like structure throughout the several views, and in which

FIGS. 1A and 1B are schematic illustrations of radio frequency identification tags;

FIG. 2 is a schematic of a second embodiment of a radio frequency identification tag;

FIG. 3 is a schematic top view of a combination tag;

FIG. 4 is a block diagram of an RFID interrogation system interacting with an RFID tag;

FIGS. 5, 6, 7, and 8 are illustrations of combination tags according to the present invention; and

FIGS. 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, and 14 are illustrations of various embodiments of the present invention.


The embodiments of the present invention described herein make use of RFID tags, and preferably of combination RFID/magnetic security tags. Tags of this type were disclosed in U.S. application Ser. No. 09/093,120, filed Jun. 8, 1998 and entitled “Identification Tag With Enhanced Security,” which was assigned to the assignee of the present invention and was incorporated by reference into the U.S. application from which the present application claims priority. A detailed description of the magnetic, RFID, and combination tags used in conjunction with the embodiments of the present invention is described in Section I, below, and the embodiments of the present invention are then set forth in detail in Section II, below.

I. Tags and Elements For Use With Embodiments of the Present Invention

A tag used with the embodiments of the invention described in Section II, below, may incorporate both object identification and effective security in a single device. They preferably include an element that is responsive to a magnetic interrogation signal, and an element that is responsive to a radio frequency interrogation signal. In one embodiment, the magnetically-responsive element also provides the antenna for the radio frequency-responsive element. The term “responsive” means, in the context of the present invention, that the element provides intelligible information when subjected to an appropriate interrogation field. The individual elements are described first below, followed by a description of a combination tag. As will become apparent, the embodiments of the present invention described in Section II, below, may include either an RFID element alone, or a combination of an RFID element and a magnetic security element.

A. The Magnetically-Responsive Element

The magnetically-responsive element is preferably made of a low coercive force, high permeability ferromagnetic material, such as the material used in the strips sold by the Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company of St. Paul, Minn. (3M) under the designation “TATTLE-TAPE™” brand strips. These strips, or marker assemblies, are described in several patents assigned to 3M, including U.S. Pat. No. 5,331,313 Koning) and U.S. Pat. No. 3,747,086 (Peterson), the contents of which are incorporated by reference herein. Exemplary low coercive force, high permeability ferromagnetic materials include permalloy (a nickel/iron alloy), and high performance amorphous metals such as those available from the AlliedSignal Company of Morristown, N.J. under the designations Metglas 2705M and Metglas 2714A.

The magnetically-responsive element may be either single status or dual status, depending on the nature of the article with which the element is associated. For example, certain reference books in libraries are not to be removed from the library, and thus a single-status (non-deactivatable) marker would always indicate whether such a book passed within an interrogation zone. Other articles, such as common library materials or commercial goods, may require a dual-status marker assembly, so that when the article has been properly processed the marker may be appropriately deactivated to prevent detection by the interrogation source. Dual status functionality is generally provided through the addition of sections of higher coercivity magnetic material in proximity to the low coercivity magnetic material, as described below and in the Peterson patent incorporated by reference above.

Certain magnetically-responsive elements have the ability to switch magnetic orientation rapidly when passed through a low frequency alternating magnetic field (50 Hz to 100 KHz, for example), and to produce a predetermined characteristic response that may be detected by the receiving coils of a detector. The switching function of the marker assembly is controlled by the magnetization state of the high coercive force elements, or “keeper elements.” When these keeper elements are magnetized, the ability of the marker to magnetically switch back and forth within the alternating magnetic field of the interrogation zone is altered, and the marker typically is not detected. When the keeper elements are demagnetized, the marker can again perform the switching function, enabling the interrogation source to detect the presence of the marker. The keeper elements may be provided in different ways, as is known in the art.

The marker assembly may also include adhesive on one or both sides thereof, to enable the marker to be bonded to a book or other article. The adhesive layer(s) may be covered by a removable liner, to prevent adhesion of the marker to an unintended surface prior to application to the intended surface. These and other features of the marker assembly are described in the U.S. Pat. No. 3,790,945 (Fearon), U.S. Pat. No. 5,083,112 (Piotrowski), and U.S. Pat. No. 5,331,313 (Koning), all incorporated by reference above.

Because low frequency magnetic elements of this type are difficult to shield from detection, they may be effectively used on a wide variety of items when security is important. In addition, they may be deactivated and reactivated more conveniently, completely, and repeatedly than markers employing other EAS technologies, making them more suitable for use in certain applications (such as libraries) where this characteristic is highly desirable.

B. The Radio Frequency-Responsive Element

RFID tags can be either active or passive. An active tag incorporates an additional energy source, such as a battery, into the tag construction. This energy source permits active RFID tags to create and transmit strong response signals even in regions where the interrogating radio frequency field is weak, and thus an active RFID tag can be detected at greater range. However, the relatively short lifetime of the battery limits the useful life of the tag. In addition, the battery adds to the size and cost of the tag. A passive tag derives the energy needed to power the tag from the interrogating radio frequency field, and uses that energy to transmit response codes by modulating the impedance the antenna presents to the interrogating field, thereby modulating the signal reflected back to the reader antenna. Thus, their range is more limited. Because passive tags are preferred for many applications, the remainder of the discussion will be confined to this class of tag. Those skilled in the art, however, will recognize that these two types of tags share many features and that both can be used with this invention.

As shown in FIG. 1, a passive radio frequency-responsive element 10 typically includes two components: an integrated circuit 12 and an antenna 14. The integrated circuit provides the primary identification function. It includes software and circuitry to permanently store the tag identification and other desirable information, interpret and process commands received from the interrogation hardware, respond to requests for information by the interrogator, and assist the hardware in resolving conflicts resulting from multiple tags responding to interrogation simultaneously. Optionally, the integrated circuit may provide for updating the information stored in its memory (read/write) as opposed to just reading the information out (read only). Integrated circuits suitable for use in RFID markers include those available from Texas Instruments (in their TIRIS or TAG-IT line of products), Philips (in their I-CODE, MIFARE and HITAG line of products), Motorola/Indala, and Single Chip Systems, among others.

The antenna geometry and properties depend on the desired operating frequency of the RFID portion of the tag. For example, 2.45 GHz (or similar) RFID tags would typically include a dipole antenna, such as the linear dipole antennas 4 a shown in FIG. 1A, or the folded dipole antennas 14 a shown attached to the radio frequency responsive element 10 a in FIG. 1B. A 13.56 MHz (or similar) RFID tag would use a spiral or coil antenna 14 b, as shown attached to the radio frequency responsive element 10 b in FIG. 2. In either case, the antenna 14 intercepts the radio frequency energy radiated by an interrogation source. This signal energy carries both power and commands to the tag. The antenna enables the RF-responsive element to absorb energy sufficient to power the IC chip and thereby provide the response to be detected. Thus, the characteristics of the antenna must be matched to the system in which it is incorporated. In the case of tags operating in the high MHz to GHz range, the most important characteristic is the antenna length. Typically, the effective length of a dipole antenna is selected so that it is close to a half wavelength or multiple half wavelength of the interrogation signal. In the case of tags operating in the low to mid MHz region (13.56 MHz, for example) where a half wavelength antenna is impractical due to size limitations, the important characteristics are antenna inductance and the number of turns on the antenna coil. For both antenna types, good electrical conductivity is required. Typically, metals such as copper or aluminum would be used, but other conductors, including magnetic metals such as permalloy, are also acceptable and are, in fact, preferred for purposes of this invention. It is also important that the input impedance of the selected IC chip match the impedance of the antenna for maximum energy transfer. Additional information about antennas is known to those of ordinary skill in the art from, for example, reference texts such as J. D. Kraus, Antennas (2d ed. 1988, McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York).

A capacitor 16 is often included to increase the performance of the marker, as shown in FIG. 2. The capacitor 16, when present, tunes the operating frequency of the tag to a particular value. This is desirable for obtaining maximum operating range and insuring compliance with regulatory requirements. The capacitor may either be a discrete component, or integrated into the antenna as described below. In some tag designs, particularly tags designed to operate at very high frequencies, such as 2.45 GHz, a tuning capacitor is not required. The capacitor is selected so that, when coupled to the inductance provided by the antenna, the resonant frequency of the composite structure, given by: f r = ( 1 2 π ) 1 LC


C=capacitance (in Farads)

L=inductance (in Henries)

closely matches the desired operating frequency of the RFID system. The capacitor may also be a distributed capacitor as described in U.S. Pat. No. 4,598,276 (Tait et al.) and U.S. Pat. No. 4,578,654 (Tait et al.), which are assigned to 3M. Distributed capacitance is desirable to reduce tag size, particularly thickness, and to minimize manual assembly.

In operation, as shown in FIG. 4, the radio frequency-responsive tag 110 is interrogated by an EAS security system 100, which is typically located near the point at which the tags are to be monitored. An interrogation zone may be established by placing spaced detection panels across the exits from the room in which the tagged articles are located, near a conveyor carrying items to be monitored, or the like. Hand held detection devices may also be used. An interrogation source 102 (typically including a drive oscillator and an amplifier) is coupled to an antenna 104 (sometimes described as a field coil) for transmitting an alternating radio frequency field, or interrogation signal, in the interrogation zone. The system 100 also includes an antenna for receiving a signal (shown as antenna 104, and sometimes described as a receiving coil) and detector 106 for processing signals produced by tags in the interrogation zone.

The interrogation source 102 transmits an interrogation signal 200, which may be selected within certain known frequency bands that are preferred because they do not interfere with other applications, and because they comply with applicable government regulations. When the radio frequency-responsive element receives an interrogation signal it transmits its own response code signal 202 that is received by the antenna 104 and transmitted to detector 106. The detector decodes the response, identifies the tag (typically based on information stored in a computer or other memory device 108), and takes action based on the code signal detected. Various modifications of the illustrated system are known to those of skill in the art including, for example, using separate antennas for the interrogation source 102 and the detector 106 in place of the single antenna 104 that is illustrated.

