Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.

Patents

  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS6239508 B1
Publication typeGrant
Application numberUS 09/164,063
Publication dateMay 29, 2001
Filing dateSep 30, 1998
Priority dateOct 6, 1997
Fee statusLapsed
Publication number09164063, 164063, US 6239508 B1, US 6239508B1, US-B1-6239508, US6239508 B1, US6239508B1
InventorsSadeg M. Faris, Tsepin Tsai
Original AssigneeReveo, Inc.
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Electrical power generation system having means for managing the discharging and recharging of metal fuel contained within a network of metal-air fuel cell battery subsystems
US 6239508 B1
Abstract
Disclosed is an electrical power generation system comprised of a network of metal-air fuel cell battery (FCB) subsystems connected to an output power bus structure and controlled by a network control subsystem. The operation of each metal-air FCB subsystem is controlled so that, on the average, the amount of metal-fuel in each of the FCB subsystem is substantially the same, regardless of the total amount of metal-fuel remaining within the system available for electrical power generation. The electrical power generation system can be used as an electrical power plant that can be installed in virtually any system, device or environment in which there is a need to satisfy the peak power demand of an electrical load (e.g. motor, appliance, machinery, tools, etc.) independent of the total amount of metal-fuel remaining within the system. The system is provided with a network-based metal-fuel management subsystem adapted for use in managing the discharging and recharging of metal-fuel in the system in an efficient manner. In the illustrative embodiment, the electrical power generation system is embedded within an automotive vehicle that is provided with hybrid types of electrical power generating sources, as well as an auxiliary power source, for providing electrical power to the input bus structure for carrying out recharging operations.
Images(30)
Previous page
Next page
Claims(58)
What is claimed is:
1. An electrical power generation system comprising:
a power bus structure to which one or more electrical loads are connected;
a plurality of metal-air fuel cell battery (FCB) subsystems connected to said power bus structure, each having a supply of metal fuel, and capable of producing and delivering electrical power to said power bus structure;
a metal-fuel management subsystem for generating data representative of available metal fuel in each metal-air FCB subsystem; and
a control subsystem for controlling the operation of said plurality of metal-air FCB subsystems based upon said data so that electrical power is supplied to said power bus structure.
2. The electrical power generation system of claim 1, wherein said control subsystem controls the electrical power produced from said plurality of metal-air FCB subsystems and delivered to said power bus structure by enabling a selected set of said metal-air FCB subsystems to supply electrical power to said power bus structure.
3. An electrical power generation system comprising:
a network of metal-air FCB subsystems connected to a power bus structure and controlled by a network control subsystem associated with a network-based metal-fuel management subsystem;
wherein the metal-fuel within each of said FCB subsystems is managed by said network control subsystem so that, on the average, each such FCB subsystem has substantially the same amount of metal-fuel available power production at any instant in time.
4. A method of operating a network of metal-air FCB subsystems comprising the steps of:
managing the discharging of metal-fuel available within each said metal-air FCB subsystem according to a metal-fuel equalization principle whereby, on the average, the amount of metal-fuel available for discharge at any instant of time is substantially equal in each said metal-air FCB subsystem.
5. The electrical power generation system of claim 1, further comprising a load sensing subsystem that senses loading conditions along said power bus structure to identify requirements of said electrical loads, and wherein said control subsystem controls the operation of said plurality of metal-air FCB subsystems so that electrical power is supplied to said power bus structure in sufficient amounts to satisfy the requirements of said electrical loads.
6. The electrical power generation system of claim 1, wherein at least one of said plurality of metal-air FCB subsystems has a plurality of metal-fuel tracks, and wherein said control subsystem controls the electrical power produced from said plurality of metal-air FCB subsystems and delivered to said power bus structure by enabling discharge of a selective set of metal-fuel tracks within a selected set of said metal-air FCB subsystems to supply electrical power to said power bus structure.
7. The electrical power generation system of claim 6, wherein said control subsystem selectively recharges said metal-fuel tracks within said metal-air FCB subsystems so that metal-fuel availability within said plurality of metal-air FCB subsystems is substantially equalized on a time-average basis.
8. The electrical power generation system of claim 1, wherein said control subsystem controls the electrical power produced from said plurality of metal-air FCB subsystems and delivered to said power bus structure based upon discharging parameters associated with each of said metal-air FCB subsystems stored in persistent storage.
9. The electrical power generation system of claim 8, wherein said discharging parameters are selected from the group consisting of: voltages produced across cathode and anode structures during discharging operations, electric currents flowing across cathode and anode structures during discharging operations, oxygen saturation levels within cathode structures during discharging operations, moisture levels near cathode-electrolyte interfaces during discharging operations, and time of the state of any of these discharging parameters.
10. The electrical power generation system of claim 9, wherein at least one of said plurality of metal-air FCB subsystems has a plurality of metal-fuel tracks, and wherein said discharging parameters include discharging parameters associated with individual metal-fuel tracks during discharging operations.
11. The electrical power generation system of claim 10, wherein said discharging parameters comprise speed of said metal-fuel tracks.
12. The electrical power generation system of claim 10, wherein each metal-fuel track is identified by an identifying symbol associated with said metal-fuel track.
13. The electrical power generation system of claim 12, wherein said identifying symbol is positioned alongside its associated metal-fuel track.
14. The electrical power generation system of claim 12, wherein said identifying symbol is disposed in a strip positioned near an edge of said metal-fuel tracks.
15. The electrical power generation system of claim 1, wherein said control subsystem controls recharging of said plurality of metal-air FCB subsystems based upon recharging parameters associated with each of said metal-air FCB subsystems stored in persistent storage.
16. The electrical power generation system of claim 15, wherein said recharging parameters are selected from the group consisting of: voltages produced across cathode and anode structures during recharging operations, electric currents flowing across cathode and anode structures during recharging operations, oxygen saturation levels within cathode structures during recharging operations, moisture levels near cathode-electrolyte interfaces during recharging operations, and time of the state of any of these recharging parameters.
17. The electrical power generation system of claim 16, wherein at least one of said plurality of metal-air FCB subsystems has a plurality of metal-fuel tracks, and wherein said recharging parameters include recharging parameters associated with individual metal-fuel tracks during recharging operations.
18. The electrical power generation system of claim 17, wherein said recharging parameters comprise speed of said metal-fuel tracks.
19. The electrical power generation system of claim 17, wherein each metal-fuel track is identified by an identifying symbol associated with said metal-fuel track.
20. The electrical power generation system of claim 19, wherein said identifying symbol is positioned alongside its associated metal-fuel track.
21. The electrical power generation system of claim 19, wherein said identifying symbol is disposed in a strip positioned near an edge of said metal-fuel tracks.
22. The electrical power generation system of claim 15, wherein said control subsystem controls recharging of said plurality of metal-air FCB subsystems based upon data representative of metal-oxide levels in said metal-air FCB subsystems.
23. The electrical power generation system of claim 16, wherein said data representative of metal-oxide levels in said metal-air FCB subsystems is generated by applying a test voltage across cathode and anode structures and measuring a response current.
24. The electrical power generation system of claim 23, wherein said data representative of metal-oxide levels in said metal-air FCB subsystems comprises data representing said test voltage and said response current.
25. The electrical power generation system of claim 23, wherein said data representative of metal-oxide levels in said metal-air FCB subsystems comprises data representing ratio of said test voltage over said response current.
26. The electrical power generation system of claim 22, wherein at least one of said plurality of metal-air FCB subsystems has a plurality of metal-fuel tracks, and wherein said data representative of metal-oxide levels in said metal-air FCB subsystems represents metal-oxide levels in individual metal-fuel tracks of said at least one metal-air FCB subsystem.
27. The electrical power generation system of claim 1, wherein said metal-fuel is in the form of a tape.
28. The electrical power generation system of claim 27, wherein said tape is stored in a cassette device and loaded into the metal-air FCB subsystem for discharging and/or recharging operations.
29. The electrical power generation system of claim 27, wherein said metal-fuel is in the form of a card.
30. The electrical power generation system of claim 29, wherein said card is stored in a cassette device and loaded into the metal-air FCB subsystem for discharging and/or recharging operations.
31. A method for controlling operation of a metal-air FCB subsystem including a power bus structure to which one or more electrical loads are connected, and a plurality of metal-air fuel cell battery (FCB) subsystems connected to said power bus structure, each having a supply of metal fuel, and capable of producing and delivering electrical power to said power bus structure, said method comprising the steps of:
generating data representative of available metal fuel in each metal-air FCB subsystem; and
controlling the operation of said plurality of metal-air FCB subsystems based upon said data so that electrical power is supplied to said power bus structure.
32. The method of claim 31, wherein the electrical power produced from said plurality of metal-air FCB subsystems and delivered to said power bus structure is control led by enabling a selected set of said metal-air FCB subsystems to supply electrical power to said power bus structure.
33. The method of claim 31, further comprising sensing loading conditions along said power bus structure to identify requirements of said electrical loads, and wherein said control subsystem controls the operation of said plurality of metal-air FCB subsystems so that electrical power is supplied to said power bus structure in sufficient amounts to satisfy the requirements of said electrical loads.
34. The method of claim 31 wherein at least one of said plurality of metal-air FCB subsystems has a plurality of metal-fuel tracks, and wherein the controlling step controls the electrical power produced from said plurality of metal-air FCB subsystems and delivered to said power bus structure by enabling discharge of a selective set of metal-fuel tracks within a selected set of said metal-air FCB subsystems to supply electrical power to said power bus structure.
35. The method of claim 34, further comprising selectively recharging said metal-fuel tracks within said metal-air FCB subsystems so that metal-fuel availability within said plurality of metal-air FCB subsystems is substantially equalized on a time-average basis.
36. The method of claim 34, wherein said controlling step is based upon discharging parameters associated with each of said metal-air FCB subsystems stored in persistent storage.
37. The method of claim 36, wherein said discharging parameters are selected from the group consisting of: voltages produced across cathode and anode structures during discharging operations, electric currents flowing across cathode and anode structures during discharging operations, oxygen saturation levels within cathode structures during discharging operations, moisture levels near cathode-electrolyte interfaces during discharging operations, and time of the state of any of these discharging parameters.
38. The method of claim 37, wherein at least one of said plurality of metal-air FCB subsystems has a plurality of metal-fuel tracks, and wherein said discharging parameters include discharging parameters associated with individual metal-fuel tracks during discharging operations.
39. The method of claim 38, wherein said discharging parameters comprise speed of said metal-fuel tracks.
40. The method of claim 38, wherein each metal-fuel track is identified by an identifying symbol associated with said metal-fuel track.
41. The method of claim 40, wherein said identifying symbol is positioned alongside its associated metal-fuel track.
42. The method of claim 40, wherein said identifying symbol is disposed in a strip positioned near an edge of said metal-fuel tracks.
43. The method of claim 31, further comprising the step of recharging said plurality of metal-air FCB subsystems based upon recharging parameters associated with each of said metal-air FCB subsystems stored in persistent storage.
44. The method of claim 43, wherein said recharging parameters are selected from the group consisting of: voltages produced across cathode and anode structures during recharging operations, electric currents flowing across cathode and anode structures during recharging operations, oxygen saturation levels within cathode structures during recharging operations, moisture levels near cathode-electrolyte interfaces during recharging operations, and time of the state of any of these recharging parameters.
45. The method of claim 44, wherein at least one of said plurality of metal-air FCB subsystems has a plurality of metal-fuel tracks, and wherein said recharging parameters include recharging parameters associated with individual metal-fuel tracks during recharging operations.
46. The method of claim 45, wherein said recharging parameters comprise speed of said metal-fuel tracks.
47. The method of claim 45, wherein each metal-fuel track is identified by an identifying symbol associated with said metal-fuel track.
48. The method of claim 47, wherein said identifying symbol is positioned alongside its associated metal-fuel track.
49. The method of claim 47, wherein said identifying symbol is disposed in a strip positioned near an edge of said metal-fuel tracks.
50. The method of claim 43, wherein recharging of said plurality of metal-air FCB subsystems is based upon data representative of metal-oxide levels in said metal-air FCB subsystems.
51. The method of claim 50, wherein said data representative of metal-oxide levels in said metal-air FCB subsystems is generated by applying a test voltage ac ross cathode and anode structures and measuring a response current.
52. The method of claim 51, wherein said data representative of metal-oxide levels in said metal-air FCB subsystems comprises data representing said test voltage and said response current.
53. The method of claim 51, wherein said data representative of metal-oxide levels in said metal-air FCB subsystems comprises data representing ratio of said test voltage over said response current.
54. The method of claim 50, wherein at least one of said plurality of metal-air FCB subsystems has a plurality of metal-fuel tracks, and wherein said data representative of metal-oxide levels in said metal-air FCB subsystems represents metal-oxide levels in individual metal-fuel tracks of said at least one metal-air FCB subsystem.
55. The method of claim 31, wherein said metal-fuel is in the form of a tape.
56. The method of claim 55, wherein said tape is stored in a cassette device and loaded into the metal-air FCB subsystem for discharging and/or recharging operations.
57. The method of claim 31, wherein said metal-fuel is in the form of a card.
58. The method of claim 57, wherein said card is stored in a cassette device and loaded into the metal-air FCB subsystem for discharging and/or recharging operations.
Description
RELATED CASES

This is a Continuation-in-Part of: copending application Ser. No. 09/110,761 entitled “METAL-AIR FCB SUBSYSTEM EMPLOYING A PLURALITY OF MOVING CATHODE STRUCTURES FOR IMPROVED VOLUMETRIC POWER DENSITY” filed Jul. 3, 1998; copending Application Ser. No. 09/110,762 entitled “METAL-AIR FCB SUBSYSTEM EMPLOYING METAL-FUEL TAPE AND LOW-FRICTION CATHODE STRUCTURES” filed Jul. 3, 1998; application Ser. No. 09/074,337 entitled “METAL-AIR FUEL-CELL BATTERY SYSTEM HAVING MEANS FOR MANAGING AVAILABILITY OF METAL-FUEL THEREWITHIN” filed May 7, 1998; and copending application Ser. No. 08/944,507 entitled “High-Power Density Metal-air FCB subsystem” by Sadeg Faris, et al. filed Oct. 6, 1997, said application being assigned to Reveo, Inc. and incorporated herein by reference in its entirely.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

1. Field of the Invention

The present invention relates to an improved way of and means for producing electrical power from a network of metal-air Fuel Cell Battery (FCB) subsystems so that the peak power requirements of an electrical load (e.g. motor, appliance, machinery, tools, etc.) can be satisfied independent of the total amount of metal-fuel remaining within the system at any instant of time.

2. Description of the Prior Art

There is an increasing demand for electrically-powered vehicles in our society. As such, numerous methods have been proposed for supplying electric power to such electric vehicles.

One method of providing electrical power to such vehicles involves using hydrogen-based fuel cells. While this technique appears promising in space applications, the use of hydrogen as a fuel source in automobiles presents numerous problems including, for example, the volatility of hydrogen, special fuel-handling procedures, fuel inefficiency, and the like.

Alternative approaches to generating electrical power include the use of conventional battery technology configured together in various arrangements. With such technology, however, it is not possible to construct a vehicle that has the capacity to travel long distances without recharging its electric batteries. Factors which contribute to such limitations include the weight of the batteries, and the low volumetric power densities associated with conventional battery technology.

The use of solar-energy has also been proposed to supply electrical power to electric vehicles. Presently, this approach is not feasible due to the inefficiencies of photo-voltaic cells and energy storage capacities of commercial storage batteries.

Metal-air fuel cell battery (FCB) technology offers great promise in its capacity to produce relatively large amounts of electrical power in a continuous manner by reacting air and metal, such as zinc, in the presence of an electrolyte and a catalyst. U.S. Pat. No. 5,250,370 to Applicant discloses a tape-based metal-air FCB system for producing electrical power using such principles in systems having markedly improved electrical power density characteristics. Despite such promise offered by metal-air FCB technology, such technology is not without its problems.

For example, the degree to which metal-fuel tape is discharged by a metal-air FCB system depends on the electrical loading conditions imposed thereon during power generation operations. Thus, when electrical loading is heavy, the metal-fuel tape is completely consumed and electrical power efficiently generated. However, when electrical loading is light, the metal-fuel tape is only partially consumed and electrical power inefficiently generated.

In practical applications, the electrical loading conditions imposed on the output circuitry of a metal-air FCB system will vary over time and in response to conditions associated with the external environment. Addressing this problem, it is possible to couple together the output power of several metal-air FCB systems of the type disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 5,250,370 so that the combined output power of the resulting system is significantly greater than the individual output powers and thus capable of meeting the peak power requirements of the electrical load connected to the resulting system.

In such cases when the demand for electrical power by the load varies over time and/or in response to changing environmental conditions, then it might be necessary or otherwise desirable to operate (i.e. switch-in) one or more of the metal-air FCB (sub)systems in the resulting system so that the combined output power is sufficient to satisfy the peak power requirements of the load. Notably, the use of this power control method over time will result in a rapid depletion of the metal-fuel in certain of the metal-air FCB subsystems that have been frequently operated, but not in other metal-air FCB subsystems that have been operated less frequently. Then when the power demanded by the load increases to its peak power demand value, the resulting FCB system will lack the capacity to generate a sufficient amount of output power to meet the peak power requirements of the electrical load.

Thus there is a great need in the art for an improved way of and means for generating electrical power from metal-air FCB systems so that the peak power requirements of electrical loads connected thereto can be met in a satisfactory manner while overcoming the shortcomings and limitations of prior art technologies.

OBJECTS AND SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

Accordingly, a primary object of the present invention is to provide an improved method of and system for generating electrical power from metal-air FCB systems so that the peak power requirements of electrical loads connected thereto can be met in a satisfactory manner while overcoming the shortcomings and limitations of prior art technologies.

Another object of the present invention is to provide an electrical power generation system based on metal-air FCB technology which can be used as an electrical power plant that can be installed in virtually any system, device or environment in which there is a need to satisfy the peak power requirements of an electrical load (e.g. engines, motors, appliances, machinery, tools, etc.) independent of the total amount of unconsumed metal-fuel remaining within the electrical power generation system.

Another object of the present invention is to provide such a system, wherein a network of metal-air FCB subsystems are connected to an output power bus structure and controlled by a network control subsystem associated with a network-based metal-fuel management (database) subsystem.

Another object of the present invention is to provide such a system for installation aboard a transportation or like vehicle, and supplying power to a plurality of electrical motors that are used to propel the vehicle over a long range of distances without recharging.

Another object of the present invention is to provide such a system wherein the electrical power output produced therefrom is controlled by enabling selected metal-air FCB subsystems to supply electrical power to the output power bus structure of the system.

Another object of the present invention is to provide such a system wherein the metal-fuel within each of the FCB subsystems is managed so that, on the average, each such FCB subsystem has substantially the same amount of metal-fuel available for power production at any instant in time.

Another object of the present invention is to provide such a system wherein metal-fuel among the network of metal-air FCB subsystems is managed according to the metal-fuel equalization principle whereby, or the average, the amount of metal-fuel available for discharge at any instant of time is substantially equal in each FCB subsystem.

Another object of the present invention is to provide an electrical power generation system which can be used as an electrical power plant that can be installed in virtually any system, device or environment in which there is a need to satisfy the peak power demand of an electrical load (e.g. motor, appliance, machinery, tools, etc.) independent of the total amount of unconsumed metal-fuel remaining within the electrical power generation system.

Another object of the present invention is to provide such a system wherein only one or a few metal-air FCB subsystems, referable to as power cylinders, are enabled into operation when the host system, such as a transport vehicle, is travelling along flat land or downhill, and many or all of the power cylinders are enabled into operation when the host system is attempting to pass another vehicle or is travelling uphill.

Another object of the present invention is to provide such a system wherein metal-fuel among the network of metal-air FCB subsystems is managed so that information regarding unconsumed (or inefficiently-consumed) amounts of metal-fuel remaining within any metal-air FCB subsystem is produced within metal-air fuel cell subsystem and provided to a network-based metal-fuel management database which is used by a network control subsystem to transport unconsumed amounts of metal-fuel into the discharge head assemblies of such subsystems while managing metal-fuel consumption in accordance with the metal-fuel equalization principle of the present invention.

Another object of the present invention is to provide such a system, wherein peak power requirements of the host system can always be met regardless of the total quantity of metal-fuel remaining within the network of metal-air FCB subsystems.

Another object of the present invention is to provide such a system, wherein all metal-fuel contained within the network of metal-air FCB subsystems can be utilized by the system to produce electrical power in quantities sufficient to satisfy peak power requirements of the host system.

Another object of the present invention is to provide such a system, wherein metal-fuel contained within each of the metal-air FCB subsystems is realized in the form of a supply of metal-fuel tape which can be transported through its discharging head assembly in a bi-directional manner while the availability of metal-fuel therealong is automatically managed in order to improve the performance of the system.

Another object of the present invention is to provide such a system, wherein the metal-fuel tape to be discharged comprises multiple metal-fuel tracks for use in generating different output voltages from a metal-air FCB subsystem.

Another object of the present invention is to provide such a system, wherein each zone or subsection of metal fuel along the length of each metal-fuel tape track is labelled with a digital code, through optical or magnetic means, for enabling the recording of discharge-related data and the computation of metal-fuel availability along each such zone of metal-fuel tape during discharging operations within the respective metal-air FCB subsystem.

Another object of the present invention is to provide such a system, wherein metal-fuel tape can be transported through its recharging head assembly in a bi-directional manner while the presence of metal-oxide therealong is automatically managed in order to improve the performance of the system during the recharging operations carried out within respective metal-air FCB subsystems.

Another object of the present invention is to provide such a system, wherein the oxidized metal-fuel tape to be recharged comprises multiple metal-fuel tracks for use in generating different output voltages from the network of metal-air FCB subsystems.

Another object of the present invention is to provide such a system, wherein each zone or subsection of metal fuel along the length of each metal-fuel tape track is labelled with a digital code, through optical or magnetic means, for enabling the recording of recharge-related data and the computation of metal-oxide presence along each such zone of metal-fuel tape during recharging operations carried out within respective metal-air FCB subsystems.

These and other objects of the present invention will become apparent hereinafter.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

For a more complete understanding of the Objects of the Present Invention, the following detailed Description of the Illustrative Embodiments Of the Present Invention should be read in conjunction with the accompanying Drawings, wherein:

FIG. 1A is a schematic representation of a transportation vehicle, wherein the electrical power generation system of the present invention is provided for the purpose of generating and supplying electrical power to electrically-driven motors coupled to the wheels of the vehicle, and wherein auxiliary and hybrid power sources are provided for recharging metal-fuel within the FCB subsystems thereof;

FIG. 1B is a schematic representation of the electrical power generation system of the present invention realized as a stationary electrical power plant having auxiliary and hybrid power sources for recharging metal-fuel within the FCB subsystems thereof;

FIG. 2A is a schematic representation of the electrical power generation system of a first illustrative embodiment, wherein a network of metal-air FCB subsystems are operably connected to a DC power bus structure and controlled by a network control subsystem in operable association with a network-based metal-fuel management subsystem;

FIG. 2B is a schematic representation of the electrical power generation system of a second illustrative embodiment, wherein the output DC power bus structure of FIG. 2A is operably connected to an output AC power bus structure by way of a DC-to-AC power converter, for supplying AC power to electrical loads;

FIG. 2C is a schematic representation of the database structure maintained by the network-based metal-fuel/metal-oxide management subsystem shown in FIGS. 2A and 2B;

FIG. 3 is a graphical representation showing how an additional metal-air FCB subsystems are enabled into operation in their discharge mode as a function of an increase in the output power requirements demanded by an electrical load which increases over time;

FIG. 4 is a schematic block diagram of a first illustrative embodiment of the metal-air FCB subsystem of the present invention, wherein a Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystem and a Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem are integrated within a single, stand-alone rechargeable power generation unit, and the tape path-length extension mechanism employed in the Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem extends oxidized metal-fuel tape over a path-length which is substantially greater than the path-length maintained by the tape path-length extension mechanism in the Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystem (i.e. ARecharge>>ADischarge);

FIG. 5A1 is a generalized schematic representation of the Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystem of FIG. 4, wherein the tape path-length extension mechanism associated therewith is shown in its non-extended configuration;

FIG. 5A2 is a generalized schematic representation of the Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystem of FIG. 4, wherein the tape path-length extension mechanism associated therewith is shown in its extended configuration and the assembly of discharging heads thereof configured about the extended path of metal-fuel tape for generating electrical power across an electrical load connected to the metal-air FCB subsystem;

FIGS. 5A31 and 5A32, taken together, set forth a generalized schematic representation of the Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystem shown in FIG. 4, wherein the subcomponents thereof are shown in greater detail, and the discharging heads thereof withdrawn from the extended path of unoxidized metal-fuel tape;

FIG. 5A4 is a schematic representation of the Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystem shown in FIGS. 5A31 and 5A32, wherein the tape path-length extension mechanism is arranged in its extended configuration with its four independent discharging heads arranged about the extended path of unoxidized metal-fuel tape, and metal-fuel zone (MFZ) identification data is generated from each discharging head during tape discharging operations so that the system controller can record, in memory, “discharge parameters” of the Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystem during the discharging of each metal-fuel zone identified along the metal-fuel tape being transported through the discharge head assembly;

FIG. 5A5 is a high-level flow chart setting forth the basic steps involved during the discharging of metal-fuel tape (i.e. electrical power generation therefrom) when using the Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystem shown in FIGS. 5A31, 5A32 and 5A4;

FIG. 5A6 is a perspective view of the cathode support structure employed in each discharging head of the Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystem shown in FIGS. 5A31, 5A32 and 5A4, showing five parallel channels within which electrically-conductive cathode strips and ionically-conducting electrolyte-impregnated strips are securely supported in its assembled state;

FIG. 5A7 is a perspective, exploded view of cathode and electrolyte impregnated strips and oxygen pressure (pO2) sensors installed within the support channels of the cathode support structure shown in FIG. 5A6;

FIG. 5A8 is a perspective view of the cathode structure and oxygen-injecting chamber of the first illustrative embodiment of the present invention, shown in its fully assembled state and adapted for use in the discharging head assembly shown in FIGS. 5A31, 5A32 and 5A4;

FIG. 5A9 is a perspective view of a section of unoxidized metal-fuel tape for use in the Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystem shown in FIGS. 5A1 through 5A4, showing (i) its parallel metal-fuel strips spatially registerable with the cathode strips in the cathode structure of the discharging head partially shown in FIG. 5A8, and (ii) an graphically-encoded data track containing sequences of code symbols along the length of metal-fuel tape for identifying each metal-fuel zone therealong and facilitating, during discharging operations, (i) reading (or accessing), from data storage memory, recharge parameters and/or metal-fuel indicative data correlated to metal-fuel zone identification data prerecorded during previous recharging and/or discharging operations, and (ii) recording, in data storage memory, sensed discharge parameters and computed metal-oxide indicative data correlated to metal-fuel zone identification data read during the discharging operation;

FIG. 5A9′ is a perspective view of a section of unoxidized metal-fuel tape for use in the Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystem shown in FIGS. 5, 5A31, 5A32 and 5A4, showing (i) parallel metal-fuel strips spatially registerable with the cathode strips in the cathode structure of the discharging head partially shown in FIG. 5A8, and (ii) a magnetically-encoded data track embodying sequences of code symbols along the length of metal-fuel tape for identifying each metal-fuel zone therealong and facilitating, during discharging operations, (i) reading (or accessing), from data storage memory, recharge parameters and/or metal-fuel indicative data correlated to metal-fuel zone identification data prerecorded during previous recharging and/or discharging operations, and (ii) recording, in data storage memory, sensed discharge parameters and computed metal-oxide indicative data correlated to metal-fuel zone identification data read during the discharging operation;

FIG. 5A9″ is a perspective view of a section of unoxidized metal-fuel tape for use in the Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystem shown in FIGS. 5A1 through 5A4, showing (i) parallel metal-fuel strips spatially registerable with the cathode strips in the cathode structure of the discharging head partially shown in FIG. 5A8, and (ii) an optically-encoded data track containing sequences of light-transmission aperture-type code symbols along the length of metal-fuel tape for identifying each metal-fuel zone therealong, and facilitating, during discharging operations, (i) reading (or accessing), from data storage memory, recharge parameters and/or metal-fuel indicative data correlated to metal-fuel zone identification data prerecorded during previous recharging and/or discharging operations, and (ii) recording, in data storage memory, sensed discharge parameters and computed metal-oxide indicative data correlated to metal-fuel zone identification data read during the recharging operation;

FIG. 5A10 is a perspective view of an assembled discharging head within the Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystem shown in FIGS. 5A31, 5A32 and 5A4, wherein during the Discharging Mode thereof, metal-fuel tape is transported past the air-pervious cathode structures shown in FIG. 5A8, and multiple anode-contacting elements establishing electrical contact with the metal-fuel strips of metal-fuel tape transported through the discharging head;

FIG. 5A11 is a cross-sectional view of the assembled cathode structure, taken along line 5A115A11 of FIG. 5A8, showing its cross-sectional details;

FIG. 5A12 is a cross-sectional view of the metal-fuel tape shown in FIG. 5A9, taken along line 5A125A12 thereof, showing its cross-sectional details;

FIG. 5A13 is a cross-sectional view of the cathode structure and oxygen-injecting chamber of the discharging head shown in FIG. 5A10, taken along line 5A135A13 therein, arranged in electrical contact with the metal-fuel tape structure shown in FIG. 5A12;

FIG. 5A14 is a cross-sectional view of the discharging head shown in FIG. 5A10, taken along line 5A145A14 therein, showing its cross-sectional details;

FIG. 5A15 is a perspective view of the multi-track metal-oxide sensing head assembly employed in the Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystem shown in FIGS. 5A1 through 5A4, particularly adapted for real-time sensing (i.e. detecting) metal-oxide formations along each metal-fuel zone to assess the presence or absence of metal-fuel therealong during discharging operations;

FIG. 5A16 is a schematic representation of the information structure maintained within the Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystem of FIG. 4, comprising a set of information fields for recording discharge parameters, and metal-oxide and metal-fuel indicative data for each metal-fuel zone identified (i.e. addressed) along a discharged section of metal-fuel tape during the discharging mode of operation;

FIG. 5B1 is a generalized schematic representation of the Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem of FIG. 4, wherein the tape path-length extension mechanism employed therein is shown in its non-extended configuration;

FIG. 5B2 is a generalized schematic representation of the Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem of FIG. 4, wherein the tape path-length extension mechanism employed therein is shown in its extended configuration and the recharging heads thereof are configured about the extended path of oxidized metal-fuel tape for recharging the same;

FIGS. 5B31 and 5B32, taken together, set forth a generalized schematic representation of the Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem shown in FIG. 4, wherein the subcomponents thereof are shown in greater detail, and the recharging heads thereof withdrawn from the extended path of oxidized metal-fuel tape;

FIG. 5B4 is a schematic representation of the Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem shown in FIGS. 5B31 and 5B32, wherein the subcomponents thereof are shown in greater detail, the tape path-length extension mechanism is arranged in its extended configuration with four independent recharging heads arranged about the extended path of oxidized metal-fuel tape, and metal-fuel zone identification data (MFZID) is generated from the recharging heads during tape recharging operations so that the system controller can access previously recorded discharge parameters and metal-fuel indicative data from system memory, correlated to each metal-fuel zone along the metal-fuel tape, thereby enabling optimal setting of recharge parameters during tape recharging operations;

FIG. 5B5 is a high-level flow chart setting forth the basic steps involved during the recharging of oxidized metal-fuel tape when using the Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem shown in FIGS. 5B31 through 5B4;

FIG. 5B6 is a perspective view of the cathode support structure employed in each recharging head of the Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem shown in FIGS. 5B31, 5B32 and 5B4, and comprises five parallel channels within which electrically-conductive cathode strips and ionically-conducting electrolyte-impregnated strips are securely supported;

FIG. 5B7 is a perspective, exploded view of cathode and electrolyte-impregnated strips and oxygen pressure (pO2) sensors installed within the support channels of the cathode support structure shown in FIG. 5B8;

FIG. 5B8 is a perspective view of the cathode structure and oxygen-evacuation chamber of the first illustrative embodiment of the present invention, shown in its fully assembled state and adapted for use in the recharging heads shown in FIGS. 5B32, 5B32 and 5B4;

FIG. 5B9 is a perspective view of a section of oxidized metal-fuel tape for recharging in the Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem shown in FIGS. 5B31, 5B32 and 5B4, and comprising parallel metal-fuel strips spatially registerable with the cathode strips in the cathode structure (i.e. recharging head) of FIG. 5B8, and an optically encoded data track containing sequences of bar of code symbols along the length of metal-fuel tape for identifying each metal-fuel zone along the reel of metal-fuel tape, and facilitating, during recharging operations, (i) reading (or accessing), from data storage memory, discharge parameters and/or metal-oxide indicative data correlated to metal-fuel zone identification data prerecorded during previous discharging and/or recharging operations, and (ii) recording, in data storage memory, sensed recharge parameters and computed metal-fuel indicative data correlated to metal-fuel zone identification data read during the recharging operation;

FIG. 5B9′ is a perspective view of a section of oxidized metal-fuel tape for use in the Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem shown in FIGS. 5, 5B31, 5B32 and 5B4, showing (i) parallel metal-fuel strips spatially registerable with the cathode strips in the cathode structure of the recharging head partially shown in FIG. 5B8, and (ii) a magnetically-encoded data track embodying sequences of digital words along the length thereof identifying each metal-fuel zone therealong, and facilitating, during recharging operations, (i) reading (or accessing), from data storage memory, discharge parameters and/or metal-oxide indicative data correlated to metal-fuel zone identification data prerecorded during previous discharging and/or recharging operations, and (ii) recording, in data storage memory, sensed recharge parameters and computed metal-fuel indicative data correlated to metal-fuel zone identification data read during the recharging operation;

FIG. 5B9″ is a perspective view of a section of reoxidized metal-fuel tape for use in the Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem shown in FIGS. 5, 5B31, 5B32 and 5B4, showing (i) parallel metal-fuel strips spatially registerable with the cathode strips in the cathode structure of the recharging head partially shown in FIG. 5B8, and (ii) an optically-encoded data track containing sequences of light-transmission aperture-type code symbols along the length of metal-fuel tape for identifying each metal-fuel zone therealong, and facilitating, during recharging operations, (i) reading (or accessing), from data storage memory, discharge parameters and/or metal-oxide indicative data correlated to metal-fuel zone identification data prerecorded during previous discharging and/or recharging operations, and (ii) recording, in data storage memory, sensed recharge parameters and computed metal-fuel indicative data correlated to metal-fuel zone identification data read during the recharging operation;

FIG. 5B10 is a perspective view of a recharging head within the Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem shown in FIGS. 5B31, 5B32 and 5B4, wherein during the Recharging Mode thereof, metal-fuel tape is transported past the air-pervious cathode structure shown in FIG. 5B8, and five anode-contacting elements establish electrical contact with the metal-fuel strips of the transported metal-fuel tape;

FIG. 5B11 is a cross-sectional view of the cathode support structure head in the Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem hereof, taken along line 5B115B11 of FIG. 5B8, showing a plurality of cathode and electrolyte-impregnated strips supported therein;

FIG. 5B12 is a cross-sectional view of the metal-fuel tape shown in FIG. 5B9, taken along line 5B125B12 thereof;

FIG. 5B13 is a cross-sectional view of the cathode structure of the recharging head shown in FIG. 5B10, taken along line 5B135B13 therein arranged with the cathode structure shown in FIG. 5B11;

FIG. 5B14 is a cross-sectional view of the recharging head assembly shown in FIG. 5B10, taken along line 5B145B14 therein;

FIG. 5B15 is a perspective view of the multi-track metal-oxide sensing head employed in the Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem shown in FIGS. 5B31, 5B32 and 5B4, particularly adapted for sensing which metal-fuel tracks have been discharged and thus require recharging by the subsystem;

FIG. 5B16 is a schematic representation of the information structure maintained within the Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem of FIG. 4, comprising a set of information fields for recording recharge parameters and metal-fuel and metal-oxide indicative data for each metal-fuel zone identified (i.e. addressed) along a section of metal-fuel tape during the recharging mode of operation; and

FIG. 5B17 is a schematic representation of the FCB subsystem of FIG. 4 showing a number of subsystems which enable, during the recharging mode of operation, (a)(i) reading metal-fuel zone identification data from transported metal-fuel tape, (a)(ii) recording in memory, sensed recharge parameters and computed metal-fuel indicative data derived therefrom, and (a)(iii) reading (accessing) from memory, discharge parameters and computed metal-oxide indicative data recorded during the previous discharging and/or recharging mode of operation through which the identified metal-fuel zone has been processed, and during the discharging mode of operation, (b)(i) reading metal-fuel zone identification data from transported metal-fuel tape, (b)(ii) recording in memory, sensed discharge parameters and computed metal-oxide indicative data derived therefrom, and (b)(iii) reading (accessing) from memory, recharge parameters and computed metal-fuel indicative data recorded during the previous recharging and/or discharging operations through which the identified metal-fuel zone has been subjected.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE ILLUSTRATIVE EMBODIMENTS OF THE PRESENT INVENTION

Referring now to the figures in the accompanying Drawings, the illustrative embodiments of the present invention will now be described in great technical detail, wherein like elements are indicated by like reference numbers.

In general, the electrical power generation system (or plant) of the present invention can be embedded within any system, wherein electrical power is required for driving one or more AC and/or DC type electrical loads, and real-time management of metal-fuel within the system is required for efficient and/or reliable operation. For purposes of illustration, the electrical power generation system of the present invention 700 is shown in FIG. 1A as embedded within an electrically-powered transportation system or vehicle 701 realizable in the form of an electrically-powered automobile, train, truck, motorcycle, or any other type of vehicle employing one or more AC and/or DC powered loads (e.g. motors) well known in the art. In FIG. 1B, the electrical power generation system 700 is shown realized as a stationary power plant. Each arrangement, the power generation system 700 is shown having auxiliary and hybrid power sources connected 702,703 and 704 thereto. In general, the electrical power generation system 700 can be configured to produce DC power for supply to one or more DC-type electrical loads 702 as shown in FIG. 1A, or AC power for supply to one or more AC-type electrical loads as shown in FIG. 1B. Each of these system embodiments will be described in detail below.

As shown in FIG. 2A, the first illustrative embodiment of the electric power generation system 700 comprises: an output DC power bus structure 706 for supplying DC electrical power to a plurality of electrical loads 707A-707D connected thereto; a network of metal-air FCB (sub)systems 708A through 708H, each operably connected to the DC power bus structure 706 by way of its output power control subsystem 41 (shown in FIG. 5A4), so as to enable a supply of DC electrical power to the DC power bus structure; an output voltage control subsystem 709 operably connected to the DC power bus structure 706, for controlling (i.e. regulating) the output voltage therealong; loading sensing circuitry 710 operably connected to the output DC power bus structure 706 for sensing real-time loading conditions along the DC power bus and generating input signals indicative of the loading conditions along the DC power bus structure; a network control subsystem (e.g. microcomputer with RAM/ROM/EPROM) 711 for controlling the operation of each FCB subsystem within the network (e.g. by way of controlling discharging/recharging parameters during discharging/recharging modes of operation, respectively, and collecting metal-fuel and metal-oxide indicative data from the particular FCB subsystems on a real-time basis); a FCB subsystem control bus structure 712 to which each FCB subsystem 708A through 708H is operably connected by way of its input/output subsystem 41 (shown in FIG. 5A4), and for enabling the transfer of metal-fuel indicative data from the FCB subsystems to the network control subsystem 711, and the transfer of control signals from the network control subsystem 711 to the FCB subsystems during power generation operations; and a network-based metal-fuel management subsystem (e.g. a relational database management system) 713 operably connected to the network control subsystem 711, for storing information representative of the amount of metal-fuel (and metal-oxide) present along each zone of each metal-fuel track within each FCB subsystem connected between bus structures 706 and 712 in the system; an input DC power bus structure 714 for supplying DC power to each of the FCB subsystems 707A-707H during recharging operations, produced from auxiliary and hybrid power sources 702, 703, 704 and 704′; and an input voltage control subsystem 715 for controlling the input voltage along input DC power bus structure 714.

In general, any one of the FCB subsystems disclosed herein can be embedded within the electrical power supply network described above. Embedding each FCB subsystem is simply achieved by connecting its input/output subsystem 41 (shown in FIG. 5A4) to the FCB subsystem control bus structure 712, and connecting its output power control subsystem 40 (shown in FIG. 5A4) to the DC power bus structure 706. Also, each FCB subsystem includes a metal-fuel recharging subsystem 7 for recharging metal-fuel tracks under the global control of the network control subsystem 711.

In FIG. 2B, an alternative embodiment of the electric power generation system of the present invention is shown. In this alternative embodiment of the present invention, a DC-AC power conversion subsystem 716 is provided between the output DC power bus structure 706 and an output AC power bus structure 717, to which a plurality of AC-type electrical loads 707A and 707D are connected in an operable manner. In such an alternative embodiment of the present invention, DC power supplied to the DC power bus structure 706 is converted to an AC power supply that is applied to the AC power bus structure 717. Output voltage control unit 709 is provided for the purpose of controlling the output voltage along the AC power bus structure 717. AC power delivered to the AC bus structure 717 is supplied to the AC electrical loads (e.g. AC motors) connected thereto.

In the preferred embodiment, the metal-fuel management subsystem 713 comprises a relational-database management system comprising means for maintaining a plurality of data tables containing information representative of the amount of metal-fuel available (and metal-oxide present) along each zone of each metal-fuel track within each FCB subsystem in the electrical power generation system. In FIG. 2C, such data tables are schematically depicted. As electrical power is being generated from the individual FCB subsystems, metal-fuel indicative data is automatically generated within each subsystem during discharging modes, while metal-oxide presence data is generated during recharging modes of operation. Details of the information fields of such tables are shown in FIG. 5B16, and described hereinafter.

In many applications it will be desirable to manage the consumption of metal-fuel in each FCB subsystem 707A through 707D so that each such FCB subsystem has substantially the same amount of metal-fuel available at each instant in time. This metal-fuel equalization principle is achieved by the network control subsystem 711 carrying out the following functions: (1) enabling the sensing of actual loading conditions along the DC power bus structure by the load sensing subsystem 710; (2) enabling particular FCB subsystems (708A-708B) to generate and supply electrical power to the output DC power bus structure 706 in response to such sensed loading conditions; (3) managing the availability of metal-fuel and the presence of metal-oxide within the FCB subsystems using the network-based metal-fuel management (database) subsystem 713; and (4) enabling selective discharging of metal-fuel tracks within selected FCB subsystems (and optionally, the selective recharging of metal-oxide therealong) so that the metal-fuel availability within each FCB subsystems is substantially equalized on a time-average basis. This method can be achieved in a straightforward manner programming technologies well known the computing arts.

The advantages derived from having the network control subsystem 711 carry out “metal-fuel equalization” across each of the FCB subsystems can be best appreciated by way of example, referring to FIG. 3.