Modern RFID tags also provide significant amounts of user accessible memory, sometimes in the form of read-only memory or write-once memory, but more preferably offering the user the ability to repeatedly update the memory by rewriting its contents from a distance. The amount of memory provided can vary, and influences the size and cost of the integrated circuit portion of an RFID tag. Typically, between 128 bits and 512 bits of total memory can be provided economically. For example an RFID tag available from Texas Instruments of Dallas, Tex., under the designation “Tag-it” provides 256 bits of user programmable memory in addition to 128 bits of memory reserved for items such as the unique tag serial number, version and manufacturing information, and the like. Similarly, an RFID tag available from Philips Semiconductors of Eindhoven, Netherlands, under the designation “I-Code” provides 384 bits of user memory along with an additional 128 bits reserved for the aforementioned types of information.

This user accessible memory may be exploited to enhance the performance of an item identification system deployed, for example, in a library environment. Presently, libraries identify items by scanning an optical barcode. The unique identifier contained in this barcode is used to access a circulation database including software provided by library automation vendors (LAV software), where more extensive information about the item is permanently maintained. While this system has been highly developed and works very well in many applications, it may have two disadvantages. First, a connection to the circulation database must be established to access the information. This limits the availability of the information when an item is at a location remote from a connection to this database. Second, the retrieval of information from the circulation database can sometimes require an unacceptably long time, particularly during periods of heavy use. By storing certain critical items of information on the RFID tag, both of these limitations can be overcome.

One example of information which could improve the performance of a library identification system if present on the RFID tag itself would be a library identification number. Then, without accessing a database, an item's “home” library could be quickly and conveniently determined by simply scanning the RFID label. Another example of information preferably present on an RFID tag itself would be a code designating whether the item was a book, a video tape, an audio tape, a CD, or some other item. This code could, for example, comprise the media type code specified in the 3M Standard Interchange Protocol, which is available from the assignee of the present invention. By immediately knowing the media type, a library's material management systems could insure that an item was being appropriately processed without incurring the delay and inconvenience of consulting a remote circulation database. Other examples of information suitable for incorporation into the RFID label will be apparent to those skilled in the art.

Another area in which RFID systems offer an advantage over barcode-based systems is in the identification of multiple items. By using sophisticated software algorithms, RFID readers and markers cooperate to insure that all items in the reader's interrogation zone are successfully identified without intervention by the operator. This capability enables the development of numerous useful applications in the areas of inventory control, item tracking, and sorting that would be difficult of impossible to implement with barcode-based identification systems.

C. The Combination Tag

As shown in FIGS. 3 and 5 through 8, the combination tag 20 combines a magnetically-responsive element with an RF-responsive element to provide the advantages of both. Thus, the two elements can be applied to an item of interest at the same time, thereby reducing cost. The combination tag may be provided with a pressure sensitive adhesive covered by a removable liner, which enables the combination tag to be adhered to a surface of the article when the liner has been removed. In another embodiment, the tag uses the magnetically-responsive element as an antenna for the radio frequency-responsive element. The magnetically-responsive element, when used as an antenna, is electrically coupled to the radio frequency-responsive element, and may or may not also be physically coupled to the radio frequency-responsive element.

The combination tag made according to the present invention may be interrogated two ways. First, the RFID interrogation source would use radio frequency signals to request and receive codes from the integrated circuit. This information would indicate, for example, the identification of the article with which the tag is associated, and whether the article had been properly processed. Second, a magnetic interrogation field would interrogate the tag to determine whether the magnetic portion of the marker assembly was active. If the marker assembly was active, the interrogation source would produce a response, such as a notification that the marked article had not been properly processed. Because the magnetic interrogation is more resistant to shielding than the radio frequency interrogation, the magnetic portion of the combination tag would provide enhanced security. Thus, the features of both magnetic and RFID tags are combined into a single combination tag.

In a preferred embodiment, the combination tag includes a magnetically-responsive element that also functions as the antenna in the circuitry of the radio frequency-responsive element. To serve both functions, the antenna material must exhibit low magnetic coercivity and very high magnetic permeability (to serve as an efficient security element), and moderate to high electrical conductivity (to function as an efficient antenna). In addition, the geometry of the antenna must be compatible with both functions. In this embodiment, the antenna could, for example, be fabricated from permalloy, an alloy of nickel and iron.

In one embodiment, a 3M “Tattle-Tapem” brand security strip, or other equivalent magnetic element, may be used as a linear dipole antenna to operate at 2.45 GHz or a similar high frequency. The length, width and thickness of this strip are selected to match the particular operating frequency and other characteristics of the RFID chip used. Typically, the strip would be made from permalloy (available from a number of sources including Carpenter Specialty Alloys, Reading, Pa., under the trade name “HyMu80”) or an amorphous alloy such as that available from the AlliedSignal Company of Morristown, N.Y., under the designation 2705M, and its length would be between 6.35 and 16.5 cm (2.5 and 6.5 inches). The terminals of the integrated circuit would be physically connected to the ends of the security strip. Electrical measurements of impedance and power gain have established that such a magnetic strip provides the same fundamental electrical characteristics as the copper or aluminum dipole antennas normally used with such a chip, and thus it would be expected to perform both functions satisfactorily.

When the magnetically-responsive element is used as at least part of the antenna for the radio frequency-responsive element, the two are electrically coupled to each other. Electrical coupling may occur because of a physical connection between multiple elements (as shown in FIG. 5), or, in the absence of a physical connection, by non-contact electromagnetic coupling (as shown in FIGS. 6, 7, and 8). Non-contact coupling can include parasitic coupling, capacitive coupling, or inductive coupling, and use such antenna components as parasitic antenna elements, reflector and director antennas, Yagi-Uda antennas, or other suitable antenna configurations.

The combination tag shown in FIG. 3 includes coil turns made from magnetic material. The tag could be, for example, a 13.56 MHz tag having an antenna structure such as 14 c in which flux collectors are provided at the corners to improve the magnetic function of the tag. Other types of flux collectors may be provided.

The combination tag 20 shown in FIG. 5 includes a physical connection between the antenna 22, which is made of magnetically-responsive material, and the integrated circuit 12. One or more keeper elements or the type described above also may be applied to the magnetically-responsive material, so that it may be selectively activated and deactivated to provide a dual status tag. The antenna 22 a shown in FIG. 6, however, is not physically connected to the integrated circuit 12 or the dipole antenna 23, but is nonetheless electrically coupled to the dipole antenna by parasitic dipole coupling to provide a combination tag 20 a. The dipole antenna 23 may comprise either magnetically-responsive material or non-magnetically-responsive material.

FIGS. 7 and 8 illustrate embodiments in which more than one antenna 22 is provided to electrically couple with antennas 23 b and 23 c, respectively. In the combination tag 20 b shown in FIG. 7, integrated circuit 12 includes dipole antenna 23 b, which is parasitically coupled to antennas 22 b. Antennas 22 b are made of magnetically-responsive material, and antenna(s) 23 b may be made of magnetically-responsive material. In the combination tag 20 c shown in FIG. 8, a radio frequency-responsive element of the type shown in FIG. 2 is parasitically electrically coupled to antennas 22 c. Antennas 22 c are made of magnetically-responsive material, and antenna(s) 23 c may be made of magnetically-responsive material. Other variations of these embodiments are easily designed.

The overall thickness of the combination tag should be as small as possible, to enable the tag to be inconspicuously placed on or in an article. For example, the tag may be applied with adhesive between the pages of a book, and it is desirable to make the tag thin enough to prevent easy detection by observing the end of the book. Conventional ICs may be approximately 0.5 mm (0.02 in) thick, and the overall thickness of the tag is preferably less than 0.635 mm (0.025 in).

The combination tags of this invention may be provided in roll form, to enable the automated sequential application of individual tags to articles. This general system is described in, for example, PCT Publication No. WO 97/36270 (DeVale et al.). Individual combination tags, one or more surfaces of which may be covered by an adhesive (such as a pressure sensitive adhesive), may be removed from the roll and applied between two pages of a book, near its binding. A page spreader may be provided to facilitate insertion of the combination tag, and other options such as sensors to detect the position of various components in the system may also be provided.

The combination tag is believed to have particular, although not exclusive, use in the processing of library materials. Library materials having an RFID tag of this type could be checked in and out more easily, perhaps without human assistance. That is, the materials would automatically be checked out to a particular patron (who may herself have an RFID tag associated with her library card) when the patron passes through a suitable detection zone, and checked back in when the patron re-enters the library with the materials. The tag of the invention may also assist in inventory management and analysis, by enabling library administrators to keep track of materials instantaneously and continuously. These and other features of the invention can, of course, be brought to bear on other applications, such as materials handling in stores, warehouses, and the like.

In another embodiment, the combination tag could provide dual-status marker information both through a magnetic response (indicating whether the magnetic features of the tag had been activated or deactivated) and through a radio frequency response (indicating, through the use of appropriate software, whether the database or the memory on the RFID chip itself showed that the item had been appropriately processed).

The following Examples provide still further information as to the tags used in the embodiments of the invention described in Section II, below.


A combination tag was made in accordance with the present invention. A permalloy strip produced from an alloy available from the Carpenter Technology Corporation of Reading, Pennsylvania under the designation “HyMu80” was attached to a test fixture manufactured by Single Chip Systems (SCS) of San Diego, Calif. The strip measured approximately 1.6 mm (0.625 in) wide by 0.0254 mm (0.001 in) thick by 10.16 cm (4 in) long. The test fixture consisted of a standard SCS 2.45 GHz antenna connected to an LED diode. The device was designed so that upon exposure to a 2.45 GHz field strong enough to power a typical SCS RFID tag the LED would glow, providing an immediate visible confirmation of the proper operation of the power-receiving portion of the device. Upon replacing the standard SCS antenna with the prototype permalloy antenna, the LED illuminated at approximately the same field strength, confirming the successful operation of the prototype.


FIG. 3 illustrates another embodiment of an antenna that is believed useful with a 13.56 MHz RFID design. At this frequency, a coil-type antenna geometry is preferred. The spiral turns comprising the coil are formed from a magnetic alloy such as permalloy, either by etching (physical or chemical), die cutting, or deposition through a mask. The straight “arm” portions of the coil serve also as the magnetically responsive elements in this design. However, the reduced length of these metallic elements in this geometry limits the effectiveness of the magnetic security portion of the device. In the embodiment shown in FIG. 3, flux collection elements provided at the corners have been added to the antenna coil to overcome this limitation. The construction shown in FIG. 3 would, preferably, include a capacitor as previously described to tune the operating frequency of the antenna to the prescribed interrogation frequency.