In general, the amount of electrical power that is produced by the electrical power system hereof depends on the amount of electrical power required by the electrical load(s) connected to the system. In accordance with the present invention, an increase in electrical power output from the system is achieved by enabling additional metal-air FCB subsystems to generate and supply electrical power to the output power bus, structure 706 (or 717 in the case of AC loads) under the control of a programmed network control subsystem 711. For example, consider the case of an electrical power system having eight FCB subsystems connected between its DC power bus structure 706 and FCB subsystem control bus structure 712. In such an example, it might be helpful to metaphorically view each FCB subsystem 707A through 708D as a “power cylinder” within an engine capable of doing work. Thus, consider the case of an electrical power generation system (or plant) in accordance with the present invention, wherein eight FCB subsystems (i.e. power cylinders) which are configured together and embodied within the structure of an electrically-powered automobile or like vehicle, as shown in FIG. 1A. In such a case, the number of FCB subsystems (i.e. power cylinders) that are enabled to generate electrical power at any instant in time will depend on the electrical load presented to the electrical power generation plant aboard the automobile 701. Thus, when the automobile is travelling along a flat horizontal road surface or cruising downhill, it is conceivable that only one or a few FCB subsystems (i.e. power cylinders) will be enabled, by network control subsystem 711, whereas when travelling uphill or passing another automobile, more or all FCB subsystems (i.e. power cylinders) are enabled by subsystem 711 in order to meet the power requirements demanded by such operating conditions. Regardless of the loading conditions imposed on the electrical power generation system aboard the vehicle, the average rate of consumption of metal-fuel within each of the metal-air FCB subsystems 708A through 708H will be substantially equal on a time-average basis, in accordance with the metal-fuel equalization principle described above, so that, on a time-average basis, the amount of metal-fuel available for discharging in each FCB subsystem 708A through 708H is maintained substantially equal by network control subsystem 711.

In the illustrative embodiment, the network control subsystem 711 carries out a control process (i.e. algorithm) which is designed to receive various input parameters and produce various output parameters so that the control processes of the present invention are carried out in an automated manner. The input parameters in the control process include, for example, data relating to: (i) load conditions sensed by load sensing subsystem 710 and other sensors aboard the electrically-powered vehicle (e.g. RPM of the electric motors, speed of the vehicle, etc.); (ii) the amount of metal-fuel available along each zone of metal-fuel within each metal-air FCB subsystem; (iii) the amount of metal-oxide present along each zone of metal-fuel within each metal-air FCB subsystem; (iv) discharging parameters associated with each of the metal-air FCB subsystems; and (v) recharging parameters associated with each of the metal-air FCB subsystems (when recharging mode is provided therewithin). The output parameters in the control process include, for example, control data for controlling: (i) which set of metal-air FCB subsystems should be enabled at any instant in time for discharging operations; (ii) which metal-fuel zones should be discharged within an enabled metal-air FCB subsystem at any instant in time; (iii) how should the discharging parameters be controlled within each enabled metal-air FCB subsystem at any instant in time; (iv) which set of metal-air FCB subsystems should be enabled at any instant in time for recharging operations; (v) which metal-fuel zones should be recharged within an enabled metal-air FCB subsystem at any instant in time; and (vi) how should the recharging parameters be controlled within each enabled metal-air FCB subsystem at any instant in time. The network control subsystem 711 can be realized using a microcomputer programmed to carry out the above-described functions in a straightforward manner. The network control subsystem can be embedded within the host system (e.g. vehicle 701) in a simple manner.

Notably, in the illustrative embodiment shown in FIGS. 1 through 3, each metal-air FCB subsystem 708A through 708H has a discharging mode of operation and a recharging mode of operation. Consequently, the electrical power generation system (i.e. plant) of the present invention is capable of recharging selected zones of metal fuel (tape) when the corresponding metal-air FCB subsystem is not enabled in its discharging (power-generating) mode of operation. By virtue of this aspect of the present invention, it is possible for auxiliary power generators (e.g. alternators, electrical power supply from a stationary source, etc.) 702, 703 and/or hybrid-types of electrical power generators (e.g. photo-voltaic cells, thermoelectric devices, etc.) 704, 704′ shown in FIGS. 1A and 1B to be used to produce electrical power for supply to the input DC power bus structure 714 of the system shown in FIG. 2A. Notably, during recharging operations within enabled FCB subsystems, the input DC power bus structure 714 is designed to receive DC electrical power from auxiliary and hybrid-type power generation sources 702, 703, 704 and 704′ for supply to metal-fuel recharging subsystems 7 embodied within metal-air FCB subsystems 708A through 708H enabled for discharging operation while the host vehicle (e.g. automobile) 701 is in motion or at rest, as the case may be. When recharging metal-fuel while the vehicle is stationary, electrical power from a stationary source (e.g. power receptacle) can be provided as input to the input DC power bus structure 714 for recharging metal-fuel within enabled FCB subsystems.

Having described the electrical power generation system of the present invention, it is appropriate at this juncture to now describe in greater detail, a preferred embodiment of the rechargeable metal-air FCB subsystem 708A through 708H with reference to FIGS. 4 through 4B17. Notably, the metal-air FCB subsystem disclosed in these figures employs metal-fuel tape supplied from a cartridge-like device that be removed from the subsystem in a simple manner for recharging within an external metal-fuel recharging system of the type disclosed in Applicant's copending application Ser. No. 09/074,337 entitled “METAL-AIR FUEL-CELL BATTERY SYSTEM HAVING MEANS FOR MANAGING AVAILABILITY OF METAL-FUEL THEREWITHIN” filed May 7, 1998. It is understood, however, that the source of metal-fuel can be contained in other structures, or alternatively, is realized in a form other than tape.

Overview Of The Rechargeable Metal-Air FCB-Based Subsystem Of The Illustrative Embodiment Of The Present Invention

In general, each rechargeable metal-air FCB-based subsystem 708A through 708H can be decomposed into a number of subsystems including, for example: a Metal-Fuel Transport Subsystem; a Metal-Fuel Discharging Subsystem; and a Metal-Fuel Recharging Subsystem. The function of the Metal-Fuel Transport Subsystem is to transport metal-fuel material, in the form of tape, cards, sheets, cylinders and the like, to the Metal-Fuel Discharge Subsystem, or the Metal-Fuel Recharge Subsystem, depending on the mode of the system selected. When transported to or through the Metal-Fuel Discharge Subsystem, the metal-fuel is discharged by (i.e. electro-chemically reaction with) one or more discharging heads in order produce electrical power across an electrical load connected to the subsystem while H2O and O2 are consumed at the cathode-electrolyte interface during the electro-chemical reaction. When transported to or through the Metal-Fuel Recharging Subsystem, discharged metal-fuel is recharged by one or more recharging heads in order to convert the oxidized metal-fuel material into its source metal material suitable for reuse in power discharging operations, while O2 is released at the cathode-electrolyte interface during the electro-chemical reaction. The electro-chemistry upon which such discharging and recharging operations are based is described in Applicant's copending application Ser. No. 08/944,507, U.S. Pat. No. 5,250,370, and other applied science publications well known in the art. These applied science principles will be briefly summarized below.

During discharging operations within metal-air FCB subsystems, metal-fuel such as zinc, aluminum, magnesium or beryllium is employed as an electrically-conductive anode of a particular degree of porosity (e.g. 50%) which is brought in “ionic-contact” with an electrically-conductive oxygen-pervious cathode structure of a particular degree of porosity, by way of an ionically-conductive medium such as an electrolyte gel, KOH, NaOH or ionically-conductive polymer. When the cathode and anode structure are brought into ionic contact, a characteristic open-cell voltage is automatically generated. The value of this open-cell voltage is based on the difference in electro-chemical potential of the anode and cathode materials. When an electrical load is connected across the cathode and anode structures of the metal-air FCB cell, so constructed, electrical power is delivered to the electrical load, as oxygen O2 from the ambient environment is consumed and metal-fuel anode material oxidizes. In the case of a zinc-air FCB subsystem or device, the zinc-oxide (ZnO) is formed on the zinc anode structure during the discharging cycle, while oxygen is consumed at within the region between the adjacent surfaces of the cathode structure and electrolytic medium (hereinafter referred to as the “cathode-electrolyte interface” for purposes of convenience).

During recharging operations, the Metal-Fuel Recharging Subsystem hereof applies an external voltage source (e.g. more than 2 volts for zinc-air systems) across the cathode structure and oxidized metal-fuel anode of the metal-air FCB subsystem. Therewhile, the Metal-Fuel Recharging Subsystem controls the electrical current flowing between the cathode and metal-fuel anode structures, in order to reverse the electro-chemical reaction which occurred during discharging operations. In the case of the zinc-air FCB subsystem or device, the zinc-oxide (ZnO) formed on the zinc anode structure during the discharging cycle is converted into (i.e. reduced back) into zinc, while oxygen O2 is released at the cathode-electrolyte interface to the ambient environment.

Specific ways of and means for optimally carrying out such discharging and recharging processes in metal-air FCB subsystems and devices will be described in detail below in connection with the various illustrative embodiments of the present invention.

The First Illustrative Embodiment Of The Metal-Air FCB subsystem Of The Present Invention

The first illustrative embodiment of the metal-air FCB subsystem hereof is illustrated in FIGS. 4 through 5B16. As shown in FIG. 4, each metal-air FCB subsystem 708A (through 708H) comprises a number of subsystems, namely: a Metal-Fuel Tape Cassette Cartridge Loading/Unloading Subsystem 2 for loading and unloading a metal-fuel tape cassette device 3 into the FCB subsystem during its Cartridge Loading and Unloading Modes of operation, respectively; a Metal-Fuel Tape Transport Subsystem 4 for transporting metal-fuel tape 5, supplied by the loaded cassette device, through the FCB subsystem during its Discharging and Recharging Modes of operation alike; a Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging (i.e. Power Generation) Subsystem 6 for generating electrical power from the metal-fuel tape during the Discharging Mode of operation; and a Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem 7 for electro-chemically recharging (i.e. reducing) sections of oxidized metal-fuel tape during the Recharging Mode of operation. In the illustrative embodiment of the Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystem 6 to be described in greater detail hereinbelow, an assembly of discharging (i.e. discharging) heads are provided for discharging metal-fuel tape in the presence of air (O2) and water and (H2O) and generating electrical power across an electrical load connected to the FCB subsystem.

In order to equip the metal-air FCB subsystem with multiple discharging heads arranged within an ultra-compact space, the Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystem 6 comprises a metal-fuel tape path-length extension mechanism 8, as shown in FIGS. 5A1 and 5A2. In FIG. 5A1, the path-length extension mechanism 8 is shown in its unextended configuration. When a cassette cartridge 3 is loaded into the cassette storage bay of the FCB subsystem, the path-length extension mechanism 8 within the Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystem 6 automatically extends the path-length of the metal-fuel tape 5 in a folded manner, as shown in FIG. 5A2, thereby permitting an assembly of discharging heads 9 to be arranged thereabout for generating electrical power during the Discharging Mode of the system, while efficiently utilizing physical housing space. The many advantages of providing multiple discharging heads in the Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystem will become apparent hereinafter.

Similarly, in order to equip the metal-air FCB subsystem with multiple metal-oxide reducing (i.e. recharging) heads arranged within an ultra-compact space, the Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem 7 also comprises a metal-fuel tape path-length extension mechanism 10. In FIG. 5B1, the path-length extension mechanism 10 is shown in its unextended configuration. When a cassette cartridge 3 is loaded into the cassette storage bay of the FCB subsystem, the path-length extension mechanism 10 within the Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem 7 automatically extends the path-length of the metal-fuel tape 5, as shown in FIG. 5B2, thereby permitting the assembly of recharging heads 11 to be inserted between and arranged about the path-length extended metal-fuel tape, for converting metal-oxide formations into its primary metal during the Recharging Mode of operation.

In order to provide for rapid recharging of the metal-fuel tape in the metal-air FCB subsystem of the first illustrative embodiment, the total surface area Arecharge of the recharging heads in the Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem 7 is designed to be substantially greater than the total surface area Adischarge of the discharging heads within the Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystem 6 (i.e Arecharge>>Adischarge), as taught in Applicant's prior U.S. Pat. No. 5,250,370, incorporated herein by reference. This design feature enables a significant decrease in recharging time, without requiring a significant increase in volume in the housing of the FCB subsystem. These subsystem features will be described in greater detail hereinafter in connection with the description of the Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging and Recharging Subsystems hereof.

Brief Summary Of Modes Of Operation Of The FCB subsystem Of The First Illustrative Embodiment Of The Present Invention

During the Cartridge Loading Mode, the cassette cartridge 3 containing a supply of charged metal-fuel tape 5 is loaded into the FCB subsystem, by the Cassette Loading/Unloading Subsystem 2. During the Discharging Mode, the charged metal-fuel tape within the cartridge is mechanically manipulated by path-length extension mechanism hereof 8 to substantially increase its path-length so that the assembly of discharging heads 9 can be arranged thereabout for electro-chemically generating electrical power therefrom for supply to an electrical load connected thereto. During the Recharging Mode, the oxidized metal-fuel tape 5 within the cartridge is mechanically manipulated by path-length extension mechanism hereof 10 to substantially increase its path-length so that the assembly of metal-oxide reducing (i.e. recharging) heads 11 can be arranged thereabout for electro-chemically reducing (i.e. recharging) the oxide formations on the metal-fuel tape transported therethrough into its primary metal during recharging operations. During the Cartridge Unloading Mode, the cassette cartridge is unloaded (e.g. ejected) from the FCB subsystem by the Cassette Loading/Unloading Subsystems.

While it may be desirable in some applications to suspend tape recharging operations while carry out tape discharging operations, the FCB subsystem of the first illustrative embodiment enables concurrent operation of the Discharging and Recharging Modes. Notably, this feature of the present invention enables simultaneous discharging and recharging of metal-fuel tape during power generating operation.

Multi-Track Metal-Fuel Tape Used In The FCB subsystem Of The First Illustrative Embodiment

In the FCB subsystem of FIG. 4, the metal-fuel tape 5 has multiple fuel-tracks (e.g. five tracks) as taught in copending application Ser. No. 08/944,507, supra. When using such a metal-fuel tape design, it is desirable to design each discharging head 9 within the Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystem 6 as a “multi-track” discharging head. Similarly, each recharging head 11 within the Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem 7 hereof should be designed as a multi-track recharging head in accordance with the principles of the present invention. As taught in great detail in copending application Ser. No. 08/944,507, the use of “multi-tracked” metal-fuel tape and multi-track discharging heads enables the simultaneous production of multiple supply voltages (e.g. 1.2 Volts), and thus the generation and delivery of a wide range of output voltages {V1, V2, . . . , Vn} to electrical loads having various loading requirements. Such output voltages can be used for driving various types of electrical loads 12 connected to output power terminals 13 of the FCB subsystem. This is achieved by configuring the individual output voltages produced across each anode-cathode pair during tape discharging operations. This system functionality will be described in greater detail hereinbelow.

In general, multi-track and single-track metal-fuel tape alike can be made using several different techniques. Preferably, the metal-fuel tape contained with the cassette device 3 is made from zinc as this metal is inexpensive, environmentally safe, and easy to work. Several different techniques will be described for making zinc-fuel tape according to the present invention.

For example, in accordance with a first fabrication technique, a thin metal layer (e.g. nickel or brass) of about 1 to 10 microns thickness is applied to the surface of low-density plastic material (drawn and cut in the form of tape). The plastic material should be selected so that it is stable in the presence of an electrolyte such as KOH. The function of this thin metal layer is to provide efficient current collection at the anode surface. Thereafter, zinc powder is mixed with a binder material and then applied as a coating (e.g. about 10 to 1000 microns thick) upon the surface thin metal layer. The zinc layer should have a uniform porosity of about 50% to allow ions within the ionically-conducting medium (e.g. electrolyte) to flow with minimum electrical resistance between the current collecting elements of the cathode and anode structures.

In accordance with a second fabrication technique, a thin metal layer (e.g. nickel or brass) of about 1 to 10 microns thickness is applied to the surface of low-density plastic material (drawn and cut in the form of tape). The plastic material should be selected so that it is stable in the presence of an electrolyte such as KOH. The function of the thin metal layer is to provide efficient current collection at the anode surface. Thereafter zinc is electroplated onto the surface of the thin layer of metal. The zinc layer should have a uniform porosity of about 50% to allow ions within the ionically-conducting medium (e.g. electrolyte) to flow with minimum electrical resistance between the current collecting elements of the cathode and anode structures.

In accordance with a third fabrication technique, zinc power is mixed with a low-density plastic base material and drawn into electrically-conductive tape. The low-density plastic material should be selected so that it is stable in the presence of an electrolyte such as KOH. The electrically-conductive tape should have a uniform porosity of about 50% to allow ions within the ionically-conducting medium (e.g. electrolyte) to flow with minimum electrical resistance between the current collecting elements of the cathode and anode structures. Then a thin metal layer (e.g. nickel or brass) of about 1 to 10 microns thickness is applied to the surface of the electrically-conductive tape. The function of the thin metal layer is to provide efficient current collection at the anode surface.

Each of the above-described techniques for manufacturing metal-fuel tape can be readily modified to produce “double-sided” metal-fuel tape, in which single track or multi-track metal-fuel layers are provided on both sides of the flexible base (i.e. substrate) material. Such embodiments of metal-fuel tape will be useful in applications where discharging heads are to be arranged on both sides of metal-fuel tape loaded within the FFCB subsystem. When making double-sided metal-fuel tape, it will be necessary in most embodiments to form a current collecting layer (of thin metal material) on both sides of the plastic substrate so that current can be collected from both sides of the metal-fuel tape, associated with different cathode structures. When making double-sided multi-tracked fuel tape, it may be desirable or necessary to laminate together two lengths of multi-track metal-fuel tape, as described hereinabove, with the substrates of each tape-length in physical contact. Adaptation of the above-described methods to produce double-sided metal-fuel tape will be readily apparent to those skilled in the art having had the benefit of the present disclosure. In such illustrative embodiments of the present invention, the anode-contacting structures within the each discharging head will be modified so that electrical contact is established with each electrically-isolated current collecting layer formed within the metal-fuel tape structure being employed therewith.

Methods and Devices For Packaging Metal-Fuel Tape Of The Present Invention

Multi-track metal-fuel tape 5 made in the manner described above can be packaged in a variety of different ways. One packaging technique would be to roll the metal-fuel tape off a supply reel, and take it up on a take-up reel in the manner that 9-track digital recording tape is handled. Another handling technique, which is preferred over the reel-to-reel technique, involves storing the metal-fuel tape within a compact cassette cartridge device (“cassette fuel cartridge”). As shown in FIG. 4, the cassette device 5 has a housing 14 containing a pair of spaced-apart spindles 15A and 15B, about which a supply of metal-fuel tape 5 (5′, 5″) is wound in a manner similar to a video-cassette tape. The cassette cartridge device 5 also includes a pair of spaced apart tape guiding rollers 16A and 16B mounted in the front corners of the cassette housing, and an opening 17 formed in the front end portion 14A (i.e. side wall and top surface) thereof.

Front-end opening 14A shown in FIG. 4 serves a number of important functions, namely: it allows the “multi-track” discharging head assembly 9 to be moved into a properly aligned position with respect to the “path-length extended” metal-fuel tape during discharging operations; it allows the discharging head assembly to be moved away from the extended path-length of metal-fuel tape when the cassette cartridge is removed from the discharging bay of the Metal-Fuel tape Discharging Subsystem; it allows the tape path-length extension mechanism 10, integrated into the FCB recharging subsystem 7, to engage a section of the metal-fuel tape and then extend its path length by way of the two-step process illustrated in FIGS. 2A1 through 2B2.

Cassette housing opening 14A also allows the “multi-track” recharging head assembly 11 associated with the Metal-Fuel Recharging Subsystem 7 to be moved into properly aligned position with respect to the “path-length extended” portion of the discharged metal-fuel tape during recharging operations; it also allows the recharging head assembly 11 to be removed (i.e. withdrawn) from the metal-fuel tape when the cassette cartridge is removed from the cassette storage bay 15 of the FCB subsystem. A retractable window or door 14B can be mounted over this opening within the cassette housing in order to close off the cassette interior from the environment when the device is not installed within the cassette storage bay of the system. Various types of spring-biased mechanisms can be used to realize the retractable window of the cassette cartridge of the present invention.

While not shown, tape-tensioning mechanisms may also be included within the cassette housing in order to ensure that the metal-fuel tape maintains proper tension during unwinding and rewinding of the metal-fuel tape in either the Discharging Mode or Recharging Mode of operation. The cassette housing can be made from any suitable material designed to withstand heat and corrosion. Preferably, the housing material is electrically non-conducting to provide an added measure of user-safety during tape discharging and recharging operations.

Cassette Cartridge Loading/Unloading Subsystem For The First Illustrative Embodiment Of The Metal-Air FCB subsystem Of The Present Invention

As schematically illustrated in FIGS. 4, 5A31, 5A32 and 5A4, and shown in detail in copending U.S. application Ser. No. 08/944,507, the Cassette Cartridge Loading/Unloading Transport Subsystem 2 in the FCB subsystem of FIG. 4 comprises a number of cooperating mechanisms, namely: a cassette receiving mechanism 16A for automatically (i) receiving the cassette cartridge 3 at a cassette insertion port 17A formed in the front panel of the system housing 17, and (ii) withdrawing the cartridge into the cassette storage bay therewithin; an automatic door opening mechanism 16B for opening the door formed in the cassette cartridge (for metal-fuel tape access) when the cartridge is received within the cassette storage bay of the FCB subsystem; and an automatic cassette ejection mechanism 16C for ejecting the cassette cartridge from the cassette storage bay through the cassette insertion port in response to a predetermined condition (e.g., the depression of an “ejection” button provided on the front panel of the system housing, automatic sensing of the end of the metal-fuel tape, etc.).