The characteristics of the antenna described in this example were compared with the characteristics of known antennas for radio frequency integrated circuits, and because those characteristics were similar, it is believed that the antenna of this example would function adequately in such an application.

The embodiments of the present invention described below may use either a tag having only an RFID element, or a combination tag, both of which are described above.

II. Embodiments of the Present Invention

A. RFID Device with Magnetic Capabilities.

Because RFID tags may be shielded either intentionally or unintentionally by a library patron, it is often important to provide both RFID and magnetic security elements in the tagged library material, preferably on the same tag. When the magnetic security element is dual status, meaning that it may be selectively activated and deactivated, its status is typically changed by the application of a magnetic field to that element. Magnetization operations such as this have no effect on library materials such as books and magazines, but can have harmful effects on magnetically-recorded media. The inventive RFID device with magnetic capabilities solves such problems, preferably without any involvement by library staff members.

As shown in FIG. 9, an RFID device is equipped to read information from an RFID tag on an item, such as a patron card, book, or other material. Preferably, the information read from the RFID tag includes a designation of media type (magnetic, print, or optical, for example), which can be used to insure the proper subsequent processing of the item. The RFID device is also equipped with a device, such as the coil, designed to enable the activation and deactivation of the security element portion of the item tag. After the RFID device reads the RFID tag, the device transmits the item identification information to a computer having software provided by a library automation vendor, or LAV. Among approximately 50 current LAV software systems are “Dynix,” which is available from Ameritech Library Services of Provo, Utah, “Carl ILS” which is available from CARL Corporation of Denver, Colo., and “DRA,” which is available from DRA, of St. Louis, Mo.

There are a number of ways to transmit the information obtained from an RFID tag to the LAV system. One would involve using the commands implemented in the 3M Standard Interchange Protocol (SIP). Another would involve using an electronic device known as a “wedge” to transmit the information as if it originated from a conventional barcode scanner. These and other techniques are well-known to those skilled in the art. In this manner, the RFID component of the RFID device performs the functions formerly performed by an optical bar-code scanner, which may or may not continue to be used with the device. Thus, libraries may continue to use their existing LAV software system interfaces and terminals while enjoying the added functionality and features provided by RFID technology. The RFID device need not include a display if it would cooperate with an existing LAV software system display to provide feedback to the operator. Optionally, a display and other feedback mechanisms may be included in the RFID device as an integrated package.

In devices having both RF and optical bar code reading capabilities, the device should be able to handle library materials tagged with RF tags, bar code labels, or both. In operation, the device would process an item for check-in by scanning for an RFID tag, a barcode, or both, retrieving the item identification code and, preferably, the media type from one or both of these tags, and passing this information on to the LAV software system. When the device includes both an RFID system and an optical bar code scanning system, the device may also be used to create RFID tags for media that is only bar-coded. First, the bar code would be scanned, and then the identifier (or an ID code associated with that identifier, depending on system design) would be written to (recorded onto) the RFID tag along with other data, such as media type and other selected information returned from the LAV software system relative to that media. The RFID tag could then be applied to the item.

The RFID device of the present invention preferably also performs “smart” resensitizing and desensitizing of the magnetic security elements attached to library materials. When the device reads the RFID tag and transmits the identification information to the LAV software, the LAV software can be programmed to respond with an indication of the type of library material with which the RFID tag is associated. If the LAV software responds with an indication that the tagged material is something for which a specialized magnetization operation is required (magnetically-recorded media, typically), then the device can activate only the system that performs that operation. For example, if the LAV software indicates that the RFID tag is associated with an ordinary book, and that the book may be checked out by the requesting patron, then one magnetization system may be activated to deactivate the magnetic element associated with that book. However, if the LAV software indicates that an RFID tag is associated with a video tape, for example, then a different magnetization system may be activated to deactivate the magnetic security element associated with that video tape. This different magnetization system might involve, for example, a weaker magnetic field or a field confined to the region in the immediate vicinity of the security element, so as to prevent damage to the magnetic media itself, depending on the detailed characteristics of the security tags in use. Depending on the detailed design of the device, the procedure might include inhibiting automatic activation so as not to damage magnetic media.

Preferably, sufficient information may be stored in the memory of the RFID tag itself that the interrogation source need not transmit that information to the LAV software, and can instead invoke the appropriate magnetization system directly. This embodiment would likely improve system performance, because fewer steps are required to reach the same result. As a minimum, the RFID tag should store a media type in the memory of the RFID element, but could as noted above include additional information. This type of processing, without transmission back to a database separate from the RFID device, is referred to herein as happening in “real time.”

An advantage of an RFID device such as that described is that it may accept and process items with less dependence on their orientation relative to the device. Thus, although a library material may be processed by an optical bar code scanner only when the bar code label is properly positioned and readable by the scanner, a book having an RFID tag or combination tag may be positioned with front cover either up or down, and without the need to carefully align a label with a scanner. This advantage of RFID systems over conventional optical and bar code systems results in considerable time savings for patrons and library staff. The “read range” may be different with different scanners, tags, and other components, but it is believed that a read range of approximately 15 centimeters (6 inches) would be satisfactory. To facilitate reliable RFID scanning, however, it may be desirable to position the RFID tags for various items at the same fixed position relative to an edge of the item. For example, RFID tags provided on library books might all be positioned 2 inches above the bottom of the book.

The benefits of the inventive RFID device are numerous and significant, and include having only a single station at which to identify, resensitize, and desensitize library materials, the elimination of operator training on and performance of different magnetization operations, increased processing speed due to the reduction of orientation constraints present in bar-code only systems, and decreased likelihood of repetitive stress injury to operators. Another benefit is that it is faster to scan RFID tags than to read a bar code, especially for codes that are inside the cover or case of the item, in large part because the user need not locate and align a bar code. Lastly, the system also is a low cost one because RFID readers are expected to cost less than high-performance bar-code scanners. These and other benefits and advantages will be apparent to one of skill in the art.

B. Use of RFID Device with Multiple Items.

Another benefit of an RFID device is the ability to process multiple items at one time, as shown in FIG. 10. Whereas conventional devices having only optical bar code scanners can process only a single item presented to the bar code scanner at one time, a group of items having RFID elements may be processed essentially simultaneously. This may be achieved by having multiple RFID interrogation sources (readers) mounted in or on the device, or by having a single high-speed RFID reader that possesses the multi-item identification algorithms. This capability greatly reduces the time required for library staff to process multiple items.

To avoid having the device perform a magnetization operation that is inappropriate for one or more of a group of materials being processed, the device may be adapted to provide a message to the user requesting that all materials of a certain kind (books and magazines, for example) be presented together, followed by all materials of another kind (video and audio tapes, for example). The RFID reader can determine from the information obtained from individual RFID elements whether the user has segregated the materials appropriately, and can prompt the user if he or she has not, as shown in FIG. 12. In another embodiment, the device includes one area for processing media of one type (books and magazines, for example), and a separate area for processing media of another type (video and audio tapes, for example). The proper magnetization operation may then be reliably performed as to each material.

The device may also include a display for indicating how many items bearing RFID tags have been presented for processing by the device. That is, the RFID reader would obtain information from each item presented to the device, and update the display to indicate that there were, for example, five items present. An optical or other detector could also be used to verify that the same number of items were indeed present, so as to alert the patron or library staff if an item without an RFID tag had been inadvertently or intentionally included in the stack of other materials. Optical detectors of this type may include those described in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/058,585 (Belka et al.), filed Apr. 10, 1998 and entitled “Apparatus and Method for the Optical Detection of Multiple Items on a Platform,” which is assigned to the assignee of the present invention, the contents of which is incorporated by reference herein. Other detectors may include ones based on weight (in which the RFID reader can determine from the RFID tag or the LAV software the weight of the items detected, and compare it to the actual weight of the materials presented), or the number of magnetic elements detected (as described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,260,690 (Mann et al.), the contents of which is incorporated by reference herein). Comparison of the number of items detected by the RFID reader and the number detected by an optical or other detector insures that the magnetic security elements associated with non-RFID tagged items are not deactivated without the item also being charged out to a specific patron. The device may process the items after a predetermined number of items have been presented (four items, for example), or after an operator instructs the device to process the items, or automatically without any operator intervention. A suitable display may advise the operator as to the status of the operation.

Another embodiment of the inventive device is the ability to verify the content of a package or case having multiple items inside, as shown in FIG. 11. For example, a set of audio tapes may be packaged together inside a single case. To insure that only those tapes, and all of those tapes, are being processed together, the RFID reader can identify the case, and identify each of the tapes inside the case, and match the identities before permitting the materials to be checked out to a patron. The RFID tag on the case may include the information as to the contents of the case, or that information may be stored in the LAV software and accessed through the identification information obtained from the RFID tag.

Devices having the ability to process multiple materials further increases the speed with which materials may be checked into and out of a library. The device may be adapted to transmit only a single signal to the LAV software system to process multiple items, and to receive only a single signal back from that software in response.

C. Portable RFID Devices.

For a number of applications, it is desirable to provide a portable, preferably hand-held, RFID device. The hand-held RFID device is capable of searching among shelves, bins, piles and library carts. It can essentially search wherever it can be positioned close enough to the items. It is capable of identifying multiple items that are within the range of the device. These and other features make the inventive portable RFID device a valuable library tool. For simplicity, portable RFID devices will be described first in terms of their components and operation, and second in terms of various useful functions for or methods of using such devices. It is important to note that the functions or methods described herein are equally applicable to non-portable RFID devices, and that the functions or methods described above in reference to non-portable RFID devices are similarly applicable to portable RFID devices. The different functions and methods have merely been grouped together with the type of RFID device more often used to perform that function or method.

1. Components and Operation.

The hand-held RFID device of the present invention preferably includes an RFID reader and writer, memory, a power source, and software to enable various functions of the types described herein. The RFID reader/writer could consist of a Commander 320 13.56 MHz RFID reader, manufactured by Texas Instruments of Dallas, Texas. Memory, preferably in the form of a computer, may be provided by, for example, a “palm-top” or handheld computer available from 3Com Company of Santa Clara, Calif. under the designation Palm Pilot. The portable computer may include an operating system, a touch-screen display, several buttons for developing user interfaces, a recharge station, a docking station to transfer data between the device and another computer, one or more ports to connect peripherals to the hand-held device (such as an RFID reader) and a battery power supply. Some units may also include a built-in peripheral such as a bar-code scanner. It may also contain various feedback systems, including lights, audio and a display.

As described above, there are a number of options for transferring data between the hand-held device and another processing station. A docking station approach can be used to upload or download data, as shown in FIG. 14. This method could be used, for example, to upload item identification information prior to performing a search to find those specific items. Another example would be to download data following a collection of items that have been used within the library. The link could be implemented as a docking station (as illustrated); as a wireless or cabled download and/or upload; as a wireless or cabled, real-time link between the hand-held device and another processor, or in any other manner suitable for transferring such data. One such example is a SPECTRUM24 wireless LAN system, from Symbol Technologies of Holtsville, N.Y. Systems like the Spectrum24 allow mobile users to wirelessly communicate between mobile devices and local area networks. For this operation, the mobile unit will typically include a communication component to support wireless communication, such as Symbol's LA 2400 Wireless LAN PC Card.

The user interface for the device is designed both to communicate the status of searching and to allow the user to enter data. Entering data may include switching the device among various search modes and entering data specific to a task (for example, to check out an item, or to put an item on hold). Feedback to the user is preferably provided through a combination of sound, lights and a display. The display may either be integrated into the unit or separated. When separate, it can be designed in various ways, including as a “wearable” display that can be easily viewed by the user.

A particularly useful embodiment of the hand-held RFID device is as follows. A hand-held RFID device is provided in which the RFID reader, user interface, power source, antenna, processor, and software are all provided in a single integrated unit, as shown in FIG. 13. By using a hand-held computer such as the Palm Pilot described above, a number of real-time functions of the type described below can be achieved, in contrast to systems in which the RFID device must interact with a separate computer, database, software system, and the like. The software can also provide either limited or full-range capabilities for supporting functions of the type described herein, as desired. The hand-held RFID device also preferably includes an integral power source, although it can be tethered to a larger power source of the type that might be worn around a user's waist. In the case of an integral power source, the source may or may not power the processor, and may be recharged when connected to a docking station. When a hand-held computer is used, it may include its own power source, and may be recharged when connected to the docking station to upload and/or download information, as shown in FIG. 14.

A hand-held RFID device can interrogate and identify RFID-tagged items whenever it is activated within range of the items. Intermittent activation can be provided by, for example, a trigger associated with the device, so that the elapsed time for which power is required for the RFID device is minimized. The reading distance is a function of many factors, but is expected to be between 15 and 45 centimeters (6 and 18 inches) given current technology and the likely frequencies at which the system would operate. In some applications, it may be desirable to restrict the operating range of the device so that it only interrogates RFID tags associated with items at a closer range. In other cases, the longest available range of operation will be desired. In other applications, it may be preferred to restrict the output power (and thus the reading range) to permit longer continuous operation from the battery pack. The read range will also be influenced by the design of the antenna as well as the orientation of the RFID tag relative to the antenna. It should be appreciated that the read range, battery weight, and lifetime between battery recharges or replacement are often dependent on each other. Various tradeoffs can be envisioned, based on the particular application for the device.

In operation, a particularly useful feature of a hand-held device is obtaining real-time information regarding an item that has been scanned by the device. That is, the hand-held device obtains information from the RFID tag, and either immediately displays that information, or immediately displays information stored within the hand-held device that is related to the tagged item. This is in contrast to devices that must be docked with or otherwise communicate with a separate database of information before that information can be displayed for the user. The hand-held device of the present invention can also be docked or can otherwise communicate with a separate database, if such features are desired.

2. Functions, Methods, and Applications.

The hand-held RFID device of the present invention can be used for a number of functions, methods, and applications, including the following.

The inventive handheld RFID device has particular usefulness in item location. For example, the device could be programmed with specific information identifying certain items that an operator wishes to locate. The unique identifier for each desired item would be stored in a reserved memory location in the handheld computer. As the identifiers of, for example, items on a shelf were read by the RF reader, each would be compared, using standard software routines known to those skilled in the art, with the list of items stored in memory. When a match occurred, the device would then create one or more visual, audio, tactile, or other signals indicating the presence of the item. One application for this function includes locating items that are believed to be missing. A library typically maintains a list of missing items—those items that are expected to be in the library, but cannot be found. By downloading those missing item identifiers to the hand-held device, the operator can pass the device by items and obtain feedback when a missing item is encountered.

Another example is to locate items that have not circulated or been used within a given number of months. Again, the identifiers of those items could be downloaded to the hand-held device for searching. Alternatively, the circulation counts can be maintained directly on the memory of the RFID tag. In this case, the hand-held device does not need to download any data from another computer system. The hand-held device only compares RFID memory data to established criteria and provides feedback to the operator based on the selected parameters.

Another example of where data can be either downloaded from a library data base to the hand-held device or obtained directly from the RFID tag is to locate items in the library that have not been checked in. A list of items not checked-in could be obtained and then downloaded to the hand-held device or the RFID tag could maintain a memory location to indicate the check-in status of an item. When the RFID tag memory indicates the check-in status, the hand-held device does not need any data from an external database to perform the search. A natural application of obtaining matching data directly from the RFID tag is to locate items that belong to different library buildings or to different library systems. For this application, the owning library is preferably encoded onto the RFID tag and the hand-held device alerts the operator when an RFID tag with a different owning library code is encountered. The hand-held RFID device could also be used to determine, as with the RFID device described above, whether all members of a set of associated items are present together, as with the tapes in a books-on-tape case.

The RFID device of the present invention could also be used to verify the order of materials on a shelf. In this mode, the device is scanned across one or more rows of items. The device reads each item and indicates, to the operator, which items are not shelved in the correct order. As input, the device has access to the shelving algorithm used by the library for the section being scanned. Possible algorithms include: Dewey Decimal order, Library of Congress order, and Author last name/Title order. Other methods of sorting, as determined by each library, are possible.

Another method of establishing shelf information is to associate each item with a location. Shelf locations can be as specific or as general as the library desires. For example, a general shelf location might include all “Adult Fiction titles.” A more specific shelf location might be “Adult Fiction, Authors AA-AB.” In the preferred embodiment, the shelf location for an item is encoded directly in the RFID tag memory for that item. An indexing system may also be used to save memory, so that a short code number is used to indicate a shelf location. For example, the number 1 could represent Adult Fiction, the number 2 could represent Juvenile Fiction, and so on. The amount of memory needed to store all shelf locations depends on the number of locations within a library. Another embodiment is to obtain the desired shelf location from a library database and then download those locations as part of the transfer of data to the hand-held device.

When items are associated with a shelf location, by either method above, the operator can use the hand-held device to locate items that are in the wrong location. Two processing methods can be used to determine which shelf location is currently being processed in order to search for items with non-matching locations. In one embodiment, the correct shelf location is obtained by reading several RFID tags and heuristically processing the data to infer a location. For example, if the RFID device reads a certain number of tags that are indexed to the Adult fiction area, the device can be programmed to alert the user when non-Adult Fiction items are encountered. In another embodiment, the library places “location tags” on the shelves or other locations to be searched. These location tags are first read by the hand-held device to indicate that subsequent items read should belong to that location and an alert is provided when a mismatch occurs.

In another embodiment, the hand-held RFID device may be used to enter data into the device as to a specific item. That information may be either transmitted immediately and directly to the LAV software, or may be transmitted subsequently when the hand-held device is reconnected to a docking station and downloads the information to the LAV software. For example, when a user takes a library material from its location, the user may input the new status of the article into the hand-held RFID device. Because this information must be entered into the LAV software eventually, it saves the operator time to be able to indicate this state directly and immediately as opposed to waiting until he or she can access an LAV software system terminal.

In yet another embodiment, the hand-held device could be used to provide additional information about a specific item once the item has been obtained and its RFID tag scanned by the RFID device. For example, library staff may collect materials that have been used in the library, and scan those materials either to obtain more information about that material (who last checked it out; how often has it been used) or to provide information to a database that generates statistical profiles of library material usage, or both. The operator simply reads the RFID tags of the items as they are collected from the various locations in the library at which they were used. As items are collected, the operator can also indicate from where the items were collected by selecting from a list of locations, entering a location code or reading a “location RFID Tag” that is associated with that location and would preferably be affixed to or near that location. In this way, the library staff is able to obtain additional information about where in the library such materials were used. Alternatively, if items used in the library are first placed on a book cart, for example, the hand-held device could make a single pass by the items on the cart to record them. The functions described in this paragraph are referred to herein as “sweeping.”

The benefits of a hand-held RFID device are numerous, and include the ability to locate items more quickly and accurately compared to reading each call number or title from items, the ability to “get close” to desired item quickly and then examine items more closely to locate item of interest, the ability to quickly identify items matching a given set of criteria (lost, not checked out, matching specific circulation values, etc.), and the ability to identify items that are mis-shelved and indicate, to the operator, the correct location for the items. This would include items that don't belong in the collection being scanned. Other advantages include the ability to enter transactions directly into the hand-held unit when items are located, the ability to identify an item without having to scan a bar code or any other markings on the item, such as author, title and call number, and the ability to determine if a given item is somewhere on a shelf, on a library cart, in a bin, on a table or even in a pile. These and other advantages will be apparent to those of skill in the art.