In the illustrative embodiment of FIG. 4, the cassette receiving mechanism 16A can be realized as a platform-like carriage structure that surrounds the exterior of the cassette cartridge housing. The platform-like carriage structure can be supported on a pair of parallel rails, by way of rollers, and translatable therealong by way of an electric motor and cam mechanism. These devices are operably connected to the system controller which will be described in greater detail hereinafter. The function of the cam mechanism is to convert rotational movement of the motor shaft into a rectilinear motion necessary for translating the platform-like carriage structure along the rails when a cassette is inserted within the platform-like carriage structure. A proximity sensor, mounted within the system housing, can be used to detect the presence of the cassette cartridge being inserted through the insertion port and placed within the platform-like carriage structure. The signal produced from the proximity sensor can be provided to the system controller in order to initiate the cassette cartridge withdrawal process in an automated manner.

Within the system housing, the automatic door opening mechanism 16B can be realized by any suitable mechanism that can slide the cassette door 14B into its open position when the cassette cartridge is completely withdrawn into the cassette storage bay. In the illustrative embodiment, the automatic cassette ejection mechanism 16C employs the same basic structures and functionalities of the cassette receiving mechanism described above. The primary difference is the automatic cassette ejection mechanism responds to the depression of an “ejection” button provided on the front panel of the system housing, or functionally equivalent triggering condition or event. When the button is depressed, the system controller automatically causes the discharging heads to be transported away from the metal-fuel tape, the path-length extended metal-fuel tape to become unextended, and the cassette cartridge automatically ejected from the cassette storage bay, through the cassette insertion port.

Notably, the control functions required by the Cassette Cartridge Loading/Unloading Subsystem 2, as well as all other subsystems within the FCB subsystem of the first illustrative embodiment, are carried out by the system controller 18, shown in FIGS. 5A31, 5A32 and 5A4. In the illustrative embodiments hereof, the system controller is realized by a programmed microcontroller (i.e. microcomputer) having program storage memory (ROM), data storage memory (RAM) and the like operably connected by one or more system buses well known in the microcomputing and control arts.

Metal-Fuel Tape Transport Subsystem For The First Illustrative Embodiment Of The Metal-Air FCB subsystem Of The Present Invention

As shown in FIGS. 5A31, 5A32 and 5A4, the metal-fuel tape transport subsystem 4 of the first illustrative embodiment comprises: a pair of synchronized electric motors 19A and 19B for engaging spindles 20A and 20B in the metal-fuel cartridge 3 when it is inserted in the cassette receiving bay of the system, and driving the same in either forward or reverse directions under synchronous control during the Discharging Mode and (Tape) Recharging Mode of operation; electrical drive circuits 21A and 21B for producing electrical drive signals for the electric motors 19A and 19B; and a tape-speed sensing circuit 22 for sensing the speed of the metal-fuel tape (i.e. motors) and producing signals indicative thereof for use by the system controller 18 to control the speed of the metal-fuel tape during discharging and recharging operations. As the metal-fuel tape transport subsystem 4 of the first illustrative embodiment employs the system controller 18, it is proper to include the system controller 18 as a supporting subsystem component within the metal-fuel tape transport subsystem 4.

The Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystem For The First Illustrative Embodiment Of The Metal-Air FCB subsystem Of The Present Invention

As shown in FIGS. 5A31, 5A32 and 5A4, the metal-fuel tape discharging subsystem 6 of the first illustrative embodiment comprises a number of subsystems, namely: an assembly of multi-track discharging heads 9, each having multi-element cathode structures and anode-contacting structures with electrically-conductive output terminals connectable in a manner to be described hereinbelow; an assembly of metal-oxide sensing heads 23 for sensing the presence of metal-oxide formation along particular zones of metal fuel tracks as the metal fuel tape is being transported past the discharging heads during the Discharging Mode; a metal-fuel tape path-length extension mechanism 8, as schematically illustrated in FIGS. 5A1 and 5A2 and described above, for extending the path-length of the metal-fuel tape over a particular region of the cassette device 5, and enabling the assembly of multi-track discharging heads to be arranged thereabout during the Discharging Mode of operation; a discharging head transport subsystem 24 for transporting the subcomponents of the discharging head assembly 9 (and the metal-oxide sensing head assembly 24) to and from the metal-fuel tape when its path-length is arranged in an extended configuration by the metal-fuel tape path-length extension mechanism 8; a cathode-anode output terminal configuration subsystem 25 for configuring the output terminals of the cathode and anode-contacting structures of the discharging heads under the control of the system controller 18 so as to maintain the output voltage required by a particular electrical load connected to the Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystem; a cathode-anode voltage monitoring subsystem 26, connected to the cathode-anode output terminal configuration subsystem 25 for monitoring (i.e. sampling) the voltage produced across cathode and anode of each discharging head, and producing (digital) data representative of the sensed voltage level; a cathode-anode current monitoring subsystem 27, connected to the cathode-anode output terminal configuration subsystem 25, for monitoring (e.g. sampling) the current flowing across the cathode and anode of each discharging head during the Discharging Mode, and producing digital data signals representative of the sensed current levels; a cathode oxygen pressure control subsystem, comprising the system controller 18, solid-state pO2 sensors 28, vacuum chamber (structure) 2,9 shown in FIGS. 5A7 and 5A8, vacuum pump 30, airflow control device 31, manifold structure 32, and multi-lumen tubing 33 shown in FIG. 5A8, for sensing and controlling the pO2 level within the cathode structure of each discharging head 9; a metal-fuel tape speed control subsystem, comprising the system controller 18, motor drive circuits 21A and 21B, and tape velocity (i.e. speed and direction) sensor/detector 22, for bi-directionally controlling the speed of metal-fuel tape relative to the discharging heads, in either forward or reverse tape directions; an ion-concentration control subsystem, comprising the system controller 18, solid-state moisture sensor 34, moisturizing (e.g. humidifying or wicking element) 35, for sensing and modifying conditions within the FCB subsystem (e.g. the moisture or humidity level at the cathode-electrolyte interface of the discharging heads) so that the ion-concentration at the cathode-electrolyte interface is maintained within an optimal range during the Discharge Mode of operation; a discharge head temperature control subsystem comprising the system controller 18, solid-state temperature sensors (e.g. thermistors) 271 embedded within each channel of the multi-cathode support structure hereof, and a discharge head cooling device 272, responsive to control signals produced by the system controller 18, for lowering the temperature of each discharging channel to within an optimal temperature range during discharging operations; a relational-type metal-fuel database management subsystem (MFDMS) 275 operably connected to system controller 18 by way of local bus 276, and designed for receiving particular types of information derived from the output of various subsystems within the Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystem 6; a Data Capture and Processing Subsystem (DCPS) 277, comprising data reading head 38 embedded within or mounted closely to the cathode support structure of each discharging head 9, metal-oxide sensing head assembly 23 and associated circuitry, and a programmed microprocessor-based data processor adapted to receive data signals produced from voltage monitoring subsystem 26, cathode-anode current monitoring subsystem 27, metal-oxide sensing head assembly 23, the cathode oxygen pressure control subsystem and the ion-concentration control subsystem hereof, and enable (i) the reading of metal-fuel zone identification data from transported metal-fuel tape 5, (ii) the recording of sensed discharge parameters and computed metal-oxide indicative data derived therefrom in the Metal-Fuel Database Management Subsystem (MFDMS) 275 using local system bus 278 shown in FIG. 5B17, and (iii) the reading of prerecorded recharge parameters and prerecorded metal-fuel indicative data stored in the Metal-Fuel Database Management Subsystem (MFDMS) using the same local system bus 278; an output (i.e. discharging) power regulation subsystem 40 connected between the output terminals of the cathode-anode output terminal configuration subsystem 25 and the input terminals of the electrical load 12 connected to the Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystem 6, for regulating the output power delivered across the electrical load (and regulate the voltage and/or current characteristics as required by the Discharge Control Method carried out by the system controller); an input/output control subsystem 41, interfaced with the system controller 18, for controlling all functionalities of the FCB subsystem by way of a remote system or resultant system, within which the FCB subsystem is embedded; and system controller 18, interfaced with system controller 18′ within the Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem 7 by way of global system bus 279, as shown in FIG. 5B17, and having various means for managing the operation of the above mentioned subsystems during the various modes of system operation. These subsystems will be described in greater technical detail below.

Multi-Track Discharging Head Assembly within the Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystem

The function of the assembly of multi-track discharging heads 9 is to generate electrical power across the electrical load as metal-fuel tape is transported therethrough during the Discharging Mode of operation. In the illustrative embodiment shown in FIGS. 5A6 and 5A7, each discharging head 9 comprises: a cathode element support plate 42 having a plurality of isolated channels 43 permitting the free passage of oxygen (O2) through the bottom portion 44 of each such channel; a plurality of electrically-conductive cathode elements (e.g. strips) 45 for insertion within the lower portion of these channels, respectively; a plurality of electrolyte-impregnated strips 46A through 46E for placement over the cathode strips 45, and support within the channels 29, respectively, as shown in FIG. 5C2; and an oxygen-injection chamber 29 mounted over the upper (back) surface of the cathode element support plate 44, in a sealed manner.

As shown in FIGS. 5A13 and 5A14, each oxygen-injection chamber 29 has a plurality of subchambers 29A through 29E physically associated with a channel 43, wherein each subchamber is isolated from all other subchambers and is arranged in fluid communication with one channel in the electrode support plate supporting one electrode element and one electrolyte impregnated element. As shown, each subchamber within the discharging head assembly is arranged in fluid communication with an air compressor or O2 gas supply means (e.g. tank or cartridge) 30 via one lumen of multi-lumen tubing 33, one channel of manifold assembly 32 and one channel of electronically-controlled air-flow switch 31, shown in FIGS. 5A31, 5A32 and 5A4, and whose operation is controlled by system controller 18. This arrangement enables the system controller 18 to independently control the pO2 level in each oxygen-injection chamber 29A through 29E within an optimal range during discharging operations, within the discharging head assembly, by selectively pumping pressurized air through the corresponding air flow channel in the manifold assembly 32 under the management of the system controller 18.

In the illustrative embodiment, electrolyte-impregnated strips 46 are realized by impregnating an electrolyte-absorbing carrier medium with a gel-type electrolyte. Preferably, the electrolyte-absorbing carrier strip is realized as a strip of low-density, open-cell foam material made from PET plastic. The gel-electrolyte for each discharging cell is made from a formula consisting of an alkali solution (e.g. KOH), a gelatin material, water, and additives known in the art.

In the illustrative embodiment, each cathode strip is made from a sheet of nickel wire mesh 47 coated with porous carbon material and granulated platinum or other catalysts 48 to form a cathode suitable for use in metal-air FCB subsystems. Details of cathode construction are disclosed in U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,894,296 and 4,129,633, incorporated herein by reference. To form a current collection pathway, an electrical conductor 49 is soldered to the underlying wire mesh sheet of each cathode strip. As shown in FIG. 5A10, each electrical conductor 49 is passed through a small hole 50 formed in the bottom surface of a channel 43 of the cathode support plate, and is connected to the cathode-anode output terminal configuration subsystem 25. As shown, the cathode strip pressed into the lower portion of the channel to secure the same therein. As shown in FIG. 5A7, the bottom surface 44 of each channel 43 has numerous perforations 43A formed therein to allow the free passage of oxygen to the cathode strip. In the illustrative embodiment, an electrolyte-impregnated strip 46 is placed over a cathode strip 45 and is secured within the upper portion of the cathode supporting channel 43. As shown in FIG. 5A8, when the cathode strip and thin electrolyte strip are mounted in their respective channel in the cathode support plate, the outer surface of the electrolyte-impregnated strip is disposed flush with the upper surface of the plate defining the channels, thereby permitting metal-fuel tape to be smoothly transported thereover during tape discharging operations.

Hydrophobic agents are added to the carbon material constituting the oxygen-pervious cathode elements within the discharging head assembly 9 to ensure the expulsion of water therefrom during discharging operations. Also, the interior surfaces of the cathode support channels are coated with a hydrophobic film (e.g. Teflon) 51 to ensure the expulsion of water within electrolyte-impregnated strips 47 and thus achieve optimum oxygen transport across the cathode strips, to the injection-chamber 29 during the Discharging Mode. Preferably, the cathode support plate is made from an electrically non-conductive material, such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic material well known in the art. The cathode support plate and evacuation chamber can be fabricated using injection molding technology also well known in the art.

In order to sense the partial oxygen pressure within the cathode structure during the Discharging Mode, for use in effective control of electrical power generated from discharging heads, a solid-state pO2 sensor 28 is embedded within each channel of the cathode support plate 42, as illustrated in FIG. 5A7, and operably connected to the system controller 18 as an information input device thereto. In the illustrative embodiment, the pO2 sensor can be realized using well-known pO2 sensing technology employed to measure (in vivo) pO2 levels in the blood of humans. Such prior art sensors can be constructed using miniature diodes which emit electromagnetic radiation at two or more different wavelengths that are absorbed at different levels in the presence of oxygen in the blood, and such information can be processed and analyzed to produce a computed measure of pO2 in a reliable manner, as taught in U.S. Pat. No. 5,190,038 and references cited therein, each being incorporated herein by reference. In the present invention, the characteristic wavelengths of the light emitting diodes can be selected so that similar sensing functions can be carried out within the structure of the cathode in each discharging head, in a straightforward manner.

The multi-tracked fuel tape contained within the cassette fuel cartridge of FIG. 5 is shown in greater structural detail in FIG. 5A9. As shown, the metal-fuel tape 5 comprises: an electrically non-conductive base layer 53 of flexible construction (i.e. made from a plastic material stable in the presence of the electrolyte); a plurality of parallel extending, spatially-separated strips of metal (e.g. zinc) 54A, 54B, 54C, 54D and 54E disposed upon the ultra-thin current-collecting layer (not shown) itself disposed upon the base layer 53; a plurality of electrically non-conductive strips 55A, 55B, 55C, 55D and 55E disposed upon the base layer, between pairs of fuel strips 54A, 54B, 54C, 54D and 54E; and a plurality of parallel extending channels (e.g. grooves) 56A, 56B, 56C, 56D and 56E formed in the underside of the base layer, opposite the metal fuel strips thereabove, for allowing electrical contact with the metal-fuel tracks 54A, 54B, 54C, 54D and 54E through the grooved base layer. Notably, the spacing and width of each metal-fuel strip is designed so that it is spatially-registered with a corresponding cathode strip in the discharging head of the system in which the metal-fuel tape is intended to be used.

The metal-fuel tape described above can be made by applying zinc strips onto a layer of base plastic material 53 in the form of tape, using any of the fabrication techniques described hereinabove. The metal strips can be physically spaced apart, or separated by Teflon, in order to ensure electrical isolation therebetween. Then, the gaps between the metal strips can be filled in by applying a coating of electrically insulating material, and thereafter, the base layer can be machined, laser etched or otherwise treated to form fine channels therein for allowing electrical contact with the individual metal fuel strips through the base layer. Finally, the upper surface of the multi-tracked fuel tape can be polished to remove any electrical insulation material from the surface of the metal fuel strips which are to come in contact with the cathode structures during discharging.

In FIG. 5A10, an exemplary metal-fuel (anode) contacting structure 58 is disclosed for use with the multi-tracked cathode structure shown in FIGS. 5A7 and 5A8. As shown, a plurality of electrically-conductive elements 60A, 60B, 60C, 60D, and 60E are supported from an platform 61 disposed adjacent the travel of the fuel tape within the cassette cartridge. Each conductive element 60A through 60E has a smooth surface adapted for slidable engagement with one track of metal-fuel through the fine groove formed in the base layer 53 of the metal-fuel tape corresponding to fuel track. Each conductive element is connected to an electrical conductor which is connected to the cathode-anode output terminal configuration subsystem 25 under the management of the system controller 18. The platform 61 is operably associated with the discharging head transport subsystem 24 and can be designed to be moved into position with the fuel tape during the Discharging Mode of the system, under the control of the system controller.

Notably, the use of multiple discharging heads, as in the illustrative embodiments hereof, rather than a single discharging head, allows more power to be produced from the discharging head assembly for delivery to the electrical load while minimizing heat build-up across the individual discharging heads. This feature of the Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystem extends the service-life of the cathodes employed within the discharging heads thereof.

Metal-Oxide Sensing Head Assembly within the Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystem

The function of the Metal-Oxide Sensing Head Assembly 23 is to sense (in real-time) the current levels produced across the individual fuel tracks during discharging operations, and generate electrical data signals indicating the degree to which portions of metal-fuel tracks have been oxidized and thus have little or no power generation potential. As shown in FIG. 5A15, each multi-track metal-oxide sensing head 23 in the assembly thereof comprises a number of subcomponents, namely: a positive electrode support structure 63 for supporting a plurality of positively electrode elements 64A, 64B, 64C, 64D and 64E, each in registration with the upper surface of one of the fuel tracks (that may have been oxidized) and connected to a low voltage power supply terminal 65A, 65B, 65C, 65D and 65E provided by current sensing circuitry 66 which is operably connected to the Data Capture and Processing Subsystem 277 within the Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystem 6, as shown in FIGS. 5A31, 5A32 and 5A4; and a negative electrode support structure 67 for supporting a plurality of negative electrode elements 68A, 68B, 68C, 68D and 68E, each in registration with the lower surface of the fuel tracks and connected to a low voltage power supply terminal 69A, 69B, 69C, 69D and 69E, respectively, provided by current sensing circuitry 66 as shown in FIG. 5A15.

In the illustrative embodiment shown in FIGS. 5A31, 5A32 and 5A4, each multi-track metal-oxide sensing head 23 is disposed immediately before a discharging head 9 in order to sense the actual condition of the metal-fuel tape therebefore and provide a data signal to the system controller 18 for detection and determination of the actual amount of metal-oxide present thereon before the discharging. While only one metal-oxide sensing head assembly 23 is shown in the first illustrative embodiment of the FCB subsystem hereof, it is understood that for bi-directional tape-based FCB subsystems, it would be preferred to install one metal-oxide sensing head assembly 23 on each end of the discharging head assembly so that the system controller can “anticipate” which metal-fuel zones are “dead” or devoid of metal-fuel regardless of the direction that the metal-fuel tape is being transported at any particular instant in time. With such an arrangement, the Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystem 6 is capable of determining (i.e. estimating) which portions of which metal-fuel tracks have sufficient electrical power generation capacity for discharge operations, and which do not, and to control the metal-fuel tape transport subsystem so as to discharge metal-fuel tape in an optimal manner during the Discharging Mode of operation. Details concerning this aspect of the present invention will be described hereinafter.

Metal-Fuel Tape Path-Length Extension Mechanism within the Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystem

As shown in FIGS. 5A31, 5A32 and 5A4, the tape path-length extension mechanism 8 of the illustrative embodiment comprises: a first array of rollers 71A through 71E mounted on support structure 72 for contacting the metal-fuel portion of the metal-fuel tape when the cassette device 3 inserted into the cassette receiving port of the FCB subsystem; a second array of rollers 73A through 73D disposed between the array of stationary rollers 71A through 71E and mounted on support structure 74, for contacting the base portion of the metal-fuel tape when the cassette device is inserted into the cassette receiving port of the FCB subsystem; and a transport mechanism 75 of electromechanical construction, for transporting roller support structures 72 and 74 relative to the system housing and each other in order to carry out the functions of this subsystem described in greater detail hereinbelow.

In the configuration shown in FIGS. 5A31 and 5A32, the tape path-length mechanism 8 is arranged so that the first and second sets of rollers 71A through 71E and 73A through 73D barely contacting opposite sides of the metal-fuel tape when the cassette device 3 is inserted within the cassette receiving port of the FCB subsystem. As shown in FIG. 5A4, the second set of rollers 73A through 73D are displaced (i.e transported) a distance relative to the first set of stationary rollers 71A through 71E, thereby causing the path-length of the metal-fuel tape to become substantially extended from the path-length shown in the configuration of FIGS. 5A31 and 5A32. This extended path-length permits a plurality of discharging heads 9 to be arranged thereabout during the discharging mode of operation. In this configuration, the cathode structure 76 of each discharging head is in ionic contact with the metal-fuel structures along the metal-fuel tape, while the anode-contacting structure 77 of each discharging head is in electrical contact with the metal-fuel structures of the tape. In this configuration, the metal-fuel tape is arranged so that a plurality of discharging heads can be arranged about the metal-fuel tape during power discharging operations. The use of multiple discharging heads enables low current loading of the metal-fuel tape during power generation, and thus provides improved control over the formation of metal-oxide during power generation operations. Such advantages will become apparent hereinafter.

Discharging Head Transport Subsystem within the Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystem

The primary function of the discharging head transport subsystem is to transport the assembly of discharging heads 9 (and metal-oxide sensing heads 23 supported thereto) about the metal-fuel tape that has been path-length extended, as shown in FIGS. 5A31 and 5A32. When properly transported, the cathode and anode-contacting structures of the discharging heads are brought into “ionically-conductive” and “electrically-conductive” contact with the metal-fuel tracks of metal-fuel tape while the metal-fuel tape is transported through the discharging head assembly by the metal-fuel tape transport subsystem during the discharging mode of operation.

Discharging head transport subsystem 24 can be realized using any one of a variety of electromechanical mechanisms capable of transporting the cathode structure 76 and anode-contacting structure 77 of each discharging head away from the metal-fuel tape 5, as shown in FIGS. 5A31 and 5A32, and about the metal-fuel tape as shown in FIG. 5A4. As shown, these transport mechanisms are operably connected to system controller 18 and controlled by the same in accordance with the system control program carried out thereby.

Cathode-Anode Output Terminal Configuration Subsystem within the Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystem

As shown in FIGS. 5A31, 5A32 and 5A4, the cathode-anode output terminal configuration subsystem 25 is connected between the input terminals of the discharging power regulation subsystem 40 and the output terminals of the cathode-anode pairs within the assembly of discharging heads 9. The system controller 18 is operably connected to cathode-anode output terminal configuration subsystem 25 in order to supply control signals for carrying out its functions during the Discharging Mode of operation.

The function of the cathode-anode output terminal configuration subsystem 25 is to automatically configure (in series or parallel) the output terminals of selected cathode-anode pairs within the discharging heads of the Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystem 6 so that the required output voltage level is produced across the electrical load connected to the FCB subsystem during tape discharging operations. In the illustrative embodiment of the present invention, the cathode-anode output terminal configuration mechanism 25 can be realized as one or more electrically-programmable power switching circuits using transistor-controlled technology, wherein the cathode and anode-contacting elements within the discharging heads 9 are connected to the input terminals of the output power regulating subsystem 40. Such switching operations are carried out under the control of the system controller 18 so that the required output voltage is produced across the electrical load connected to the output power regulating subsystem of the FCB subsystem.

Cathode-Anode Voltage Monitoring Subsystem within the Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystem

As shown in FIGS. 5A31, 5A32 and 5A4, the cathode-anode voltage monitoring subsystem 26 is operably connected to the cathode-anode output terminal configuration subsystem 25 for sensing voltage levels and the like therewithin. While not shown, this subsystem is also operably connected to the system controller 18 for receiving control signals required to carry out its functions. In the first illustrative embodiment, the cathode-anode voltage monitoring subsystem 26 has two primary functions: to automatically sense the instantaneous voltage level produced across the cathode-anode structures associated with each metal-fuel track being transported through each discharging head during the Discharging Mode; and to produce a (digital) data signal indicative of the sensed voltages for detection, analysis and processing within the Data Capture and Processing Subsystem 277, and subsequent recording within the Metal-Fuel Database Management Subsystem 275 which is accessible by the system controller 18 during the Discharge Mode of operation.

In the first illustrative embodiment of the present invention, the Cathode-Anode Voltage Monitoring Subsystem 26 can be realized using electronic circuitry adapted for sensing voltage levels produced across the cathode-anode structures associated with each metal-fuel track transported through each discharging head within the Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystem 6. In response to such detected voltage levels, the electronic circuitry can be designed to produce a digital data signals indicative of the sensed voltage levels.

Cathode-Anode Current Monitoring Subsystem within the Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystem

As shown in FIGS. 5A31, 5A32 and 5A4, the cathode-anode current monitoring subsystem 27 is operably connected to the cathode-anode output terminal configuration subsystem 25. The cathode-anode current monitoring subsystem 27 has two primary functions: to automatically sense the magnitude of electrical current flowing through the cathode-anode pair of each metal-fuel track along each discharging head assembly within the Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystem during the discharging mode; and to produce a digital data signal indicative of the sensed current for detection, analysis and processing within the Data Capture and Processing Subsystem 277, and subsequent recording within the Metal-Fuel Database Management Subsystem 275 which is accessible by the system controller 18 during the Discharge Mode of operation.

In the first illustrative embodiment of the present invention, the Cathode-Anode Current Monitoring Subsystem 27 can be realized using current sensing circuitry for sensing the electrical current passed through the cathode- anode pair of each metal-fuel track along each discharging head assembly, and producing a digital data signal indicative of the sensed current. As will be explained in greater detail hereinafter, these detected current levels are stored in the Metal-Fuel Database Management Subsystem 275 and can be readily accessed by the system controller 18 in various ways, namely: carrying out its discharging power regulation method; creating a “discharging condition history” for each zone or subsection of discharged metal-fuel tape; etc.

Cathode Oxygen Pressure Control Subsystem within the Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystem

The function of the cathode oxygen pressure control subsystem (18, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32 and 33) defined above is to sense the oxygen pressure (pO2) within each channel of the cathode structure of the discharging head 9, and in response thereto, control (i.e. increase or decrease) the same by regulating the air (O2) pressure within such cathode structures. In accordance with the present invention, the partial oxygen pressure (PO2) within each channel of the cathode structure of each discharging head 9 provides a measure of the oxygen concentration therewithin and thus is maintained at an optimal level in order to allow optimal oxygen consumption within the discharging heads during the Discharging Mode. By maintaining the pO2 level within each channel of the cathode structure, power output produced from the discharging heads can be increased in a controllable manner. Also, by monitoring changes in pO2 and producing digital data signals representative thereof for detection and analysis by the system controller, the system controller 18 is provided with a controllable variable for use in regulating electrical power supplied to the electrical load 12 during the Discharging Mode.

In the first illustrative embodiment of the FCB subsystem hereof shown in FIG. 4, the data signals produced by the solid-state pO2 sensors 28A through 28E embodied within the discharging heads 9 are provided to the Data Capture and Processing Subsystem 277, as shown in FIGS. 5A31, 5A34 and 5A4. The Data Capture and Processing Subsystem 277 receives these signals, converts them into digital data and the like and then records the resulting information items within the information structure shown in FIG. 5A16, managed within the Metal-Fuel Database Management Subsystem 275 with the Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystem 6. Such discharging parameters can be accessed by the system controller 18 at any time over local bus 276 in order to independently control the level of pO2 within each of the channels of the discharging heads 9 hereof during discharging operations.

Metal-Fuel Tape Speed Control Subsystem within the Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystem

During the Discharging Mode, the function of Metal-Tape Speed Control Subsystem 4 is to control the speed of the metal-fuel tape over the discharging heads within the Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystem 6. In the illustrative embodiment, metal-fuel tape speed control subsystem 18 comprises a number of subcomponents, namely: the system controller 18; the motor speed circuits 21A and 21B; and tape velocity sensor 22. In response to the transport of tape past the velocity sensor 22, a data signal indicative of the tape velocity (i.e. speed and direction) is generated and supplied to the Data Capture and Processing Subsystem 277. Upon processing this data signal, the Data Capture and Processing Subsystem 277 produces digital data representative of the sampled tape velocity which is then stored in the Metal-Fuel Database Management Subsystem 275, correlated with the metal-fuel zone identification data (i.e. bar code) read by the same subsystem. In accordance with the Power Discharge Regulation Method being carried out, the system controller 18 automatically reads the tape velocity data from the Metal-Fuel Database Management Subsystem 275 by way of local system bus 276. Using this information, the system controller 18 automatically controls (i.e. increases or decreases) the instantaneous velocity of the metal-fuel tape, relative to the discharging heads. Such tape velocity control is achieved by generating appropriate control signals for driving electric motors 19A and 19B coupled to the supply and take-up reels of metal-fuel tape being discharged.

The primary reason for controlling the velocity of metal-fuel tape is that this parameter determines how much electrical current (and thus power) can be produced from metal-fuel tape during transport through each discharging head within the Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystem 6. Ideally, during the Discharging Mode, it is desirable to transport the metal-fuel tape as slow as possible through the discharging head assembly in order to deliver the amount of electrical power required by the connected load 12. However, for practical reasons, the velocity of the metal-fuel tape will be controlled so that the cathode-anode current (iac) generated in each discharging head will satisfy the electrical power requirements of the connected load 12. In many applications where the power requirements of the electrical load are below the maximum output power capacity of the FCB subsystem, the velocity of the metal-fuel tape will be controlled so that the total metal fuel amount (TMFA) along each metal-fuel zone is completely consumed upon a single complete pass through all of the discharging heads within the discharging head assembly, thereby distributing the electrical load and heat generation evenly across each of the discharging heads. This will serve to maximize the service-life of the discharging heads.

Ion-Concentration Control Subsystem within the Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystem

In order to achieve high-energy efficiency during the Discharging Mode, it is necessary to maintain an optimal concentration of (charge-carrying) ions at the cathode-electrolyte interface of each discharging head within the Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystem 6 . Thus it is the primary function of the ion-concentration control subsystem to sense and modify conditions within the FCB subsystem so that the ion-concentration at the cathode-electrolyte interface within the discharging heads is maintained within an optimal range during the Discharge Mode of operation.

In the case where the ionically-conducting medium between the cathode and anode is an electrolyte containing potassium hydroxide (KOH), it will be desirable to maintain its concentration at 6N (−6M) during the Discharging Mode of operation. As the moisture level or relative humidity (RH %) can significantly affect the concentration of KOH in the electrolyte, it is desirable to regulate the moisture level or relative humidity at the cathode-electrolyte interface within each discharging heads. In the illustrative embodiment, ion-concentration control is achieved in a variety of different ways: (e.g. by embedding a miniature solid-state moisture sensor 34 within the FCB subsystem (as close as possible to the anode-cathode interfaces of the discharging heads) in order to sense moisture conditions and produce a digital data signal indicative thereof. As shown in FIGS. 5A31, 5A32 and 5A4, the digital data signals are supplied to the Data Capture and Processing Subsystem 277 for detection, analysis and subsequent recording within the information structure of FIG. 5A16 which is maintained by the Metal-Fuel Data Management Subsystem 275. In the event that the moisture level (or relative humidity) within a particular channel of the discharging head drops below the predetermined threshold value set within the information structure of FIG. 5A16, the system controller 18 responds to such changes in moisture-level by automatically generating a control signal that is supplied to moisturizing (H2O dispensing) element 35 for the purpose of increasing the moisture level within the particular channel. In general, moisturizing element 35 can be realized in a number of different ways. One such way would be to controllably release a supply of water to the surface of the metal-fuel tracks on the tape using a wicking (e.g. H2O applying) device 36 arranged in physical contact with the metal-fuel tracks as the metal-fuel tape is being transported through the discharging head assembly during the Discharging Mode. Another technique may involve spraying fine water droplets (e.g. ultra-fine mist) from micro-nozzles realized along the top surfaces of each cathode support structure, facing the metal-fuel tape during transport. Such operations will increase the moisture level (or relative humidity) within the interior of the discharging heads and thus ensure that the concentration of KOH within electrolyte-impregnated strips 46A through 46E is maintained for optimal ion transport and thus power generation.

Discharge Head Temperature Control Subsystem within the Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystem

As shown in FIGS. 5A31, 5A32, 5A4, and 5A7, the discharge head temperature control subsystem incorporated within the Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystem 6 of the first illustrative embodiment comprises a number of subcomponents, namely: the system controller 18; solid-state temperature sensors (e.g. thermistors) 271 embedded within each channel of the multi-cathode support structure hereof 42, as shown in FIG. 5A7; and a discharge head cooling device 272, responsive to control signals produced by the system controller 18, for lowering the temperature of each discharging channel to within an optimal temperature range during discharging operations. The discharge head cooling device 272 can be realized using a wide variety of heat-exchanging techniques, including forced-air cooling, water-cooling, and/or refrigerant cooling, each well known in the heat exchanging art. In some embodiments of the present invention, where high levels of electrical power are being generated, it may be desirable to provide a jacket-like structure about each discharge head in order to circulate air, water or refrigerant for temperature control purposes.

Data Capture and Processing Subsystem within the Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystem

In the illustrative embodiment of FIG. 4, Data Capture And Processing Subsystem (DCPS) 277 shown in FIGS. 5A31, 5A32 and 5A4 carries out a number of functions, including, for example: (1) identifying each zone or subsection of metal-fuel tape immediately before it is transported through each discharging head within the discharging head assembly and producing metal-fuel zone identification data (MFZID) representative thereof; (2) sensing (i.e. detecting) various “discharge parameters” within the Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystem 6 existing during the time period that the identified metal-fuel zone is transported through the discharging head assembly thereof; (3) computing one or more parameters, estimates or measures indicative of the amount of metal-oxide produced during tape discharging operations, and producing “metal-oxide indicative data” representative of such computed parameters, estimates and/or measures; and (4) recording in the Metal-Fuel Database Management Subsystem 275 (accessible by system controller 18), sensed discharge parameter data as well as computed metal-oxide indicative data both correlated to its respective metal-fuel zone identified during the Discharging Mode of operation. As will become apparent hereinafter, such recorded information maintained within the Metal-Fuel Database Management Subsystem 275 by Data Capture and Processing Subsystem 277 can be used by the system controller 18 in various ways including, for example: optimally discharging (i.e. producing electrical power from) partially or completely oxidized metal-fuel tape in an efficient manner during the Discharging Mode of operation; and optimally recharging partially or completely oxidized metal-fuel tape in a rapid manner during the Recharging Mode of operation.

During discharging operations, the Data Capture and Processing Subsystem 277 automatically samples (or captures) data signals representative of “discharge parameters” associated with the various subsystems constituting the Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystem 6 described above. These sampled values are encoded as information within the data signals produced by such subsystems during the Discharging Mode. In accordance with the principles of the present invention, tape-type “discharge parameters” shall include, but are not limited to: the voltages produced across the cathode and anode structures along particular metal-fuel tracks monitored, for example, by the cathode-anode voltage monitoring subsystem 26; the electrical currents flowing across the cathode and anode structures along particular metal-fuel tracks monitored, for example, by the cathode-anode current monitoring subsystem 27; the velocity (i.e. speed and direction) of the metal-fuel tape during discharging of a particular zone of metal-fuel tape, monitored by the metal-fuel tape speed control subsystem; the oxygen saturation level (pO2) within the cathode structure of each discharging head, monitored by the cathode oxygen pressure control subsystem (28,30,31,18); the moisture (H2O) level (or relative humidity) level across or near the cathode-electrolyte interface along particular metal-fuel tracks in particular discharging heads monitored, for example, by the ion-concentration control subsystem (18, 34, 35 and 36); and the time duration (ΔT) of the state of any of the above-identified discharge parameters.

In general, there are a number of different ways in which the Data Capture and Processing Subsystem 277 can record tape-type “discharge parameters” during the Discharging Mode of operation. These different methods will be detailed hereinbelow.

According to a first method of data recording shown in FIG. 5A9, a unique zone identifying code or indicia 80 (e.g. miniature bar code symbol encoded with zone identifying information) is graphically printed on an “optical” data track 81 realized as, for example, as a strip of transparent of reflective film material affixed or otherwise attached along the edge of each zone or subsection 82 of metal-fuel tape, as shown in FIG. 5A9. The function of this optical data track is to record a unique identifying code or symbol (i.e. digital information label) alongside each metal-fuel zone along the supply of metal-fuel tape. The position of the graphical zone identifying code should physically coincide with the particular metal-fuel zone to which it relates. This optical data track, with zone identifying codes recorded therein by printing or photographic techniques, can be formed at the time of manufacture of the multi-track metal-fuel tape hereof. The metal-fuel zone identifying indicia 80 along the edge of the tape is then read by an optical data reader 38 realized using optical techniques (e.g. laser scanning bar code symbol readers, or optical decoders). In the illustrative embodiment, the digital data representative of these unique zone identifying codes is produced for recording in an information storage structure, as shown in FIG. 5A16, which is created for each metal-fuel zone identified along the tape by tape data reader 38 of the Data Capture and Processing Subsystem 277. Preferably, such information storage is realized by data writing operations carried out by the Data Capture and Processing and Subsystem 277 within the Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystem 6 during the discharge operations.

According to a second method of data recording shown in FIG. 5A9′, a unique digital “zone identifying” code 83 is magnetically recorded in a magnetic data track 84 disposed along the edge of each zone or subsection 85 of the metal-fuel tape 5′. The position of the code should coincide with the particular metal-fuel zone to which it relates. This magnetic data track, with zone identifying codes recorded therein, can be formed at the time of manufacture of the multi-track metal-fuel tape hereof. The zone identifying indicia along the edge of the tape is then read by a magnetic reading head 38′ realized using magnetic information reading techniques well known in the art. In the illustrative embodiment, the digital data representative of these unique zone identifying codes is produced for recording in an information storage structure, as shown in FIG. 5A16, created for each metal-fuel zone identified along the tape by the data reader 38′. Preferably, such information storage is realized by data writing operations carried out by the Data Capture and Processing and Subsystem 277 within the Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystem 6 during the discharge operations.

According to a third method of data recording shown in FIG. 5A9″, a unique digital “zone identifying” code is recorded as a sequence of light transmission apertures 86 formed in an optically opaque data track 87 disposed along the edge of each zone or subsection 88 of the metal-fuel tape 5″. In this aperturing technique, information is encoded in the form of light transmission apertures whose relative spacing and/or width is the means by which information encoding is achieved. The position of the code (i.e. unique identification number or address) should spatially coincide with the particular metal-fuel zone to which it relates. This optical data track, with zone identifying codes recorded therein, can be formed at the time of manufacture of the multi-track metal-fuel tape hereof. The zone identifying indicia 86 along the edge of the tape is then read by an optical sensing head 38″ realized using optical sensing techniques well known in the art. In the illustrative embodiment, the digital data representative of these unique zone identifying codes is produced for recording in an information storage structure, as shown in FIG. 5A16, created for each metal-fuel zone identified along the tape by the data reader 38″. Preferably, such information storage is realized by data writing operations carried out by the Data Capture and Processing and Subsystem 277 within the Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystem 6 during the discharge operations.

According to a fourth alternative method of data recording, both unique digital “zone identifying” code and discharge parameters for each identified metal-fuel zone are recorded in a magnetic, optical, or apertured data track, realized as a strip attached to and extending along the edge of the metal-fuel tape of the present invention. The block of information pertaining to a particular zone or subsection of metal-fuel, schematically indicated in FIG. 5A16, can be recorded in the data track physically adjacent the related metal-fuel zone facilitating easily access to such recorded information during the Recharging Mode of operation. Typically, the block of information will include the metal-fuel zone identification number and a set of discharge parameters detected by the Data Capture and Processing Subsystem 277 as the metal-fuel zone is transported through the discharging head assembly 9.

The first and second data recording methods described above have several advantages over the third method described above. In particular, when using the first and second methods, the data track provided along the metal-fuel tape can have a very low information capacity. This is because very little information needs to be recorded to tag each metal-fuel zone with a unique identifier (i.e. address number or zone identification number), to which sensed tape discharge parameters are recorded in the Metal-Fuel Database Management Subsystem 275. Also, formation of a data track in accordance with the first and second methods should be very inexpensive to fabricate, as well as providing apparatus for reading zone identifying information recorded along such data tracks.

Discharging Power Regulation Subsystem within the Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystem

As shown in FIGS. 5A31, 5A32 and 5A4, the input port of the discharging power regulation subsystem 40 is operably connected to the output port of the cathode-anode output terminal configuration subsystem 25, whereas the output port of the discharging power regulation subsystem 40 is operably connected to the input port of the electrical load 12. While the primary function of the discharging power regulation subsystem 40 is to regulate the electrical power delivered the electrical load during its Discharging Mode of operation, the discharging power regulation subsystem can also regulate the output voltage across the electrical load, as well as the electrical current flowing across the cathode-electrolyte interface during discharging operations. Such control functions are managed by the system controller 18 and can be programmably selected in a variety of ways in order to achieve optimal discharging of multi-tracked and single-track metal-fuel tape according to the present invention while satisfying dynamic loading requirements.

The discharging power regulating subsystem of the first illustrative embodiment can be realized using solid-state power, voltage and current control circuitry well known in the power, voltage and current control arts. Such circuitry can include electrically-programmable power switching circuits using transistor-controlled technology, in which a current-controlled source is connectable in electrical series with electrical load 12 in order to control the electrical current therethrough in response to control signals produced by the system controller 18 carrying out a particular Discharging Power Control Method. Such electrically-programmable power switching circuits can also include transistor-controlled technology, in which a voltage-controlled source is connectable in electrical parallel with the electrical load in order to control the output voltage therethrough in response to control signals produced by the system controller. Such circuitry can be combined and controlled by the system controller 18 in order to provide constant power control across the electrical load 12.

In the illustrative embodiment of the present invention, the primary function of the discharging power regulation subsystem 40 is to carry out real-time power regulation to the electrical load using any one of the following Discharge Power Control (i.e. Regulation) Methods, namely: (1) a Constant Output Voltage/Variable Output Current Method, wherein the output voltage across the electrical load is maintained constant while the current is permitted to vary in response to loading conditions; (2) a Constant Output Current/Variable Output Voltage Method, wherein the current into the electrical load is maintained constant while the output voltage thereacross is permitted to vary in response to loading conditions; (3) a Constant Output Voltage/Constant Output Current Method, wherein the voltage across and current into the load are both maintained constant in response to loading conditions; (4) a Constant Output Power Method, wherein the output power across the electrical load is maintained constant in response to loading conditions; (5) a Pulsed Output Power Method, wherein the output power across the electrical load is pulsed with the duty cycle of each power pulse being maintained in accordance with preset conditions; (6) a Constant Output Voltage/Pulsed Output Current Method, wherein the output current into the electrical load is maintained constant while the current into the load is pulsed with a particular duty cycle; and (7) a Pulsed Output Voltage/Constant Output Current Method, wherein the output power into the load is pulsed while the current thereinto is maintained constant.

In the preferred embodiment of the present invention, each of the seven (7) Discharging Power Regulation Methods are preprogrammed into ROM associated with the system controller 18. Such power regulation methods can be selected in a variety of different ways, including, for example, by manually activating a switch or button on the system housing, by automatically detection of a physical, electrical, magnetic or optical condition established or detected at the interface between the electrical load 12 and the Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystem 6.

Input/Output Control Subsystem within the Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystem

In some applications, it may be desirable or necessary to combine two or more FCB subsystems or their Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystems in order to form a resultant system with functionalities not provided by the such subsystems operating alone. Contemplating such applications, the Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystem 6 hereof includes an Input/Output Control Subsystem 41 which allows an external system (e.g. microcomputer or micro-controller) to override and control aspects of the Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystem 6 as if its system controller were carrying out such control functions. In the illustrative embodiment, the Input/Output Control Subsystem 41 is realized as a standard IEEE I/O bus architecture which provides an external and/or remote computer system with a way and means of directly interfacing with the system controller 18 of the Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystem 6 and managing various aspects of system and subsystem operation in a straightforward manner.