In the claims appended hereto, persons of ordinary skill will recognize that the items recited could be library materials (including books, periodicals, magnetic or optical media, and the like), or could be other completely unrelated materials such as packages, letters, paintings, electronic devices, animals, automobiles, bicycles, or any other items of value.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3747086Nov 24, 1971Jul 17, 1973Shoplifter International IncDeactivatable ferromagnetic marker for detection of objects having marker secured thereto and method and system of using same
US3752960Dec 27, 1971Aug 14, 1973C WaltonElectronic identification & recognition system
US3790945Nov 24, 1971Feb 5, 1974Stoplifter Int IncOpen-strip ferromagnetic marker and method and system for using same
US3816708May 25, 1973Jun 11, 1974Proximity DevicesElectronic recognition and identification system
US4063229Jun 28, 1971Dec 13, 1977Sensormatic Electronics CorporationArticle surveillance
US4141078Oct 14, 1975Feb 20, 1979Innovated Systems, Inc.Library circulation control system
US4153931Nov 6, 1974May 8, 1979Sigma Systems Inc.Automatic library control apparatus
US4183027 *Aug 18, 1978Jan 8, 1980Ehrenspeck Hermann WDual frequency band directional antenna system
US4223830Aug 18, 1978Sep 23, 1980Walton Charles AIdentification system
US4312003Sep 15, 1980Jan 19, 1982Mine Safety Appliances CompanyFerrite antenna
US4319674Dec 10, 1975Mar 16, 1982Electron, Inc.Automated token system
US4407000Jun 25, 1981Sep 27, 1983Tdk Electronics Co., Ltd.Combined dipole and ferrite antenna
US4413254Sep 4, 1981Nov 1, 1983Sensormatic Electronics CorporationCombined radio and magnetic energy responsive surveillance marker and system
US4442507Feb 23, 1981Apr 10, 1984Burroughs CorporationElectrically programmable read-only memory stacked above a semiconductor substrate
US4578654Nov 16, 1983Mar 25, 1986Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing CompanyDistributed capacitance lc resonant circuit
US4580041Dec 9, 1983Apr 1, 1986Walton Charles AElectronic proximity identification system with simplified low power identifier
US4583083Jun 28, 1984Apr 15, 1986Bogasky John JCheckout station to reduce retail theft
US4598276Nov 6, 1984Jul 1, 1986Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing CompanyDistributed capacitance LC resonant circuit
US4656463Apr 21, 1983Apr 7, 1987Intelli-Tech CorporationLIMIS systems, devices and methods
US4656592Oct 10, 1984Apr 7, 1987U.S. Philips CorporationVery large scale integrated circuit subdivided into isochronous regions, method for the machine-aided design of such a circuit, and method for the machine-aided testing of such a circuit
US4673932 *Dec 29, 1983Jun 16, 1987Revlon, Inc.Rapid inventory data acquistion system
US4688026Apr 21, 1986Aug 18, 1987Scribner James RMethod of collecting and using data associated with tagged objects
US4745401Sep 9, 1985May 17, 1988Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing CompanyRF reactivatable marker for electronic article surveillance system
US4746830Mar 14, 1986May 24, 1988Holland William RElectronic surveillance and identification
US4746908Sep 19, 1986May 24, 1988Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing CompanyDual-status, magnetically imagable article surveillance marker
US4785308Jan 17, 1986Nov 15, 1988Butternut Electronic CompanyAntenna
US4796074Apr 27, 1987Jan 3, 1989Instant Circuit CorporationMethod of fabricating a high density masked programmable read-only memory
US4805232Jan 15, 1987Feb 14, 1989Ma John YFerrite-core antenna
US4827395Apr 6, 1987May 2, 1989Intelli-Tech CorporationManufacturing monitoring and control systems
US4837568Jul 8, 1987Jun 6, 1989Snaper Alvin ARemote access personnel identification and tracking system
US4857893Feb 8, 1988Aug 15, 1989Bi Inc.Single chip transponder device
US4862160Mar 20, 1987Aug 29, 1989Revlon, Inc.Item identification tag for rapid inventory data acquisition system
US4881061Dec 5, 1988Nov 14, 1989Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing CompanyArticle removal control system
US4924210Mar 16, 1988May 8, 1990Omron Tateisi Electronics CompanyMethod of controlling communication in an ID system
US4964053Oct 11, 1989Oct 16, 1990Checkrobot, Inc.Self-checkout of produce items
US4967185Aug 8, 1989Oct 30, 1990Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing CompanyMulti-directionally responsive, dual-status, magnetic article surveillance marker having continuous keeper
US5019815Mar 3, 1987May 28, 1991Lemelson Jerome HRadio frequency controlled interrogator-responder system with passive code generator
US5036308Dec 22, 1989Jul 30, 1991N.V. Nederlandsche Apparatenfabriek NedapIdentification system
US5059951Nov 14, 1988Oct 22, 1991Checkpoint Systems, Inc.Method and apparatus for integrated data capture and electronic article surveillance
US5063380Oct 4, 1990Nov 5, 1991Kabushiki Kaisha Asahi Denshi KenkyujyoDiscrete object searching apparatus for search of discrete files and the like
US5072222Jun 26, 1990Dec 10, 1991N.V. Nederlandsche Apparatenfabriek NedapElectromagnetic identification and location system
US5083112Jun 1, 1990Jan 21, 1992Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing CompanyMulti-layer thin-film eas marker
US5095362Oct 23, 1990Mar 10, 1992Instant Circuit CorporationMethod for reducing resistance for programmed antifuse
US5099226Jan 18, 1991Mar 24, 1992Interamerican Industrial CompanyIntelligent security system
US5099227Dec 18, 1989Mar 24, 1992Indala CorporationProximity detecting apparatus
US5103222Jun 30, 1988Apr 7, 1992N.V. Nederlandsche Apparatenfabriek NedapElectronic identification system
US5119070Oct 15, 1991Jun 2, 1992Tokai Metals Co., Ltd.Resonant tag
US5151684Apr 12, 1991Sep 29, 1992Johnsen Edward LElectronic inventory label and security apparatus
US5153842Feb 5, 1990Oct 6, 1992Pitney Bowes Inc.Integrated circuit package label and/or manifest system
US5204526Feb 18, 1992Apr 20, 1993Fuji Electric Co., Ltd.Magnetic marker and reading and identifying apparatus therefor
US5214409Dec 3, 1991May 25, 1993Avid CorporationMulti-memory electronic identification tag
US5214410Jul 9, 1990May 25, 1993CsirLocation of objects
US5218343Feb 5, 1991Jun 8, 1993Anatoli StobbePortable field-programmable detection microchip
US5218344Jul 31, 1991Jun 8, 1993Ricketts James GMethod and system for monitoring personnel
US5260690Jul 2, 1992Nov 9, 1993Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing CompanyArticle removal control system
US5280159May 7, 1992Jan 18, 1994Norand CorporationMagnetic radio frequency tag reader for use with a hand-held terminal
US5288980Jun 25, 1992Feb 22, 1994Kingsley Library Equipment CompanyLibrary check out/check in system
US5296722Jan 26, 1993Mar 22, 1994Unisys CorporationElectrically alterable resistive component stacked above a semiconductor substrate
US5317309Sep 21, 1992May 31, 1994Westinghouse Electric Corp.Dual mode electronic identification system
US5331313Oct 1, 1992Jul 19, 1994Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing CompanyMarker assembly for use with an electronic article surveillance system
US5334822May 21, 1990Aug 2, 1994Universal Computer Technologies Inc.Method and system for inventoring a distributed plurality of items on a supply
US5339074Sep 13, 1991Aug 16, 1994Fluoroware, Inc.Very low frequency tracking system
US5347263Feb 5, 1993Sep 13, 1994Gnuco Technology CorporationElectronic identifier apparatus and method utilizing a single chip microcontroller and an antenna coil
US5347280Jul 2, 1993Sep 13, 1994Texas Instruments Deutschland GmbhFrequency diversity transponder arrangement
US5353011Jan 4, 1993Oct 4, 1994Checkpoint Systems, Inc.Electronic article security system with digital signal processing and increased detection range
US5378880Aug 20, 1993Jan 3, 1995Indala CorporationHousing structure for an access control RFID reader
US5392028Dec 6, 1993Feb 21, 1995Kobe Properties LimitedAnti-theft protection systems responsive to bath resonance and magnetization
US5401584Sep 10, 1993Mar 28, 1995Knogo CorporationSurveillance marker and method of making same
US5406263Nov 12, 1993Apr 11, 1995Micron Communications, Inc.Anti-theft method for detecting the unauthorized opening of containers and baggage
US5407851Oct 7, 1993Apr 18, 1995Unisys CorporationMethod of fabricating an electrically alterable resistive component on an insulating layer above a semiconductor substrate
US5420757Jun 11, 1993May 30, 1995Indala CorporationMethod of producing a radio frequency transponder with a molded environmentally sealed package
US5430441Oct 12, 1993Jul 4, 1995Motorola, Inc.Transponding tag and method
US5432864Oct 5, 1992Jul 11, 1995Daozheng LuIdentification card verification system
US5444223Jan 11, 1994Aug 22, 1995Blama; Michael J.Radio frequency identification tag and method
US5446447Feb 16, 1994Aug 29, 1995Motorola, Inc.RF tagging system including RF tags with variable frequency resonant circuits
US5448110Sep 14, 1993Sep 5, 1995Micron Communications, Inc.Enclosed transceiver
US5448220Apr 8, 1993Sep 5, 1995Levy; Raymond H.Apparatus for transmitting contents information
US5450070Apr 4, 1994Sep 12, 1995Massar; SheppardElectronic missing file locator system
US5450492May 1, 1991Sep 12, 1995Disys CorporationTransponder system with variable frequency transmission
US5469363May 19, 1994Nov 21, 1995Saliga; Thomas V.Electronic tag with source certification capability
US5471203Feb 1, 1995Nov 28, 1995Fujitsu LimitedAdmission managing system
US5490079Aug 19, 1994Feb 6, 1996Texas Instruments IncorporatedSystem for automated toll collection assisted by GPS technology
US5497140Dec 17, 1993Mar 5, 1996Micron Technology, Inc.Electrically powered postage stamp or mailing or shipping label operative with radio frequency (RF) communication
US5499017Dec 2, 1992Mar 12, 1996AvidMulti-memory electronic identification tag
US5517195Sep 14, 1994May 14, 1996Sensormatic Electronics CorporationDual frequency EAS tag with deactivation coil
US5519381Nov 18, 1993May 21, 1996British Technology Group LimitedDetection of multiple articles
US5521601Apr 21, 1995May 28, 1996International Business Machines CorporationPower-efficient technique for multiple tag discrimination
US5528222Sep 9, 1994Jun 18, 1996International Business Machines CorporationRadio frequency circuit and memory in thin flexible package
US5528251Apr 6, 1995Jun 18, 1996Frein; Harry S.Double tuned dipole antenna
US5537105Jan 3, 1992Jul 16, 1996British Technology Group LimitedElectronic identification system
US5539394Jun 20, 1995Jul 23, 1996International Business Machines CorporationTime division multiplexed batch mode item identification system
US5539775Mar 17, 1993Jul 23, 1996Micron Technology, Inc.Modulated spread spectrum in RF identification systems method
US5541585Oct 11, 1994Jul 30, 1996Stanley Home AutomationSecurity system for controlling building access
US5541604Sep 3, 1993Jul 30, 1996Texas Instruments Deutschland GmbhTransponders, Interrogators, systems and methods for elimination of interrogator synchronization requirement
US5550547Sep 12, 1994Aug 27, 1996International Business Machines CorporationMultiple item radio frequency tag identification protocol
US5554974Nov 23, 1994Sep 10, 1996International Business Machines CorporationEncodable tag with radio frequency readout
US5565846Sep 26, 1994Oct 15, 1996Indala CorporationReader system for waste bin pickup vehicles
US5565858Sep 14, 1994Oct 15, 1996Northrop Grumman CorporationElectronic inventory system for stacked containers
US5574372Jan 18, 1995Nov 12, 1996Siemens AktiengesellschaftDiagnostic magnetic resonance apparatus having a radio frequency shield between the radio frequency antenna and the gradient coil system
US5589820Oct 11, 1995Dec 31, 1996Pac/Scan, Inc.Retail theft prevention and information device
US5602527Feb 23, 1995Feb 11, 1997Dainippon Ink & Chemicals IncorporatedMagnetic marker for use in identification systems and an indentification system using such magnetic marker
US5602538Jul 27, 1994Feb 11, 1997Texas Instruments IncorporatedApparatus and method for identifying multiple transponders
US5822714 *Mar 5, 1997Oct 13, 1998International Business Machines CorporationData processing system and method for accessing a plurality of radio frequency identification tags
US6078251 *Mar 27, 1997Jun 20, 2000Intermec Ip CorporationIntegrated multi-meter and wireless communication link
Non-Patent Citations
1Finkenzeller; "RFID Handbook-Radio-Frequency Identification Fundamentals and Applications"; 1999; pp. 227-273.
2Finkenzeller; "RFID Handbook—Radio-Frequency Identification Fundamentals and Applications"; 1999; pp. 227-273.
3Flyer entitled "Combined Anti-Theft and RF Programmable Tag" from ISD (RF/ID) Ltd.
4John Bowers; "Road to intelligent tagging is paved with opportunities"; Automatic I.D. News; Oct. 1995; pp. 86-87.
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US6339377 *Nov 22, 1999Jan 15, 2002Kojin Co., Ltd.Article surveillance security system with self-alarm
US6419154 *Apr 4, 2001Jul 16, 2002Ncr CorporationMethods and apparatus for an electronic shelf label communication system having multiple transmit antennae
US6448886 *Mar 13, 2001Sep 10, 20023M Innovative Properties CompanyApplication for radio frequency identification systems
US6486782Jul 7, 2000Nov 26, 20023M Innovative PropertiesDevice for changing the status of dual status magnetic electronic article surveillance markers
US6523752 *Feb 22, 2001Feb 25, 2003Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.RFID reader and communications apparatus, and delivery article sorting method and system using RFID reader and communications apparatus
US6535790 *Feb 21, 2001Mar 18, 2003Kanazawa Institute Of TechnologyAutomated library system with retrieving and respositing robot
US6595418 *Sep 18, 2000Jul 22, 2003Hitachi Kokusai Electric Inc.Enhanced article management system and method
US6600418 *Dec 12, 2000Jul 29, 20033M Innovative Properties CompanyObject tracking and management system and method using radio-frequency identification tags
US6614351 *Dec 7, 2000Sep 2, 2003Sap AktiengesellschaftComputerized system for automatically monitoring processing of objects
US6633821 *Jan 8, 2001Oct 14, 2003Xerox CorporationSystem for sensing factory workspace
US6669089Nov 12, 2001Dec 30, 20033M Innovative Properties CoRadio frequency identification systems for asset tracking
US6696953 *Jul 31, 2001Feb 24, 2004Honeywell International Inc.Integrated hybrid electronic article surveillance marker
US6704690 *Dec 8, 2000Mar 9, 2004St. Logitrack Pte Ltd.Monitoring system
US6742705 *Oct 29, 1999Jun 1, 2004Corning Cable Systems LlcData collection system
US6771981Sep 29, 2000Aug 3, 2004Nokia Mobile Phones Ltd.Electronic device cover with embedded radio frequency (RF) transponder and methods of using same
US6774811 *Feb 2, 2001Aug 10, 2004International Business Machines CorporationDesignation and opportunistic tracking of valuables
US6778087Jun 15, 2001Aug 17, 20043M Innovative Properties CompanyDual axis magnetic field EAS device
US6809645 *Aug 30, 2002Oct 26, 2004Ncr CorporationSystem and method for updating a product database based on surveillance tag detection at a self-checkout station
US6814284 *Feb 4, 2003Nov 9, 2004Raytheon CompanyEnhancement antenna for article identification
US6816075Feb 21, 2001Nov 9, 20043M Innovative Properties CompanyEvidence and property tracking for law enforcement
US6819243 *Apr 2, 2001Nov 16, 2004Mikko KeskilammiMethod and apparatus for identifying bulk goods, preferably roll-like bulk goods
US6824320Nov 5, 2003Nov 30, 2004Eastman Kodak CompanyFilm core article and method for making same
US6825766Dec 21, 2001Nov 30, 2004Genei Industries, Inc.Industrial data capture system including a choke point portal and tracking software for radio frequency identification of cargo
US6837427May 30, 2002Jan 4, 2005Goliath Solutions, Llc.Advertising compliance monitoring system
US6860422 *Sep 3, 2002Mar 1, 2005Ricoh Company, Ltd.Method and apparatus for tracking documents in a workflow
US6861954 *Mar 27, 2002Mar 1, 2005Bruce H. LevinTracking medical products with integrated circuits
US6879264 *Jun 4, 2001Apr 12, 2005Kyuhoku Electronics, Inc.Article identifying system
US6891474Aug 1, 2002May 10, 2005Tagsense, Inc.Electromagnetic identification label for anti-counterfeiting, authentication, and tamper-protection
US6911876 *Jul 3, 2001Jun 28, 2005Skidata AgCommunication terminal for transceiving two frequencies using a common one turn antenna
US6925471 *Aug 23, 2001Aug 2, 2005International Business Machines CorporationDetecting interactions via intelligent gateway
US6951305Mar 20, 2003Oct 4, 2005Goliath Solutions, Llc.Advertising compliance monitoring system
US6988079 *Aug 21, 2000Jan 17, 2006Zvi Or-BachSystem and method for amalgamating multiple shipping companies using reusable containers and wide area networks
US6989753Dec 12, 2003Jan 24, 2006Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P.Method of and computer for identifying reminder event
US6999028Dec 23, 2003Feb 14, 20063M Innovative Properties CompanyUltra high frequency radio frequency identification tag
US7015790 *May 7, 1999Mar 21, 2006Lenovo Pte. Ltd.Intelligent antitheft method and system combining magnetic tags and smart cards
US7021535Oct 27, 2004Apr 4, 2006Goliath Solutions, LlcAdvertising compliance monitoring system
US7051205Aug 25, 2000May 23, 2006Hitachi, Ltd.Sheet-shaped medium, method and apparatus for determination of genuineness or counterfeitness of the same, and apparatus for issuing certificate
US7066393Nov 17, 2003Jun 27, 2006Rafsec OySmart label and a smart label web
US7106199 *May 24, 2004Sep 12, 2006Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.RF-ID system with sensor and method of sending additional signals
US7109867 *Sep 9, 2004Sep 19, 2006Avery Dennison CorporationRFID tags with EAS deactivation ability
US7113095May 22, 2001Sep 26, 2006Avery Dennison Corp.Trackable files and systems for using the same
US7117374 *Mar 23, 2001Oct 3, 2006Intermec Ip CorpApparatus and method for gathering and utilizing data
US7118035 *May 28, 2004Oct 10, 2006Corning Cable Systems LlcData collection system for optical fiber slice data
US7119662 *Sep 21, 2000Oct 10, 2006Hitachi, Ltd.Service system, information processing system and interrogator
US7129840Sep 3, 2002Oct 31, 2006Ricoh Company, Ltd.Document security system
US7132945 *Aug 20, 2004Nov 7, 2006Dematic Corp.Material support system for supporting items having radio frequency identification (RFID) tags
US7142120 *Jun 29, 2004Nov 28, 2006Symbol Technologies, Inc.Item finding using RF signalling
US7152803 *Jun 16, 2004Dec 26, 2006Upm Rafsec OySmart label web and a method for its manufacture
US7155199Jan 6, 2004Dec 26, 2006Nokia Mobile Phones LimitedSystem and method of making payments using an electronic device cover with embedded transponder
US7159241Sep 21, 2000Jan 2, 2007Hitachi, Ltd.Method for the determination of soundness of a sheet-shaped medium, and method for the verification of data of a sheet-shaped medium
US7161470Jan 5, 2001Jan 9, 20073M Innovative Properties CompanyUser interface for portable RFID reader