System Controller within the Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystem

As illustrated in the detailed description set forth above, the system controller 18 performs numerous operations in order to carry out the diverse functions of the FCB subsystem within its Discharging Mode. In the preferred embodiment of the FCB subsystem of FIG. 4, the system controller 18 is realized using a programmed micro-controller having program and data storage memory (e.g. ROM, EPROM, RAM and the like) and a system bus structure well known in the microcomputing and control arts. In any particular embodiment of the present invention, it is understood that two or more microcontrollers may be combined in order to carry out the diverse set of functions performed by the FCB subsystem hereof. All such embodiments are contemplated embodiments of the system of the present invention.

Discharging Metal-Fuel Tape Within The Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystem

FIG. 5A5 sets forth a high-level flow chart describing the basic steps of discharging metal-fuel tape (i.e. generating electrical power therefrom) using the Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystem shown in FIGS. 5A31 through 5A4.

As indicated at Block A, the user places (i.e. inserts) a supply of unoxidized metal-fuel tape into the cartridge receiving port of the system housing so that the tape path-length expansion mechanism 8 is adjacent the metal-fuel tape ready for discharge within the Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystem.

As indicated at Block B, the path-length expansion mechanism within the Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystem increases the path-length of the metal-fuel tape over the increased path-length region thereof, as shown in FIGS. 5A31, 5A32 and 5A4.

As indicated at Block C, the Discharge Head Transport Subsystem 6 arranges the discharging heads about the metal-fuel tape over the expanded path-length of the Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystem so that the ionically-conducting medium is disposed between each cathode structure and the adjacent metal-fuel tape.

As indicated at Block D, the Discharge Head Transport Subsystem 6 then configured each discharging head so that its cathode structure is in ionic contact with a portion of the path-length extended metal-fuel tape and its anode contacting structure is in electrical contact therewith.

As indicated at Block E, the cathode-anode output terminal configuration subsystem 25 automatically configured the output terminals of the cathode-anode structures of each discharging head arranged about the path-length extended metal-fuel tape, and then the system controller 18 controls the Metal-Fuel Card Discharging Subsystem 6 so that electrical power is generated and supplied to the electrical load at the required output voltage. When all or a substantial portion of the metal-fuel tape has been discharged, then the Cartridge Loading/Unloading Subsystem 2 can be programmed to automatically eject the metal-fuel tape cartridge for replacement with a cartridge containing recharged metal-fuel tape.

Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem For The First Illustrative Embodiment Of The Metal-Air FCB subsystem Of The Present Invention

As shown in FIGS. 5B31, 5B32 and 5B4, the metal-fuel tape recharging subsystem 7 of the first illustrative embodiment comprises a number of subsystems, namely: an assembly of multi-track metal-oxide reducing (i.e. recharging) heads 11, each having multi-element cathode structures and anode-contacting structures with electrically-conductive input terminals connectable in a manner to be described hereinbelow; an assembly of metal-oxide sensing heads 23′ for sensing the presence of metal-oxide formation along particular zones of metal fuel tracks as the metal fuel tape is being transported past the recharging heads during the Recharging Mode; a metal-fuel tape path-length extension mechanism 10, as schematically illustrated in FIGS. 5B1 and 5B2 and described above, for extending the path-length of the metal-fuel tape over a particular region of the cassette device 5, and enabling the assembly of multi-track metal-oxide reducing heads to be arranged thereabout during the Recharging Mode of operation; a recharging head transport subsystem 24′ for transporting the subcomponents of the recharging head assembly 11 (and the metal-oxide sensing head assembly 23′ to and from the metal-fuel tape when its path-length is arranged in an extended configuration by the metal-fuel tape path-length extension mechanism 11; an input power supply subsystem 90 for converting externally supplied AC power signals into DC power supply signals having voltages suitable for recharging metal-fuel tracks being transported through the recharging heads of the Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem; a cathode-anode input terminal configuration subsystem 91, for connecting the output terminals (port) of the input power supply subsystem 90 to the input terminals (port) of the cathode and anode-contacting structures of the recharging heads 11, under the control of the system controller 18′ so as to supply input voltages thereto for electro-chemically converting metal-oxide formations into its primary metal during the Recharging Mode; a cathode-anode voltage monitoring subsystem 26′, connected to the cathode-anode input terminal configuration subsystem 91, for monitoring (i.e. sampling) the voltage applied across cathode and anode of each recharging head, and producing (digital) data representative of the sensed voltage level; a cathode-anode current monitoring subsystem 27′, connected to the cathode-anode input terminal configuration subsystem 91, for monitoring (e.g. sampling) the current flowing across the cathode-electrolyte interface of each recharging head during the Recharging Mode, and producing digital data signals representative of the sensed current levels; a cathode oxygen pressure control subsystem comprising the system controller 18′, solid-state pO2 sensors 28′, vacuum chamber (structure) 29′ shown in FIGS. 5B7 and 5B8, vacuum pump 30′, electronically-controlled airflow control device 31′, manifold structure 32′, and multi-lumen tubing 33′ shown in FIG. 2B8, for sensing and controlling the pO2 level within each channel of the cathode structure of each recharging head 11; a metal-fuel tape speed control subsystem comprising the system controller 18′, motor drive circuits 21A and 21B, and tape velocity (i.e. speed and direction) sensor/detector 22′, for bi-directionally controlling the velocity of metal-fuel tape relative to the recharging heads 11, in the forward and reverse tape directions; an ion-concentration control subsystem comprising the system controller 18′, solid-state moisture sensor 34′, moisturizing (e.g. humidifying or wicking element) 35′, for sensing and modifying conditions within the FCB subsystem (e.g. the relative humidity at the cathode-electrolyte interface of the discharging heads) so that the ion-concentration at the cathode-electrolyte interface is maintained within an optimal range during the Recharge Mode of operation; recharge head temperature control subsystem comprising the system controller 18′, solid-state temperature sensors (e.g. thermistors) 271′ embedded within each channel of the multi-cathode support structure hereof, and a discharge head cooling device 272′, responsive to control signals produced by the system controller 18′, for lowering the temperature of each recharging channel to within an optimal temperature range during recharging operations; a relational-type Metal-Fuel Database Management Subsystem (MRDMS) 280 operably connected to system controller 18′ by way of local bus 281, and designed for receiving particular types of information derived from the output of various subsystems within the Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem 7; a Data Capture and Processing Subsystem (DCPS) 282, comprising data reading head 38, (38′, 38″) embedded within or mounted closely to the cathode support structure of each recharging head II, metal-oxide sensing head assembly 23′ and associated circuitry, and a programmed microprocessor-based data processor adapted to receive data signals produced from voltage monitoring subsystem 26′, current monitoring subsystem 27′, metal-oxide sensing head assembly 23′, the tape velocity control subsystem, the cathode oxygen pressure control subsystem, and the ion-concentration control subsystem hereof, and enable (i) the reading of metal-fuel zone identification data from transported metal-fuel tape 5, (ii) the recording of sensed discharge parameters and computed metal-oxide indicative data derived therefrom in the Metal-Fuel Database Management Subsystem (MFDMS) 280 using local system bus 283, and (iii) the reading of prerecorded recharge parameters and prerecorded metal-fuel indicative data stored in the Metal-Fuel Database Management Subsystem 280 using local system bus 281; an input (i.e. recharging) power regulation subsystem 92 connected between the output terminals (i.e. port) of the input power supply subsystem 90 and the input terminal (i.e. port) of the cathode-anode input terminal configuration subsystem 91, for regulating the input power (and voltage and/or current characteristics) delivered across the cathode and anode structures of each metal-fuel track being recharged during the Recharging Mode; an input/output control subsystem 41′, interfaced with the system controller 18′, for controlling all functionalities of the FCB subsystem by way of a remote system or resultant system, within which the FCB subsystem is embedded; and system controller 18′ for managing the operation of the above mentioned subsystems during the various modes of system operation. These subsystems will be described in greater technical detail below.

Multi-Track Recharging Head Assembly within the Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem

The function of the assembly of multi-track recharging heads 11 is to electro-chemically reduce metal-oxide formations along the tracks of metal-fuel tape transported through the recharging head assembly 11 during the Recharging Mode of operation. In the illustrative embodiment, each recharging head 11 comprises: a cathode element support plate 42′ having a plurality of isolated channels 43′ permitting the free passage of oxygen (O2) through the bottom portion 44′ of each such channel; a plurality of electrically-conductive cathode elements (e.g. strips) 45′ (45A′ through 45E′) for insertion within the lower portion of these channels, respectively; a plurality of electrolyte-impregnated strips 46′ (46A′ through 46E′) for placement over the cathode strips 45A′ through 45E′, respectively, and support within the channels 44′ as shown in FIG. 5B6; and an oxygen-evacuation chamber 29′ mounted over the upper (back) surface of the cathode element support plate 42′, in a sealed manner, as shown in FIG. 5B7.

As shown in FIGS. 5B31, 5B32 and 5B4, each oxygen-evacuation chamber 29′ has a plurality of subchambers 29A′ through 29E′ physically associated with recessed channels 154A′ and 154E′, respectively. Each vacuum subchamber 29A′ through 29E′ is isolated from all other subchambers and is in fluid communication with one channel supporting a cathode element and electrolyte-impregnated element. As shown, each subchamber 29A′ through 29E′ is arranged in fluid communication with a vacuum pump 30′ via multi-lumen tubing 38′, manifold assembly 32′ and electronically-controlled air-flow switch 31′, each of whose operation is controlled by system controller 18′. This arrangement enables the system controller 18′ to maintain the pO2 level in each subchamber within an optimal range during recharging operations by selectively evacuating air from subchamber through the corresponding air flow channel in the manifold assembly 32′.

In the illustrative embodiment, electrolyte-impregnated strips 46′ within the recharging head assembly 11 are realized by impregnating an electrolyte-absorbing carrier medium with a gel-type electrolyte. Preferably, the electrolyte-absorbing carrier strip is realized as a strip of low-density, open-cell foam material made from PET plastic. The gel-electrolyte for each discharging cell is made from a formula consisting of an alkali solution (e.g. KOH), a gelatin material, water, and additives known in the art.

In the illustrative embodiment, each cathode strip is made from a sheet of nickel wire mesh 47′ coated with porous carbon material and granulated platinum or other catalysts 48′ to form a cathode suitable for use in metal-air FCB subsystems. Details of cathode construction are disclosed in U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,894,296 and 4,129,633, incorporated herein by reference. To form a current collection pathway, an electrical conductor 49′ is soldered to the underlying wire mesh sheet of each cathode strip. As shown in FIG. 5B7, each electrical conductor 49′ is passed through a small hole 50′ formed in the bottom surface of a channel of the cathode support plate, and is connected to the cathode-anode input terminal configuration subsystem 91. As shown, the cathode strip pressed into the lower portion of the channel to secure the same therein. As shown in FIG. 5B7, the bottom surface of each channel 43′ has numerous perforations 43A′ formed therein to allow the evacuation of oxygen away from the cathode-electrolyte interface, and out towards the vacuum pump 30′. In the illustrative embodiment, an electrolyte-impregnated strip 46A′ through 46E′ is placed over a cathode strip 45A′ through 45E′ and is secured within the upper portion of the cathode supporting channel 43′. As shown in FIG. 5B8, when the cathode strip and thin electrolyte strip are mounted in their respective channel in the cathode support plate 42′, the outer surface of the electrolyte-impregnated strip is disposed flush with the upper surface of the plate defining the channels, thereby permitting metal-fuel tape to be smoothly transported thereover during tape recharging operations.

Hydrophobic agents are added to the carbon material constituting the cathode elements within the recharging head assembly 11, to ensure the expulsion of water from the oxygen-pervious cathode elements. Also, the interior surfaces 44′ of the cathode support channels 43 are coated with a hydrophobic film (e.g. Teflon) 51′ to ensure the expulsion of water within electrolyte-impregnated strips 47′ and thus achieve optimum oxygen transport across the cathode strips during the Recharging Mode. Preferably, the cathode support plate is made from an electrically non-conductive material, such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic material well known in the art. The cathode support plate and evacuation chamber can be fabricated using injection molding technology also well known in the art.

In order to sense the partial oxygen pressure within the cathode structure during the Recharging Mode, for use in effective control of metal-oxide reduction within the recharging heads, a solid-state PO2 sensor 28′ is embedded within each channel of the cathode support plate 42′, as illustrated in FIG. 5B7, and operably connected to the Data Capture and Processing Subsystem 282 as an information input device thereto. Data signals produced by the pO2 sensors are received by the Data Capture and Processing Subsystem 282, converted into an appropriate format and then recorded within the information structure shown in FIG. 5B16, maintained by the Metal-Fuel Database Management Subsystem 280. The system controller 18′ has access to such information stored in the Database Management Subsystem by way of local system bus 281, as shown in FIGS. 5B3 and 5B4.

In the illustrative embodiment, each pO2 sensor can be realized using well-known pO2 sensing technology employed to measure (in vivo) pO2 levels in the blood of humans. Such prior art sensors can be constructed using miniature diodes which emit electromagnetic radiation at different wavelengths that are absorbed at different levels in the presence of oxygen in the blood, and such information can be processed and analyzed to produce a computed measure of pO2 in a reliable manner, as taught in U.S. Pat. No. 5,190,038 and references cited therein, each being incorporated herein by reference. In the present invention, the characteristic wavelengths of the light emitting diodes can be selected so that similar sensing functions are carried out within the structure of the cathode in each recharging head, in a straightforward manner.

In FIG. 5B9, there is shown a section of multi-tracked fuel tape that has undergone partial discharge and thus has metal-oxide formations along the metal-fuel tracks thereof. Notably, this section of partially-discharged metal-fuel tape is contained within the cassette fuel cartridge shown in FIG. 4 and requires recharging within the Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem 7 while its cassette device is received within the cassette storage bay of the FCB subsystem.

In FIG. 5B10, an exemplary metal-fuel (anode) contacting structure 58′ is disclosed for use with the cathode structure shown in FIGS. 2B7 and 2B8. As shown, a plurality of electrically conductive elements 60A′ through 60E′ are supported from an platform 61′ disposed adjacent the travel of the fuel tape within the cassette cartridge. Each conductive element 60A′ through 60E′ has a smooth surface adapted for slidable engagement with one track of metal fuel through the fine groove formed in the base layer of the fuel tape corresponding to the fuel track. Each conductive element is connected to an electrical conductor which is connected to the output port of the cathode-anode input terminal configuration subsystem 91. The platform 61′ is operably associated with the recharging head transport subsystem 24′ and can be designed to be moved into position with the metal-fuel tape during the Recharging Mode of the system, under the control of the system controller.

Notably, the use of multiple recharging heads, as shown in the illustrative embodiments hereof, rather than a single recharging head, allows discharged metal-fuel tape to be recharged more quickly using lower recharging currents, thereby minimizing heat build-up across the individual recharging heads. This feature of the Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem 7 extends the service-life of the cathodes employed within the recharging heads thereof.

Metal-Oxide Sensing Head Assembly within the Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem

The function of the Metal-Oxide Sensing Head Assembly 23′ within the Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem 7 is to sense (in real-time) the current levels produced across the individual fuel tracks during recharging operations, and generate electrical signals indicating the degree to which portions of metal-fuel tracks have been oxidized and thus require metal-oxide reduction. As shown in FIG. 5B15, each multi-track metal-oxide sensing head 23′ in the assembly thereof comprises a number of subcomponents, namely: a positive electrode support structure 63′ for supporting a plurality of positively electrode elements 64A′ through 64E′ , each in registration with the upper surface of one of the fuel tracks (that may have been oxidized) and connected to a low-voltage power supply terminal 69A′ through 69E′ provided by current sensing circuitry 66′ which is operably connected to the Data Capture and Processing Subsystem 282 within the Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem 7, as shown in FIGS. 5B31, 5B32 and 5B4; and a negative electrode support structure 67′ for supporting a plurality of negative electrode elements 68A′ through 68E′, each in registration with the lower surface of the metal-fuel tracks and connected to a low voltage power supply terminal 69A′ through 69E′ provided by current sensing circuitry 66′.

In the illustrative embodiment shown in FIGS. 5B31, 5B32 and 5B4, each multi-track metal-oxide sensing head 23′ is disposed immediately before a recharging head 11 in order to sense the actual condition of the metal-fuel tape therebefore and provide a signal to the system controller 18′ for detection and determination of the amount (or percentage) of metal-oxide present thereon before recharging. While only one metal-oxide sensing head assembly 23′ is shown in the first illustrative embodiment of the FCB subsystem hereof, it is understood that for bi-directional tape-based FCB subsystems, it would be preferred to install one assembly on each end of the recharging head assembly so that the system controller 18′ can “anticipate” which metal-fuel zones are fully charged, partially discharged or completely discharged, regardless of the direction that the metal-fuel tape is being transported at any particular instant in time.

With this arrangement, the Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem 7 is capable of actually determining which portions of which metal fuel tracks require metal-oxide reduction during recharging operations. Such information gathering can be carried out using current sensing circuitry 66′ which automatically applies a test voltage (vacr) across each metal-fuel track during the Recharge Mode, to measure the response current (iacr). Such parameters are provided as input to the Data Capture and Processing Subsystem 282. This subsystem then processes this captured data in one or more ways to determine the presence of metal-oxide formations. For example, this subsystem can compare the detected response current value against a threshold current value stored within the Metal-Fuel Database Management Subsystem 280. Alternatively, the subsystem may compute the ratio vacr/iacr to determine a measure of electrical resistance for the cell and compare this measure with a reference threshold value to determine whether there is high electrical resistance across the cell and thus large metal-oxide formations therealong. This data is stored in the Metal-Fuel Database Management Subsystem 280 and is accessible by the system controller 18′ any time during recharging operations. The various ways in which the system controller 18′ may respond to real-time analysis of data within the Metal-Fuel Database Management Subsystem 280 will be described in greater detail hereinafter.

Metal-Fuel Tape Path-Length Extension Mechanism within the Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem

As shown in FIGS. 5B31, 5B32 and 5B4, the tape path-length extension mechanism 10 of the illustrative embodiment comprises: a first array of rollers 71A′ through 71E′ mounted upon support structure 72′, for contacting the metal-fuel portion of the metal-fuel tape when the cassette device 3 inserted into the cassette receiving port of the FCB subsystem; a second array of rollers 73A′ through 73D′, disposed between the array of stationary rollers 71A′ through 71E′, for contacting the base portion of the metal-fuel tape 5 when the cassette device 3 is inserted into the cassette receiving port of the FCB subsystem, and a transport mechanism 75′ of the electromechanical construction, for transporting roller support structures 72 and 74 relative to the system housing and each other, in order to carry out the functions of this subsystem described in greater detail hereinbelow. Notably, these roller arrays 71A′ through 71E′ can be arranged to either the left of right of the roller arrays 73A′ through 73E′ of the tape-path extension mechanism provided for the Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystem 7. Alternatively, in other embodiments of the present invention, it may be desirable to employ a single tape path-length extension mechanism for use with the discharging heads of the Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystem and the recharging heads of the Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem.

In the configuration shown in FIGS. 5B31 and 5B32, the tape path-length mechanism 10 for the Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem is arranged so that the first and second sets of rollers 71A′ through 71E′ and 73A′ through 73D′ barely contact opposite sides of the metal-fuel tape when the cassette device 3 is inserted within the cassette receiving port of the FCB subsystem. As shown in FIG. 5B4, the second set of rollers 73A′ through 73D′ are displaced a distance relative to the first set of stationary rollers 71A′ through 71E′, thereby causing the path-length of the metal-fuel tape to become substantially extended from the path-length shown in the configuration of FIGS. 5B31 and 5B32. This extended path-length permits a plurality of recharging heads 11 to be arranged thereabout during the recharging mode of operation. In this configuration, the cathode structure 76′ of each recharging head 11 is in ionic contact with the metal-fuel structures along the metal-fuel tape, while the anode-contacting structure 77′ of each recharging head is in electrical contact with the metal-fuel structures of the tape. In this configuration, the metal-fuel tape is arranged so that a plurality of recharging heads 11 can be arranged about the metal-fuel tape during tape recharging operations. The use of multiple recharging heads enables recharging of metal-fuel tape using lower electrical currents and thus providing improved control over the metal-oxide conversion during tape recharging. Such advantages will become apparent hereinafter.

Recharging Head Transport Subsystem within the Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem

The primary function of the recharging head transport subsystem is to transport the assembly of recharging heads 11 (and metal-oxide sensing heads 23′ supported thereto) about the metal-fuel tape that has been path-length extended, as shown in FIGS. 5B31 and 5B32. When properly transported, the cathode and anode-contacting structures of the recharging heads are brought into “ionically-conductive” and “electrically-conductive” contact with the metal-fuel tracks of metal-fuel tape while it is being is transported through the recharging head assembly during the Recharging Mode.

The recharging head transport subsystem 24′ can be realized using any one of a variety of electromechanical mechanisms capable of transporting the cathode structure 76′ and anode-contacting structure 77′ of each recharging head away from the metal-fuel tape 5, as shown in FIGS. 5B31 and 5B32, and about the metal-fuel tape as shown in FIG. 5B4. As shown, these transport mechanisms are operably connected to system controller 18′ and controlled by the same in accordance with the system control program carried out thereby.

Input Power Supply Subsystem within the Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem

In the illustrative embodiment, the primary function of the Input Power Supply Subsystem 90 is to receive as input, standard alternating current (AC) electrical power (e.g. at 120 or 220 Volts) through an insulated power cord, and to convert such electrical power into regulated direct current (DC) electrical power at a regulated voltage required at the recharging heads of the Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem 7 during the recharging mode of operation. For zinc anodes and carbon cathodes, the required “open-cell” voltage vac across each anode-cathode structure during recharging is about 2.2-2.3 Volts in order to sustain electro-chemical reduction. This subsystem can be realized in various ways using AC-DC and DC-DC power conversion and regulation circuitry well known in the art.