US7176802 *Sep 3, 2003Feb 13, 2007Omron CorporationRadio IC tag reader, radio IC tag read apparatus and radio IC tag read system
US7199456Dec 31, 2003Apr 3, 2007Rafsec OyInjection moulded product and a method for its manufacture
US7199719 *Mar 24, 2005Apr 3, 2007Dan Alan SteinbergRFID tag reader with tag location indicated by visible light beam
US7208351 *May 13, 2005Apr 24, 2007Hitachi, Ltd.Electronic device and method of manufacture the same
US7209041 *Sep 13, 2004Apr 24, 2007Tony HinesMobile RFID management method and system
US7215295Oct 25, 2005May 8, 20073M Innovative Properties CompanyUltra high frequency radio frequency identification tag
US7236093Sep 1, 2005Jun 26, 2007Upm Raflatac OyMethod for the manufacture of a smart label inlet web, and a smart label inlet web
US7239240 *Feb 16, 2005Jul 3, 2007Hoton HowMethod and apparatus for implementing security protection over RFID
US7243476Dec 1, 2005Jul 17, 2007Checkpoint Systems, Inc.Method and system for tracking items in a shipping facility
US7244332May 23, 2003Jul 17, 2007Rafsec OySmart label web and a method for its manufacture
US7256696Jan 31, 2005Aug 14, 2007Bruce LevinTracking surgical implements with integrated circuits
US7272982Mar 18, 2005Sep 25, 2007Arbitron Inc.Gathering data concerning publication usage
US7274291 *Apr 1, 2005Sep 25, 2007Cisco Technology, Inc.Dynamic and hybrid RFID
US7277866Mar 13, 2000Oct 2, 2007Zvi Or-BachSystem and method for consolidated shipping and receiving using reusable containers
US7295120Dec 10, 2004Nov 13, 20073M Innovative Properties CompanyDevice for verifying a location of a radio-frequency identification (RFID) tag on an item
US7304574 *Feb 10, 2005Dec 4, 2007Sensormatic Electronics CorporationAlarm investigation using RFID
US7310070Aug 23, 2006Dec 18, 2007Goliath Solutions, LlcRadio frequency identification shelf antenna with a distributed pattern for localized tag detection
US7349627 *Sep 12, 2003Mar 25, 2008Eastman Kodak CompanyTracking an image-recording medium using a watermark and associated memory
US7357300Nov 23, 2004Apr 15, 2008Ricoh Company, Ltd.Method and apparatus for tracking documents in a workflow
US7372364 *Nov 10, 2003May 13, 20083M Innovative Properties CompanyAlgorithm for RFID security
US7374096Sep 18, 2003May 20, 2008Goliath Solutions, LlcAdvertising compliance monitoring system
US7376234May 14, 2001May 20, 2008Hand Held Products, Inc.Portable keying device and method
US7392948Jul 28, 2005Jul 1, 2008Industrial Technology Research InstituteElectronic product identifier system
US7405663Oct 9, 2006Jul 29, 20083M Innovative Properties CompanySystem for detecting radio-frequency identification tags
US7408460Mar 18, 2005Aug 5, 2008Arbitron, Inc.Gathering data concerning publication usage
US7413124Jul 19, 2005Aug 19, 20083M Innovative Properties CompanyRFID reader supporting one-touch search functionality
US7424974Sep 3, 2002Sep 16, 2008Ricoh Company, Ltd.Techniques that facilitate tracking of physical locations of paper documents
US7425897Mar 27, 2006Sep 16, 2008Hitachi, Ltd.Radio frequency identification (RFID) device with a response stop command
US7431436Nov 12, 2003Oct 7, 2008Vutek, IncorporatedIdentification system for inks in printing systems
US7432797Oct 5, 2005Oct 7, 2008International Business Machines CorporationPrefetching manifest data in an RFID system
US7443292Mar 18, 2005Oct 28, 2008Arbitron, Inc.Gathering data concerning publication usage
US7446657Aug 14, 2007Nov 4, 2008Cisco Technology, Inc.Dynamic and hybrid RFID
US7463144Mar 18, 2005Dec 9, 2008Arbitron, Inc.Gathering data concerning publication usage
US7495558Apr 22, 2005Feb 24, 2009Infratab, Inc.Shelf-life monitoring sensor-transponder system
US7506250Sep 3, 2002Mar 17, 2009Ricoh Company, Ltd.Techniques for determining electronic document information for paper documents
US7511601May 20, 2002Mar 31, 20093M Innovative Properties CompanyRadio frequency identification in document management
US7516890 *May 25, 2006Apr 14, 2009The United States Of America As Represented By The Administrator Of The National Aeronautics And Space AdministrationInteractive inventory monitoring
US7518502May 24, 2007Apr 14, 2009Smith & Nephew, Inc.System and method for tracking surgical assets
US7547150Mar 9, 2007Jun 16, 2009Corning Cable Systems, LlcOptically addressed RFID elements
US7549579Apr 28, 2008Jun 23, 2009Goliath Solutions, LlcAdvertising compliance monitoring system
US7590354Aug 17, 2006Sep 15, 2009Corning Cable Systems LlcRedundant transponder array for a radio-over-fiber optical fiber cable
US7602298Dec 14, 2007Oct 13, 2009Wms Gaming Inc.Security zones for casino gaming
US7627250Aug 16, 2006Dec 1, 2009Corning Cable Systems LlcRadio-over-fiber transponder with a dual-band patch antenna system
US7650298 *Sep 27, 2006Jan 19, 2010NexiantAutomated inventory system and method
US7650793Mar 18, 2005Jan 26, 2010Arbitron, Inc.Gathering data concerning publication usage
US7652360Apr 3, 2007Jan 26, 2010Hitachi, Ltd.Electronic device and method of manufacturing the same
US7652555Sep 3, 2002Jan 26, 2010Ricoh Company, Ltd.Container for storing objects
US7656273 *Nov 26, 2007Feb 2, 2010I.D. Systems, Inc.Mobile portal for RFID luggage handling applications
US7667574Dec 14, 2006Feb 23, 2010Corning Cable Systems, LlcSignal-processing systems and methods for RFID-tag signals
US7683760 *Mar 1, 2006Mar 23, 2010I.D. Systems, Inc.Mobile portal for RFID applications
US7696875 *Oct 31, 2006Apr 13, 2010Motorola, Inc.Antenna interfaces for mobile RFID readers
US7699226Jul 28, 2005Apr 20, 2010Industrial Technology Research InstituteAutomatic plan-o-gram system
US7703691Apr 5, 2007Apr 27, 2010Cisco Technology, Inc.Multiple device and/or user association
US7710272Aug 22, 2008May 4, 2010Hitachi, Ltd.Radio frequency identification (RFID) device with a response stop command
US7740179May 19, 2006Jun 22, 2010Mediamark Research, Inc.System and method for RFID-based printed media reading activity data acquisition and analysis
US7760094Dec 14, 2006Jul 20, 2010Corning Cable Systems LlcRFID systems and methods for optical fiber network deployment and maintenance
US7764183Jan 19, 2007Jul 27, 2010Infratab, Inc.Apparatus and method for monitoring and communicating data associated with a product
US7772975Oct 31, 2006Aug 10, 2010Corning Cable Systems, LlcSystem for mapping connections using RFID function
US7782202Oct 31, 2006Aug 24, 2010Corning Cable Systems, LlcRadio frequency identification of component connections
US7787823Sep 15, 2006Aug 31, 2010Corning Cable Systems LlcRadio-over-fiber (RoF) optical fiber cable system with transponder diversity and RoF wireless picocellular system using same
US7834764Jul 9, 2008Nov 16, 2010International Business Machines CorporationPrefetching manifest data in an RFID system
US7847697Jun 20, 2008Dec 7, 20103M Innovative Properties CompanyRadio frequency identification (RFID) tag including a three-dimensional loop antenna
US7848654Sep 28, 2006Dec 7, 2010Corning Cable Systems LlcRadio-over-fiber (RoF) wireless picocellular system with combined picocells
US7854376Mar 9, 2006Dec 21, 2010Agile Software CorporationSystem and method for managing item interchange and identification in an extended enterprise
US7855697Aug 13, 2007Dec 21, 2010Corning Cable Systems, LlcAntenna systems for passive RFID tags
US7884955Sep 3, 2002Feb 8, 2011Ricoh Company, Ltd.Techniques for performing actions based upon physical locations of paper documents
US7959086Oct 19, 2007Jun 14, 2011Gfk Mediamark Research & Intelligence, LlcSystem and method for RFID-based printed media reading activity data acquisition and analysis
US7962315Mar 18, 2005Jun 14, 2011Arbitron Inc.Gathering data concerning publication usage
US7965186Mar 9, 2007Jun 21, 2011Corning Cable Systems, LlcPassive RFID elements having visual indicators
US7982616Jun 20, 2008Jul 19, 20113M Innovative Properties CompanyRadio frequency identification (RFID) tag including a three-dimensional loop antenna
US7982622Jul 8, 2010Jul 19, 2011Infratab, Inc.Apparatus and method for monitoring and communicating data associated with a product
US8033478May 3, 2010Oct 11, 2011GFK Mediamark Research and Intelligence, LLCSystem and method for RFID-based printed media reading activity data acquisition and analysis
US8036906 *Nov 29, 2001Oct 11, 2011Kojima Co., Ltd.Method and system for merchandise retail management and portable terminal
US8056814 *Feb 26, 2009Nov 15, 2011Tagsys SasCombined EAS/RFID tag
US8072332Sep 9, 2005Dec 6, 2011Avery Dennison CorporationRFID tags with EAS deactivation ability
US8089341 *Nov 1, 2005Jan 3, 2012Dai Nippon Printing Co., Ltd.Management system
US8111998Feb 6, 2007Feb 7, 2012Corning Cable Systems LlcTransponder systems and methods for radio-over-fiber (RoF) wireless picocellular systems
US8135606Apr 13, 2005Mar 13, 2012Arbitron, Inc.Gathering data concerning publication usage and exposure to products and/or presence in commercial establishment
US8144015Sep 23, 2009Mar 27, 2012Microsoft CorporationPower efficient object detection with selective polling
US8172468May 6, 2010May 8, 2012Corning IncorporatedRadio frequency identification (RFID) in communication connections, including fiber optic components
US8175459Oct 12, 2007May 8, 2012Corning Cable Systems LlcHybrid wireless/wired RoF transponder and hybrid RoF communication system using same
US8248208Jul 15, 2008Aug 21, 2012Corning Cable Systems, Llc.RFID-based active labeling system for telecommunication systems
US8248245Mar 19, 2009Aug 21, 2012Verifone, Inc.Propinquity detection by portable devices
US8258953 *Feb 12, 2009Sep 4, 2012Symbol Technologies, Inc.Displaying radio frequency identification (RFID) read range of an RFID reader based on feedback from fixed RFID beacon tags