Cathode-Anode Input Terminal Configuration Subsystem within the Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem

As shown in FIGS. 5B31, and 5B32 and 5B4, the cathode-anode input terminal configuration subsystem 91 is connected between the output terminals of the input power regulation subsystem 90 and the input terminals of the cathode-anode pairs associated with multiple tracks of the recharging heads 11. The system controller 18′ is operably connected to cathode-anode input terminal configuration subsystem 91 in order to supply control signals thereto for carrying out its functions during the Recharge Mode of operation.

The primary function of the cathode-anode input terminal configuration subsystem 91 is to automatically configure (in series or parallel) the input terminals of selected cathode-anode pairs within the recharging heads of the Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem 7 so that the required input (recharging) voltage level is applied across cathode-anode structures of metal-fuel tracks requiring recharging. In the illustrative embodiment of the present invention, the cathode-anode input terminal configuration mechanism 91 can be realized as one or more electrically-programmable power switching circuits using transistor-controlled technology, wherein the cathode and anode-contacting elements within the recharging heads 11 are connected to the output terminals of the input power regulating subsystem 92. Such switching operations are carried out under the control of the system controller 18′ so that the required output voltage produced by the input power regulating subsystem 92 is applied across the cathode-anode structures of metal-fuel tracks requiring recharging.

Cathode-Anode Voltage Monitoring Subsystem within the Metal-Fuel The Recharging Subsystem

As shown in FIGS. 5B31, 5B32 and 5B4, the cathode-anode voltage monitoring subsystem 26′ is operably connected to the cathode-anode input terminal configuration subsystem 91 for sensing voltage levels across the cathode and anode structures connected thereto. This subsystem is also operably connected to the system controller 18′ for receiving control signals therefrom required to carry out its functions. In the first illustrative embodiment, the cathode-anode voltage monitoring subsystem 26′ has two primary functions: to automatically sense the instantaneous voltage level applied across the cathode-anode structures associated with each metal-fuel track being transported through each recharging head during the Recharging Mode; and to produce digital data signals indicative of the sensed voltages for detection and analysis by the Data Capture and Processing Subsystem 280, and ultimately response thereto by the system controller 18′.

In the first illustrative embodiment of the present invention, the Cathode-Anode Voltage Monitoring Subsystem 26′ can be realized using electronic circuitry adapted for sensing voltage levels applied across the cathode-anode structures associated with each metal-fuel track transported through each recharging head within the Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem 7. In response to such detected voltage levels, the electronic circuitry can be designed to produce digital data signals indicative of the sensed voltage levels for detection, analysis and response at the data signal input of the system controller 18′. As will be described in greater detail hereinafter, such data signals can be used by the system controller to carry out its recharging power regulation method during the Recharging Mode of operation.

Cathode-Anode Current Monitoring Subsystem within the Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem

As shown in FIGS. 5B31, 5B32 and 5B4, the cathode-anode current monitoring subsystem 27′ is operably connected to the cathode-anode input terminal configuration subsystem 18′. The cathode-anode current monitoring subsystem 27′ has two primary functions: to automatically sense the magnitude of electrical current flowing through the cathode-anode pair of each metal-fuel track along each recharging head assembly within the Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem 11 during the discharging mode; and to produce a digital data signal indicative of the sensed current for detection and analysis by the system controller 18′.

In the first illustrative embodiment of the present invention, the Cathode-Anode Current Monitoring Subsystem 27′ can be realized using current sensing circuitry for sensing the electrical current passed through the cathode-anode pair of each metal-fuel track along each recharging head assembly, and producing a digital data signal indicative of the sensed current for detection at the input of the system controller 18′. As will be explained in greater detail hereinafter, these detected current levels can be used by the system controller in carrying out its recharging power regulation method, and well as creating a “recharging condition history” information file for each zone or subsection of recharged metal-fuel tape.

Cathode Oxygen Pressure Control Subsystem within the Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem

The function of the cathode oxygen pressure control subsystem defined above is to sense the partial oxygen pressure (pO2) (i.e. O2 concentration) within each channel of the cathode structure in the recharging heads 11, and in response thereto, control (i.e. increase or decrease) the same by regulating the air (O2) pressure within such cathode structures. In accordance with the present invention, partial oxygen pressure (pO2) within each channel of the cathode structure in each recharging head is maintained at an optimal level in order to allow optimal oxygen evacuation from the recharging heads during the Recharging Mode. By lowering the pO2 level within each channel of the cathode structure (by evacuation), metal-oxide along the metal-fuel tape can be completely recovered with optimal use of input power supplied to the recharging heads during the Recharging Mode. Also, by monitoring changes in pO2 and producing digital data signals representative thereof for detection and analysis by the system controller, the system controller is provided with a controllable variable for use in regulating the electrical power supplied to the electrical load during the Recharging Mode.

In the first illustrative embodiment of the FCB subsystem hereof shown in FIG. 4, the data signals produced by the solid-state pO2 sensors 28A′ through 28E′ embodied within the recharging heads 11 are provided to the Data Capture and Processing Subsystem 282, as shown in FIGS. 5B31, 5B32 and 5B4. The Data Capture and Processing Subsystem 282 receives these signals, converts them into digital data and the like and then records the resulting information items within the information structure shown in FIG. 5B16, managed within the Metal-Fuel Database Management Subsystem 280 with the Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem 7.

Metal-Fuel Tape Velocity Control Subsystem within the Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem

In the FCB subsystem shown in FIG. 4, there is the need for only one metal-fuel tape control subsystem to be operative at any instant in time as metal-fuel tape is common to both the Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystem 6 and the Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem 7 during discharging and/or recharging operations. Notwithstanding this fact, the system controllers 18 and 18′ associated with these subsystems 6 and 7 can override each other, as required, in order to control the operation of the tape velocity control subsystem within such discharging and recharging subsystem.

For example, during the Recharging Mode, when the Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystem 6 is inoperative (i.e. no power generation occurring), the function of metal-tape speed control subsystem described hereinabove is to control the speed of the metal-fuel tape over the recharging heads within the metal-fuel tape recharging subsystem 7. In response to signals produced by the tape velocity sensor 22 and in accordance with the recharging power regulation method being carried out by the system controller 18′, the system controller 18′ automatically controls (i.e. increases or decreases) the speed of the metal-fuel tape relative to the recharging heads by generating appropriate control signals for driving electric motors 19A and 19B coupled to the supply and take-up reels of metal-fuel tape being recharged. The primary reason for controlling the velocity of metal-fuel tape is that, during the Recharging Mode, this parameter determines how much electrical charge can be delivered to each zone or subsection of oxidized metal-fuel tape as it is being transported through each recharging head within the Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem 7. Ideally, during the Recharging Mode, it is desirable to transport the metal-fuel tape as fast as possible through the assembly of recharging heads in order to rapidly and completely recharge the metal-fuel tape within the cassette cartridge inserted within the FCB subsystem. In contrast, the Discharge Mode, it will be desirable in many cases to transport the metal-fuel tape as slow as possible to conserve the supply of metal-fuel. In general, for a constant cathode-anode current applied to a recharging head with the requisite cathode-anode recharging voltage (i.e. Constant Input Current/Constant Input Voltage Method), the amount of electrical charge supplied to each zone of metal-fuel tape will decrease as the velocity of the metal-fuel zone is increased relative to the recharging head during the Recharging Mode. This inverse relationship can be explained by the fact that the metal-fuel zone has less time to accumulate electrical charge as it is transported past the recharging head. In such situations, the function of the metal-fuel tape speed control subsystem is to control the velocity of the tape so as to optimally convert metal-oxide formations along the tape into its primary metal.

In instances where the recharging mode and recharging mode are both operative, it will be desired to enable the system controller 18 to override system controller 18′ so that the primary objective of the system is to optimally generate power from the FCB subsystem. In other instances, however, where the primary objective of the FCB subsystem is to optimally recharge the metal-fuel tape in a rapid manner, the system controller 18′ of the Recharging Subsystem 7 will override the system controller 18 of the Discharging Subsystem 6, and thus control the velocity of the metal-fuel tape within the FCB subsystem.

Ion-Concentration Control Subsystem within the Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem

To achieve high-energy efficiency during the Recharging Mode, it is necessary to maintain an optimal concentration of (charge-carrying) ions at the cathode-electrolyte interface of each recharging head within the Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem 7. Also, the optimal ion-concentration within the Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem 7 may be different than that required within the Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystem 6. For this reason, in particular applications of the FCB subsystem hereof, it may be desirable and/or necessary to provide a separate ion-concentration control subsystem within the Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem 7. The primary function of such an ion-concentration control subsystem would be to sense and modify conditions within the FCB subsystem so that the ion-concentration at the cathode-electrolyte interface of the recharging heads is maintained within an optimal range during the Recharging Mode of operation.

In the illustrative embodiment of such a subsystem, ion-concentration control is achieved by embedding a miniature solid-state hydrometer (or moisture sensor) 34′ within the FCB subsystem (as close as possible to the anode-cathode interfaces of the recharging heads) in order to sense moisture conditions and produce a digital data signal indicative thereof. This digital data signal is supplied to the Data Capture and Processing Subsystem 282 for detection and analysis. In the event that the moisture-level or relative humidity drops below the predetermined threshold value set in the Metal-Fuel Database Management Subsystem 280, the system controller automatically generate a control signal supplied to a moisturizing element 35′ realizable, for example, by a wicking device 36′ arranged in contact with the metal-fuel tracks of the metal-fuel tape being transported during the Recharging Mode. Another technique may involve spraying fine water droplets (e.g. ultra-fine mist) from micro-nozzles realized along the top surfaces of each cathode support structure, facing the metal-fuel tape during transport. Such operations will increase the moisture-level or relative humidity within the interior of the recharging head (or system housing) and thus ensure that the concentration of KOH within electrolyte-impregnated strips is optimally maintained for ion transport and thus metal-oxide reduction during tape recharging operations.

Recharging Head Temperature Control Subsystem within the Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem

As shown in FIGS. 5B31, 5B32, 5B4, and 5B7, the Recharge Head Temperature Control Subsystem incorporated within the Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem 6 of the first illustrative embodiment comprises a number of subcomponents, namely: the system controller 18′; solid-state temperature sensors (e.g. thermistors) 271′ embedded within each channel of the multi-cathode support structure hereof, as shown in FIG. 5B7; and a discharge head cooling device 272′, responsive to control signals produced by the system controller 18′, for lowering the temperature of each discharging channel to within an optimal temperature range during discharging operations. The recharge head cooling device 272′ can be realized using a wide variety of heat-exchanging techniques, including forced-air cooling, water-cooling, and/or refrigerant cooling, each well known in the heat exchanging art. In some embodiments of the present invention, where high levels of electrical power are being generated, it may be desirable to provide a jacket-like structure about each recharging head in order to circulate air, water or refrigerant for temperature control purposes.

Data Capture and Processing Subsystem within the Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem

In the illustrative embodiment of FIG. 4, Data Capture And Processing Subsystem (DCPS) 282 shown in FIGS. 5B31, 5B32 and 5B4 carries out a number of functions, including, for example: (1) identifying each zone or subsection of metal-fuel tape immediately before it is transported through each recharging bead within the recharging head assembly and producing metal-fuel zone identification data representative thereof; (2) sensing (i.e. detecting) various “recharge parameters” within the Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem existing during the time period that the identified metal-fuel zone is transported through the recharging head assembly thereof; (3) computing one or more parameters, estimates or measures indicative of the amount of metal-oxide produced during tape recharging operations, and producing “metal-oxide indicative data” representative of such computed parameters, estimates and/or measures; and (4) recording in the Metal-Fuel Database Management Subsystem 280 (accessible by system controller 18′), sensed recharge parameter data as well as computed metal-oxide indicative data both correlated to its respective metal-fuel zone identified during the Recharging Mode of operation.

As will become apparent hereinafter, such recorded information maintained within the Metal-Fuel Database Management Subsystem 280 by Data Capture and Processing Subsystem 282 can be used by the system controller 18′ in various ways including, for example: optimally recharging partially or completely oxidized metal-fuel tape in a rapid manner during the Recharging Mode of operation.

During recharging operations, the Data Capture and Processing Subsystem 282 automatically samples (or captures) data signals representative of “recharge parameters” associated with the various subsystems constituting the Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem 7 described above. These sampled values are encoded as information within the data signals produced by such subsystems during the Recharging Mode. In accordance with the principles of the present invention, tape-type “recharge parameters” shall include, but are not limited to: the voltages supplied across the cathode and anode structures along particular metal-fuel tracks monitored, for example, by the cathode-anode voltage monitoring subsystem 26′; the electrical response currents flowing across the cathode and anode structures along particular metal-fuel tracks monitored, for example, by the cathode-anode current monitoring subsystem 27′; the velocity (i.e. speed and direction) of the metal-fuel tape during recharging of a particular zone of metal-fuel tape, monitored by the metal-fuel tape speed control subsystem; the oxygen saturation (i.e. concentration) level (pO2) within the cathode structure of each recharging head, monitored by the cathode oxygen pressure control subsystem (28′,30′,31′,18′); the moisture (H2O) level (or relative humidity) level across or near the cathode-electrolyte interface along particular metal-fuel tracks in particular recharging heads monitored, for example, by the ion-concentration control subsystem (18′, 34′, 35′ and 36′); and the time duration (ΔT) of the state of any of the above-identified recharge parameters.

In general, there a number of different ways in which the Data Capture and Processing Subsystem 282 can record tape-type “recharge parameters” during the Recharging Mode of operation. While these methods are similar to those employed during the recording of discharging parameters, such methods will be detailed hereinbelow for sake of completion.

According to a first method of data recording shown in FIG. 5B9, zone identifying code or indicia 80 (e.g. miniature bar code symbol encoded with zone identifying information) graphically printed on “optical” data track 81, can be read by optical data reader 38 realized using optical techniques (e.g. laser scanning bar code symbol readers, or optical decoders). In the illustrative embodiment, the digital data representative of these unique zone identifying codes is produced for recording in an information storage structure, as shown in FIG. 5B16, which is created for each metal-fuel zone identified along the tape by data reader 38 of the Data Capture and Processing Subsystem 282. Preferably, such information storage is realized by data writing operations carried out by the Data Capture and Processing and Subsystem within the Metal-Fuel Database Management Subsystem 280 during the recharging operations.

According to a second method of data recording shown in FIG. 5B9′, a digital “zone identifying” code 83 magnetically recorded in a magnetic data track 84′, can be read by optical data reader 38′ realized using magnetic sensing techniques well known in the mag-stripe reading art. In the illustrative embodiment, the digital data representative of these unique zone identifying codes is produced for recording in an information storage structure, as shown in FIG. 5B16, which is created for each metal-fuel zone identified along the tape by data reader 38′ of the Data Capture and Processing Subsystem 282. Preferably, such information storage is realized by data writing operations carried out by the Data Capture and Processing and Subsystem within the Metal-Fuel Database Management Subsystem 280 during the recharging operations.

According to a third method of data recording shown in FIG. 5B9″, digital “zone identifying” code recorded as a sequence of light transmission apertures 86 in optically opaque data track 87, can be read by optical sensing head 38″ realized using optical sensing techniques well known in the art. In the illustrative embodiment, the digital data representative of these unique zone identifying codes is produced for recording in an information storage structure, as shown in FIG. 5B16, created for each metal-fuel zone identified along the tape by the data reader 38″. Preferably, such information storage is realized by data writing operations carried out by the Data Capture and Processing and Subsystem within the Metal-Fuel Database Management Subsystem 282 during the recharging operations.

According to a fourth alternative method of data recording, both unique digital “zone identifying” code and discharge parameters for each identified metal-fuel zone are recorded in a magnetic, optical, or apertured data track, realized as a strip attacked to and extending along the edge of the metal-fuel tape of the present invention. The block of information pertaining to a particular zone or subsection of metal-fuel, schematically indicated in FIG. 5B16, can be recorded in the data track physically adjacent the related metal-fuel zone facilitating easily access of such recorded information. Typically, the block of information will include the metal-fuel zone identification number and a set of recharge parameters detected by the Data Capture and Processing Subsystem 282 as the metal-fuel zone is transported through the recharging head assembly 11.

The first and second data recording methods described above have several advantages over the third method described above. In particular, when using the first and second methods, the data track provided along the metal-fuel tape can have a very low information capacity. This is because very little information needs to be recorded to tag each metal-fuel zone with a unique identifier (i.e. address number or zone identification number), to which sensed tape recharge parameters are recorded in the Metal-Fuel Database Management Subsystem 280. Also, formation of a data track in accordance with the first and second methods should be inexpensive to fabricate and provide a convenient way of recording zone identifying information along metal-fuel tape.

Input/Output Control Subsystem within the Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem

In some applications, it may be desirable or necessary to combine two or more FCB subsystems or their Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystems in order to form a resultant system with functionalities not provided by the such subsystems operating alone. Contemplating such applications, the Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem 7 hereof includes an Input/Output Control Subsystem 41′ which allows an external system (e.g. microcomputer or microcontroller) to override and control aspects of the Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem as if its system controller were carrying out such control functions. In the illustrative embodiment, the Input/Output Control Subsystem 41′ is realized as a standard IEEE I/O bus architecture which provides an external or remote computer system with a way of and means for directly interfacing with the system controller of the Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem and managing various aspects of system and subsystem operation in a straightforward manner.

Recharging Power Regulation Subsystem within the Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem

As shown in FIGS. 5B31, 5B32 and 5B4, the output port of the recharging power regulation subsystem 92 is operably connected to the input port of the Cathode-Anode Input Terminal Configuration Subsystem 91 whereas the input port of the recharging power regulation subsystem 92 is operably connected to the output port of the input power supply subsystem. While the primary function of the recharging power regulation subsystem 92 is to regulate the electrical power supplied to metal-fuel tape during the Recharging Mode of operation, the recharging power regulation subsystem 92 can also regulate the voltage applied across the cathode-anode structures of the metal-fuel track, as well as the electrical currents flowing across the cathode-electrolyte interfaces thereof during recharging operations. Such control functions are managed by the system controller 18′ and can be programmably selected in a variety of ways in order to achieve optimal recharging of multi-tracked and single-track metal-fuel tape while satisfying dynamic loading requirements.

The recharging power regulating subsystem of the first illustrative embodiment can be realized using solid-state power, voltage and current control circuitry well known in the power, voltage and current control arts. Such circuitry can include electrically-programmable power switching circuits using transistor-controlled technology, in which one or more current-controlled sources are connectable in electrical series with the cathode and anode structures of the recharging heads 11 in order to control the electrical currents therethrough in response to control signals produced by the system controller 18′ carrying out a particular Recharging Power Control Method. Such electrically-programmable power switching circuits can also include transistor-controlled technology, in which one or more voltage-controlled sources are connectable in electrical parallel with the cathode and anode structures in order to control the voltage thereacross in response to control signals produced by the system controller 18′. Such circuitry can be combined and controlled by the system controller 18′ in order to provide constant power (and/or voltage and/or current) control across the cathode-anode structures of the recharging heads 11 of the FCB subsystem.

In the illustrative embodiments of the present invention, the primary function of the recharging power regulation subsystem 92 is to carry out real-time power regulation to the cathode/anode structures of the recharging heads of the system using any one of the following Recharging Power Control Methods, namely: (1) a Constant Input Voltage/Variable Input Current Method, wherein the input voltage applied across each cathode-anode structure is maintained constant while the current therethrough is permitted to vary during recharging operations; (2) a Constant Input Current/Variable Input Voltage Method, wherein the current into each cathode-anode structure is maintained constant while the output voltage thereacross is permitted to vary during recharging operations; (3) a Constant Input Voltage/Constant Input Current Method, wherein the voltage applied across and current into each cathode-anode structure during recharging are both maintained constant; (4) a Constant Input Power Method, wherein the input power applied across each cathode-anode structure during recharging is maintained constant; (5) a Pulsed Input Power Method, wherein the input power applied across each cathode-anode structure during recharging is pulsed with the duty cycle of each power pulse being maintained in accordance with preset or dynamic conditions; (6) a Constant Input Voltage/Pulsed Input Current Method, wherein the input current into each cathode-anode structure during recharging is maintained constant while the current into the cathode-anode structure is pulsed with a particular duty cycle; and (7) a Pulsed Input Voltage/Constant Input Current Method, wherein the input power supplied to each cathode-anode structure during recharging is pulsed while the current thereinto is maintained constant.

In the preferred embodiment of the present invention, each of the seven (7) Recharging Power Regulation Methods described above are preprogrammed into ROM associated with the system controller 18′. Such power regulation methods can be selected in a variety of different ways, including, for example, by manually activating a switch or button on the system housing, and by automatically detection of a physical, electrical, magnetic an/or optical condition established or detected at the interface between the metal-fuel cassette device and the Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem 7.

System Controller within the Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem

As illustrated in the detailed description set forth above, the system controller 18′ performs numerous operations in order to carry out the diverse functions of the FCB subsystem within its Recharging Mode. In the preferred embodiment of the FCB subsystem of FIG. 4, the enabling technology used to realize the system controller 18′ in the Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem 7 is substantially the same subsystem used to realize the system controller 18 in the Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystem 6, except that the system controller 18′ will have some programmed functions which system controller 18 does not have, and vice versa. While a common computing platform can be used to realize system controller 18 and 18′, it is understood, however, the system controllers in the Discharging and Recharging Subsystems can be realized as separate subsystems, each employing one or more programmed microprocessors in order to carry out the diverse set of functions performed thereby within the FCB subsystem hereof. In either case, the input/output control subsystem of one of these subsystems can be designed to be the primary input/output control subsystem, with which one or more external subsystems (e.g. a management subsystem) can be interfaced to enable external or remote management of the functions carried out within the FCB subsystem hereof.