US8264355Oct 9, 2008Sep 11, 2012Corning Cable Systems LlcRFID systems and methods for optical fiber network deployment and maintenance
US8264366Mar 31, 2009Sep 11, 2012Corning IncorporatedComponents, systems, and methods for associating sensor data with component location
US8275265Feb 15, 2010Sep 25, 2012Corning Cable Systems LlcDynamic cell bonding (DCB) for radio-over-fiber (RoF)-based networks and communication systems and related methods
US8279069Oct 11, 2010Oct 2, 2012Automated Tracking Solutions, LlcMethod and apparatus for tracking objects and people
US8289163Sep 27, 2007Oct 16, 20123M Innovative Properties CompanySignal line structure for a radio-frequency identification system
US8325019Sep 13, 2010Dec 4, 2012Ricoh Company, Ltd.Motion tracking techniques for RFID tags
US8333518Mar 13, 2012Dec 18, 2012Corning IncorporatedRadio frequency identification (RFID) in communication connections, including fiber optic components
US8356873May 24, 2012Jan 22, 2013Redwood Technologies, LlcApparatus and method for precision application and metering of a two-part (binary) imaging solution in an ink jet printer
US8356874Feb 16, 2010Jan 22, 2013Redwood Technologies, LlcApparatus and method for precision application and metering of a two-part (binary) imaging solution in an ink jet printer
US8371501Oct 27, 2008Feb 12, 2013United Services Automobile Association (Usaa)Systems and methods for a wearable user authentication factor
US8384545Dec 7, 2009Feb 26, 2013Meps Real-Time, Inc.System and method of identifying tagged articles
US8421626Oct 31, 2006Apr 16, 2013Corning Cable Systems, LlcRadio frequency identification transponder for communicating condition of a component
US8439263 *Feb 21, 2006May 14, 2013Tyco Fire & Security Services GmbHHandheld electronic article surveillance (EAS) device detector/deactivator with integrated data capture system
US8493601Dec 28, 2010Jul 23, 2013Ricoh Company Ltd.Techniques for performing actions based upon physical locations of paper documents
US8536816Sep 12, 2011Sep 17, 2013General Electric CompanyMethod and system for detecting faults in a brushless exciter
US8548330Oct 28, 2010Oct 1, 2013Corning Cable Systems LlcSectorization in distributed antenna systems, and related components and methods
US8554642May 31, 2006Oct 8, 2013Illinois Tool Works Inc.RFID methods in the manufacture of reclosable packages
US8609645 *Nov 10, 2011Dec 17, 2013Intervet Inc.Pharmaceutical formulation
US8640513Jun 22, 2011Feb 4, 2014The Stanley Works Israel Ltd.Electronic and manual lock assembly
US8640514Aug 3, 2012Feb 4, 2014The Stanley Works Israel Ltd.Electronic and manual lock assembly
US8686859Feb 25, 2013Apr 1, 2014Meps Real-Time, Inc.Method of identifying tagged articles
US8717244Oct 11, 2007May 6, 20143M Innovative Properties CompanyRFID tag with a modified dipole antenna
US8731405Aug 28, 2008May 20, 2014Corning Cable Systems LlcRFID-based systems and methods for collecting telecommunications network information
US8742929Apr 23, 2012Jun 3, 2014Automated Tracking Solutions, LlcMethod and apparatus for tracking objects and people
US8836197Mar 23, 2012Sep 16, 2014General Electric CompanyBrush holder having radio frequency identification (RFID)temperature monitoring system
US8842013Jan 31, 2014Sep 23, 2014Automated Tracking Solutions, LlcMethod and apparatus for tracking objects and people
US8847764Dec 5, 2007Sep 30, 2014Avery Dennison CorporationRFID system with distributed read structure
US8849182Mar 18, 2005Sep 30, 2014The Nielsen Company (Us), LlcGathering data concerning publication usage
US8866615Jan 31, 2014Oct 21, 2014Automated Tracking Solutions, LlcMethod and apparatus for tracking objects and people
US8882657 *Dec 28, 2006Nov 11, 2014Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc.Instrument having radio frequency identification systems and methods for use
US8896449Jan 31, 2014Nov 25, 2014Automated Tracking Solutions, LlcMethod and apparatus for tracking objects and people
US8913892Sep 10, 2013Dec 16, 2014Coring Optical Communications LLCSectorization in distributed antenna systems, and related components and methods
US8922344 *Oct 25, 2012Dec 30, 2014Symbol Technologies, Inc.Detecting rogue radio frequency based tags based on locationing
US8928463May 21, 2010Jan 6, 2015The Stanley Works Israel Ltd.Object management system and method
US8960880Feb 8, 2012Feb 24, 2015Redwood Technologies, LlcBinary epoxy ink and enhanced printer systems, structures, and associated methods
US9013087Aug 11, 2014Apr 21, 2015General Electric CompanyBrush holder having RFID temperature sensor system
US9013307Feb 9, 2011Apr 21, 2015Meps Real-Time, Inc.Self-contained RFID-enabled drawer module
US9013309Mar 31, 2014Apr 21, 2015Meps Real-Time, Inc.System and method for tracking medical items and identifying item characteristics
US20010008390 *Jan 5, 2001Jul 19, 20013M Innovative Properties CompanyUser interface for portable rfid reader
US20070249901 *Dec 28, 2006Oct 25, 2007Ohline Robert MInstrument having radio frequency identification systems and methods for use
US20090090780 *Feb 21, 2006Apr 9, 2009Sensormatic Electronics CorporationHandheld Electronic Article Surveillance (EAS) Device Detector/Deactivator with Integrated Data Capture System
US20090237223 *Mar 24, 2009Sep 24, 2009Intermec Ip Corp.Rfid tag communication triggered by sensed energy
US20100156613 *Mar 5, 2010Jun 24, 2010Brother Kogyo Kabushiki KaishaApparatus for communicating with rfid tag
US20100289624 *Jul 27, 2010Nov 18, 2010Brother Kogyo Kabushiki KaishaApparatus for communicating with rfid tag
US20120173440 *Sep 21, 2010Jul 5, 2012Avery Dennison CorporationPharmacy Waste Identification Labeling and Disposal System and Related Method of Using
US20120274452 *Apr 26, 2011Nov 1, 2012Aravind ChamartiRadio frequency (rf)-enabled latches and related components, assemblies, systems, and methods
US20130006479 *Jul 6, 2012Jan 3, 2013Anderson Gerald GMicrochip System and Method for Operating a Locking Mechanism and for Cashless Transactions
US20130112725 *Jun 6, 2012May 9, 2013Tao LuoVehicle-mounted library workstation
US20130235219 *Mar 5, 2013Sep 12, 2013Casio Computer Co., Ltd.Portable terminal and computer readable storage medium
US20140085089 *May 28, 2013Mar 27, 2014Tyco Fire & Security GmbhMobile retail peripheral platform for handheld devices
US20140085090 *Sep 10, 2013Mar 27, 2014Lsis Co., Ltd.Near field communication tag reader, mobile terminal for interworking with the reader, and operating method thereof
US20140118113 *Oct 25, 2012May 1, 2014Motorola Solutions, Inc.Detecting rogue radio frequency based tags based on locationing
USRE40623 *Nov 16, 2001Jan 20, 2009Micron Technology, Inc.Method and apparatus for identifying integrated circuits
USRE41701 *Jun 28, 2007Sep 14, 2010David DomnitzApparatus and method for delivering information to an individual based on location and/or time
USRE43430Jul 12, 2010May 29, 2012Auctnyc 10 LlcApparatus and method for delivering information to an individual based on location and/or time
CN1764932BMar 24, 2004May 23, 2012阿利安科技有限公司RFID tags and processes for producing RFID tags
CN101031933BSep 9, 2005Feb 27, 2013艾利丹尼森公司Rfid tags with eas deactivation ability
CN101826149BMay 1, 2002Jun 20, 20123M创新有限公司Rfid data collection and use
EP1398725A2 *Aug 20, 2003Mar 17, 2004Omron CorporationRFID tag reader
EP1708128A1 *Mar 27, 2006Oct 4, 2006Hitachi, Ltd.Rfid
EP1962225A1Jan 5, 2001Aug 27, 20083M Innovative Properties CompanyUser interface for portable RFID reader
EP2194492A1May 1, 2002Jun 9, 20103M Innovative Properties Co.RFID data collection and use
EP2523147A1Apr 25, 2005Nov 14, 2012Infratab, Inc.Shelf-life monitoring sensor-transponder system
WO2002103612A2 *May 23, 2002Dec 27, 20023M Innovative Properties CoMethods of managing the transfer, use, and importation of data
WO2002103650A1 *Apr 9, 2002Dec 27, 20023M Innovative Properties CoDual axis magnetic field device for changing status of eas marker
WO2004055710A2 *Dec 12, 2003Jul 1, 2004Christophe LoussertDevice for using numerous articles, each article comprising at least one contactless data medium
WO2005026993A1 *Sep 7, 2004Mar 24, 2005Agile Software CorpA system and method for managing item interchange and identification in an extended enterprise
WO2007142751A1Apr 20, 2007Dec 13, 2007Illinois Tool WorksReclosable package with an rfid tag
U.S. Classification340/10.1, 235/385, 340/572.4
International ClassificationH01Q1/22, H01Q7/00, H01Q9/28, H01Q1/36, G06K7/10, G07G1/00, G06K19/00, G06K19/077, G06K7/00, G06K19/07, B65G61/00, G06K17/00, G08B13/24, G07F7/00
Cooperative ClassificationG08B13/2462, G06K19/07779, G06K19/07783, G08B13/2417, G08B13/2411, G07G1/0054, G06K2017/0074, G08B13/2408, G08B13/2485, H01Q7/00, H01Q9/285, G08B13/2431, G06K7/10386, H01Q1/22, G06K2017/0045, G06K7/0008, G06K7/10079, H01Q1/364, G06K19/07749, G06K19/07786, H01Q1/2216, G08B13/2457, G06K17/00, G07F17/0042, G07G1/0036, G07G1/009, G06Q10/087, H01Q1/2225
European ClassificationG08B13/24B1F2, G08B13/24B1F, G06K19/077T7C1, G06K19/077T7E, G08B13/24B7S, G08B13/24B3C, G08B13/24B1G1, G08B13/24B5T, G07F17/00D, G07G1/00C2R, H01Q7/00, G06K17/00, G06K7/10A9A1, H01Q9/28B, G06Q10/087, G06K19/077T7C1C, H01Q1/22C2, H01Q1/22C4, G08B13/24B5L, H01Q1/36C, G06K7/10A1E, H01Q1/22, G07G1/00C2D, G06K19/077T, G06K7/00E, G07G1/00C
Legal Events
Aug 5, 1999ASAssignment
Jun 10, 2003CCCertificate of correction
Nov 15, 2004FPAYFee payment
Year of fee payment: 4
Nov 17, 2008FPAYFee payment
Year of fee payment: 8
Sep 28, 2012FPAYFee payment
Year of fee payment: 12