Recharging Metal-Fuel Tape Within The Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem

FIG. 5B5 sets forth a high-level flow chart describing the basic steps of recharging metal-fuel tape using the Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem 7 shown in FIGS. 5B31 through 5B4.

As indicated at Block A, the user places (i.e. inserts) a supply of oxidized metal-fuel tape into the cartridge receiving port of the system housing so that the tape path-length expansion mechanism 10 is adjacent the metal-fuel tape ready for recharging within the Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem 7.

As indicated at Block B, the path-length extension mechanism 10 within the Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem 7 increases the path-length of the metal-fuel tape 5 over the extended path-length region thereof, as shown in FIGS. 5B31, 5B32 and 5B4.

As indicated at Block C, the Recharge Head Transport Subsystem 24′ arranges the recharging heads 11 about the metal-fuel tape over the expanded path-length of the Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem 7 so that the ionically-conducting medium is disposed between each cathode structure of the recharging head and the adjacent metal-fuel tape.

As indicated at Block D, the Recharge Head Transport Subsystem 24′ then configured each recharging head so that its cathode structure is in ionic contact with a portion of the path-length extended metal-fuel tape and its anode contacting structure is disposed in electrical contact therewith.

As indicated at Block E, the cathode-anode input terminal configuration subsystem 91 automatically configured the input terminals of each recharging head arranged about the path-length extended metal-fuel tape, and then the system controller 18′ controls the Metal-Fuel Card Recharging Subsystem 7 so that electrical power is supplied to the path-length extended metal-fuel tape at the required recharging voltages and currents, and metal-oxide formations on the tape are converted into the primary metal. When all or a substantial portion of the metal-fuel tape has been recharged, then the Cartridge Loading/Unloading Subsystem 2 can be programmed to automatically eject the metal-fuel tape cartridge for replacement with a cartridge containing discharged metal-fuel tape.

Managing Metal-Fuel Availability and Metal-Oxide Presence Within The First Illustrative Embodiment Of The Metal-Air FCB subsystem Of The Present Invention

In the FCB subsystem of the first illustrative embodiment, means are provided for automatically managing the availability of (i) metal-fuel within the Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystem 6 during discharging operations, and (ii) metal-oxide presence within the Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem 7 during recharging operations. Such system capabilities will be described in greater detail hereinbelow.

During The Discharging Mode

As shown in FIG. 5B17, data signals representative of discharge parameters (e.g., iacd, vacd, . . . , pO2d, H2Od, Tacd, vacr/iacr) are automatically provided as input to the Data Capture and Processing Subsystem 277 within the Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystem 6. After sampling and capturing, these data signals are processed and converted into corresponding data elements and then written into an information structure 285 as shown, for example, in FIG. 5A16. Each information structure 285 comprises a set of data elements which are “time-stamped” and related (i.e. linked) to a unique metal-fuel zone identifier 80 (83,86), associated with a particular metal-fuel tape supply (e.g. reel-to-reel, cassette, etc.). The unique metal-fuel zone identifier is determined by data reading head 38 (38′,38″) shown in FIG. 5A6. Each time-stamped information structure is then recorded within the Metal-Fuel Database Management Subsystem 275 for maintenance, subsequent processing and/or access during future recharging and/or discharging operations.

As mentioned hereinabove, various types of information are sampled and collected by the Data Capture and Processing Subsystem 277 during the discharging mode. Such information types include, for example: (1) the amount of electrical current (iacd) discharged across particular cathode-anode structures within particular discharge heads; (2) the voltage (vacd) generated across each such cathode-anode structure; (3) the velocity (νd) of the metal-fuel zone being transported through the discharging head assembly; (4) the oxygen concentration (PO2d) level in each subchamber within each discharging head; (5) the moisture level {H2O}d near each cathode-electrolyte interface within each discharging head; and (6) the temperature (Tacd) within each channel of each discharging head. From such collected information, the Data Capture and Processing Subsystem 277 can readily compute (i) the time (Δt) duration that electrical current was discharged across a particular cathode-anode structure within a particular discharge head.

The information structures produced and stored within the Metal-Fuel Database Management Subsystem 275 on a real-time basis can be used in a variety of ways during discharging operations. For example, the above-described current (iavg) and time information (ΔT) is conventionally measured in Amperes and Hours, respectively. The product of these measures (AH) provides an approximate measure of the electrical charge (−Q) discharged from the metal-air FCB structures along the metal-fuel tape. Thus the computed “AH” product provides an approximate amount of metal-oxide that one can expect to have been formed on the identified (i.e. labelled) zone of metal-fuel, at a particular instant in time, during discharging operations.

When information relating to the instantaneous velocity (vt) of each metal-fuel zone is used in combination with the AH product, it is possible to compute a more accurate measure of electrical discharge across a cathode-anode structure in a particular discharge head. From this more accurately computed discharged amount, the Data Capture and Processing Subsystem 277 can compute a very accurate estimate of the amount of metal-oxide produced as each metal-fuel zone is transported through a discharge head at a particular tape velocity and given set of discharging conditions determined by the detected discharge parameters parameters.

When used with historical information about metal oxidation and reduction processes, the Metal-Fuel Database Management Subsystem 275 can be used to account for or determine how much metal-fuel (e.g. zinc) should be available for discharging (i.e. producing electrical power) from zinc-fuel tape, or how much metal-oxide is present for reducing along the zinc-fuel tape. Thus such information can be very useful in carrying out metal-fuel management functions including, for example, determination of metal-fuel amounts available along a particular metal-fuel zone.

In the illustrative embodiment, the metal-fuel availability management process is carried out within the Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystem 6, using one of two different methods for managing metal-fuel availability described hereinbelow.

First Method of Metal-Fuel Availability Management During Discharging Operations

According to the first method of metal-fuel availability management, (i) the data reading head 38 (38′, 38″) shown in FIG. 5A10 is used to identify each metal-fuel zone passing under the metal-oxide sensing head assembly 23 shown in FIG. 5A15 and produce zone identification data indicative thereof, while (ii) the metal-oxide sensing head assembly 23 measures the amount of metal oxide present along each identified metal-fuel zone. As mentioned hereinabove, each metal-oxide measurement is carried out by applying a test voltage across a particular track of metal fuel, and detecting the electrical which flows across the section of metal-fuel track in response the applied test voltage. The data signals representative of the applied voltage (vapplied) and response current (iresponse) at a particular sampling period are automatically detected by the Data Capture and Processing Subsystem 277 and processed to produce a data element representative of the ratio of the applied voltage to response current (vapplied/(iresponse). This data element is automatically recorded within an information structure linked to the identified metal-fuel zone maintained in the Metal-Fuel Data Management Subsystem 275. As this data element (v/i) provides a direct measure of electrical resistance across the subsection of metal-fuel tape under measurement, it can be accurately correlated to a measured amount of metal-oxide present on the identified metal-fuel zone. As shown in FIG. 5A16, this metal-oxide measure (MOM) is recorded in the information structure shown linked to the identified metal-fuel zone upon which the response current measurements were taken.

The Data Capturing and Processing Subsystem 277 can then compute the amount of metal-fuel (MFAt) remaining on the identified metal-fuel zone at time “t” using (i) the measured amount of metal-oxide on the identified fuel zone at time instant “t” (MOMt), and (ii) a priori information recorded in the Metal-Fuel Database Management Subsystem 275 regarding the maximum amount of metal-fuel (MFAmaximum) that is potentially available over each metal-fuel zone when the zone is disposed in its fully charged state, with no metal-oxide formation thereon. This computation can be mathematically expressed as: MFAt=MFAmaximum−MOMt. As illustrated in FIG. 5A16, each such data element is automatically recorded within an information storage structure in the Metal-Fuel Database Management Subsystem 275. The address of each such recorded information structure is linked to the identification data of the identified metal-fuel zone ID data read during discharging operations.

During discharging operations, the above-described metal-fuel availability update procedure is carried out every ti-ti+1 seconds for each metal-fuel zone that is automatically identified by the data reading head 38 (38′, 38″), over which the metal-fuel tape is transported. This ensures that for each metal-fuel zone along each track along a supply of metal-fuel tape there is an up-to-date information structure containing information on the discharging parameters, the metal-fuel availability state, metal-oxide presence state, and the like.

Second Method of Metal-Fuel Availability Management During Discharging Operations

According to the second method of metal-fuel availability management, (i) the data reading head 38 (38′, 38″) shown in FIG. 5A10 is used to identify each metal-fuel zone passing under the discharging head assembly and produce metal-fuel zone identification data indicative thereof, while (ii) the Data Capturing and Processing Subsystem 277 automatically collects information relating to the various discharging parameters and computes parameters pertaining to the availability of metal-fuel and metal-oxide presence along each metal-fuel zone along a particular supply of metal-fuel tape. In accordance with the principles of the present invention, this method of metal-fuel management is realized as a three-step procedure cyclically carried out within the Metal-Fuel Database Management Subsystem 275 of the Discharging Subsystem 6. After each cycle of computations, the Metal-Fuel Database Management Subsystem 275 contains current (up-to-date) information on the amount of metal-fuel disposed along each metal-fuel zone (disposed along any particular fuel track). Such information on each identifiable zone of the metal-fuel tape can be used to: manage the availability of metal-fuel to meet the electrical power demands of the electrical load connected to the FCB subsystem; as well as set the discharging parameters in an optimal manner during discharging operations.

As shown in FIG. 5A16, information structures 285 are recorded for each identified metal-fuel zone (MFZk) along each metal-fuel track (MFTj), at each sampled instant of time ti. Initially, the metal-fuel tape has been either fully charged or recharged and loaded into the FCB subsystem hereof, and in this fully charged state, each metal-fuel zone has an initial amount of metal-fuel present along its surface. This initial metal-fuel amount can be determined in a variety of different ways, including for example: by encoding such initialization information on the metal-fuel tape itself; by prerecording such initialization information within the Metal-Fuel Database Management Subsystem 275 at the factory and automatically initialized upon reading a code applied along the metal-fuel tape by data reading head 38 (38′, 38″); by actually measuring the initial amount of metal-fuel by sampling values at a number of metal-fuel zones using the metal-oxide sensing assembly 23; or by any other suitable technique.

As part of the first step of the procedure, this initial metal-fuel amount available at initial time instant t0, and designated as MFA0, is quantified by the Data Capture and Processing Subsystem 277 and recorded within the information structure of FIG. 5A16 maintained within the Metal-Fuel Database Management Subsystem 275. While this initial metal-fuel measure (MFA0) can be determined empirically through metal-oxide sensing techniques, in many applications it may be more expedient to use theoretical principles to compute this measure after the tape has been subjected to a known course of treatment (e.g. complete recharging).

The second step of the procedure involves subtracting from the initial metal-fuel amount MFA0, the computed metal-oxide estimate MOE0-1 which corresponds to the amount of metal-oxide produced during discharging operations conducted between time interval t0-t1. During the discharging operation, metal-oxide estimate MOE0-1 is computed using the following discharging parameters collected—electrical discharge current iacd, time duration ΔTd, and the average tape zone velocity v0-1 over time duration ΔTd.

The third step of the procedure involves adding to the computed measure (MFA0−MOE0-1), the metal-fuel estimate MFE0-1 which corresponds to the amount of metal-fuel produced during any recharging operations conducted between time interval t0-t1. Notably, the metal-fuel estimate MFE0-1 is computed using the following recharging parameters collected—electrical recharge current iacr, time duration ΔT, and tape zone velocity v0-1 over the time duration ΔT. As this metal-fuel measure MFE0-1 will have been previously computed and recorded within the Metal-Fuel Database Management Subsystem 280 within the Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem 7, it will be necessary for the system controller 18 to read this prerecorded information element from the Database Subsystem 280 within the Recharging Subsystem 7 during discharging operations.

The computed result of the above-described procedure (i.e. MFA0−MOE0-1+MFE0-1) is then posted within the Metal-Fuel Database Management Subsystem 275 within Discharging Subsystem 6 as the new current metal-fuel amount (MFA1) which will be used in the next metal-fuel availability update procedure.

During discharging operations, the above-described accounting update procedure is carried out every ti-ti+1 seconds for each metal-fuel zone that is automatically identified by the data reading head 38 (38′, 38″), by which the metal-fuel tape is transported. Notably, each element of metal-fuel zone identification data (zone ID data) collected by the data reading head 38 (38′, 38″) during discharging operations is used to address memory storage locations within the Metal-Fuel Database Management Subsystems 275 and 280 where correlated information structures are to be recorded during database updating operations. While such database updating operations are carried out at the same time that discharging operations are carried out, it may be convenient in some applications to perform such updating operations after the occurrence of some predetermined delay period.

Uses For Metal-Fuel Availability Management During The Discharging Mode Of Operation

During discharging operations, the computed estimates of metal-fuel present over any particular metal-fuel zone (i.e. MFEt1-t2), along any particular fuel track, determined at the j-th discharging head, can be used to compute in real-time the availability of metal-fuel at the (j+1)th, (j+2)th, or (j+n)th discharging head downstream from the j-th discharging head. Using such computed measures, the system controller 18 within the Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystem 6 can determine (i.e. anticipate) in real-time, which metal-fuel zones along a supply of metal-fuel tape contain metal-fuel (e.g. zinc) in quantities sufficient to satisfy instantaneous electrical-loading conditions imposed upon the Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystem 6 during the discharging operations, and selectively advance the metal-fuel tape to zones where metal-fuel is known to exist. In the event that gaps of fuel-depletion exist along any particular section of tape, the tape transport control subsystem can rapidly “skip over” such tape sections to where metal-fuel exists. Such tape advancement (or skipping) operations can be carried out by the system controller 18 temporarily increasing the instantaneous velocity of the metal-fuel tape so that tape supporting metal-fuel content (e.g. deposits) along particular tracks are readily available for producing electrical power required by the electrical load 12. During such brief time periods when depleted sections of tape are transported through the discharging head assembly 9, the discharging power regulation subsystem 40, equipped with storage capacitors or the like, can serve to regulate the output power as required by electrical load conditions.

Another advantage derived from such metal-fuel management capabilities is that the system controller 18 within the Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystem 6 can control discharge parameters during discharging operations using information collected and recorded within the Metal-Fuel Database Management Subsystem 275 during the immediately prior discharging and recharging operations.

Means For Controlling Discharging Parameters During The Discharging Mode Using Information Recorded During the Prior Modes of Operation

In the FCB subsystem of the first illustrative embodiment, the system controller 18 within the Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystem 6 can automatically control discharge parameters using information collected during prior recharging and discharging operations and recorded within the Metal-Fuel Database Management Subsystems of the FCB subsystem of FIG. 4.

As shown in FIG. 5B17, the subsystem architecture and buses 276, 279 and 281 provided within and between the Discharging and Recharging Subsystems 6 and 7 enable system controller 18 within the Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystem 6 to access and use information recorded within the Metal-Fuel Database Management Subsystem 280 within the Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem 7. Similarly, the subsystem architecture and buses provided within and between the Discharging and Recharging Subsystems 6 and 7, respectively, enable system controller 18′ within the Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem 7 to access and use information recorded within the Metal-Fuel Database Management Subsystem 275 within the Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystem 6. The advantages of such information file and sub-file sharing capabilities will be explained hereinbelow.

During the discharging operations, the system controller 18 can access various types of information stored within the Metal-Fuel Database Management Subsystems of Discharging and Recharging Subsystems 6 and 7. One important information element will relate to the amount of metal-fuel currently available at each metal-fuel zone along a particular fuel track at a particular instant of time (i.e. MFEt). Using this information, the system controller 18 can determine if there will be sufficient metal-fuel along a particular section of tape to satisfy current electrical power demands. The zones along one or more or all of the fuel tracks along a supply of metal-fuel tape may be substantially consumed as a result of prior discharging operations, and not having been recharged since the last discharging operation. The system controller 18 can anticipate such metal-fuel conditions prior to the section of tape being transported over the discharging heads. Depending on the metal-fuel condition of “upstream” sections of tape, the system controller 18 may respond as follows: (i) increase the tape speed when the fuel is thinly present on identified zones, and decrease the tape speed when the fuel is thickly present on identified zones being transported through the discharging heads, to satisfy the demands of the electrical load; (ii) connect the cathode-anode structures of metal-fuel “rich” tracks into the discharging power regulation subsystem 40 when high loading conditions are detected at load 12, and connect the cathode-anode structures of metal-fuel “depleted” tracks from this subsystem when low loading conditions are detected at load 12; (iii) increase the amount of oxygen being injected within the corresponding cathode support structures (i.e. increase the pO2 therewithin) when the thinly formed metal-fuel is present on identified metal-fuel zones, and decrease the amount of oxygen being injected within the corresponding cathode support structures when thickly formed metal-fuel is present on identified metal-fuel zones being transported through the discharging heads; (iv) control the temperature of the discharging heads when the sensed temperature thereof exceeds predetermined thresholds; etc. It is understood that in alternative embodiments of the present invention, the system controller 18 may operate in different ways in response to the detected condition of particular tracks on an identified metal fuel zone.

During The Recharging Mode

As shown in FIG. 5B17, data signals representative of recharge parameters (e.g., iacr, vacr, . . . , pO2r, H2Or, Tr, vacr/iacr) are automatically provided as input to the Data Capture and Processing Subsystem 275 within the Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem 7. After sampling and capturing, these data signals are processed and converted into corresponding data elements and then written into an information structure 286 as shown, for example, in FIG. 5B16. As in the case of discharge parameter collection, each information structure 286 for recharging parameters comprises a set of data elements which are “time-stamped” and related (i.e. linked) to a unique metal-fuel zone identifier 80 (83, 86), associated with the metal-fuel tape supply (e.g. reel-to-reel, cassette, etc.) being recharged. The unique metal-fuel zone identifier is determined by data reading head 60 (60′, 60″) shown in FIG. 5B6. Each time-stamped information structure is then recorded within the Metal-Fuel Database Management Subsystem 280 of the Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem 7, shown in FIG. 5B17, for maintenance, subsequent processing and/or access during future recharging and/or discharging operations.

As mentioned hereinabove, various types of information are sampled and collected by the Data Capture and Processing Subsystem 282 during the recharging mode. Such information types include, for example: (1) the recharging voltage applied across each such cathode-anode structure within each recharging head; (2) the amount of electrical current (iac) supplied across each cathode-anode structures within each recharge head; (3) the velocity of the metal-fuel tape being transported through the recharging head assembly; (4) the oxygen concentration (pO2) level in each subchamber within each recharging head; (5) the moisture level (H2O) near each cathode-electrolyte interface within each recharging head; and (6) the temperature (Tac) within each channel of each recharging head. From such collected information, the Data Capture and Processing Subsystem 282 can readily compute various parameters of the system including, for example, the time duration (Δt) that electrical current was supplied to a particular cathode-anode structure within a particular recharging head.

The information structures produced and stored within the Metal-Fuel Database Management Subsystem 280 of the Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem 7 on a real-time basis can be used in a variety of ways during recharging operations. For example, the above-described current (iavg) and time duration (ΔT) information acquired during the recharging mode is conventionally measured in Amperes and Hours, respectively. The product of these measures (AH) provides an approximate measure of the electrical charge (−Q) supplied to the metal-air FCB structures along the metal-fuel tape during recharging operations. Thus the computed “AH” product provides an approximate amount of metal-fuel that one can expect to have been produced on the identified (i.e. labelled) zone of metal-fuel, at a particular instant in time, during recharging operations.

When information relating to the instantaneous velocity (vt) of each metal-fuel zone is used in combination with the AH product, it is possible to compute a more accurate measure of electrical charge (Q) supplied to a particular cathode-anode structure in a particular recharging head. From this accurately computed “recharge” amount, the Data Capture and Processing Subsystem 282 can compute a very accurate estimate of the amount of metal-fuel produced as each identified metal-fuel zone is transported through each recharging head at a particular tape velocity, and given set of recharging conditions determined by the detected recharging parameters.

When used with historical information about metal oxidation and reduction processes, the Metal-Fuel Database Management Subsystems within the Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging and Recharging Subsystems 6 and 7 respectively can be used to account for or determine how much metal-oxide (e.g. zinc-oxide) should be present for recharging (i.e. conversion back into zinc from zinc-oxide) along the zinc-fuel tape. Thus such information can be very useful in carrying out metal-fuel management functions including, for example, determination of metal-oxide amounts present along each metal-fuel zone during recharging operations.

In the illustrative embodiment, the metal-oxide presence management process may be carried out within the Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem 7 using one or two different methods which will be described hereinbelow.

First Method of Metal-Oxide Presence Management During Recharging Operations

According to the first method of metal-oxide presence management, (i) the data reading head 60 (60′, 60″) shown in FIG. 5B8 is used to identify each metal-fuel zone passing under the metal-oxide sensing head assembly 23′ and produce metal-fuel zone identification data indicative thereof, while (ii) the metal-oxide sensing head assembly 23′ shown in FIG. 5B15 measures the amount of metal oxide present along each identified metal-fuel zone. As mentioned hereinabove, each metal-oxide measurement is carried out by applying a test voltage across a particular track of metal fuel, and detecting the electrical current which flows across the section of metal-fuel track in response the applied test voltage. The data signals representative of the applied voltage (vapplied) and response current (iresponse) at a particular sampling period are automatically detected by the Data Capture and Processing Subsystem 282 and processed to produce a data element representative of the ratio of the applied voltage to response current (vapplied/(iresponse). This data element is automatically recorded within an information structure linked to the identified metal-fuel zone, maintained in the Metal-Fuel Data Management Subsystem 282 of the Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem 7. As this data element (v/i) provides a direct measure of electrical resistance across the subsection of metal-fuel tape under measurement, it can be accurately correlated to a measured amount of metal-oxide present on the identified metal-fuel zone. As shown in FIG. 5B16, this metal-oxide measure (MOM) is recorded in the information structure shown linked to the identified metal-fuel zone upon which the response current measurements were taken during a particular recharging operation.

The Data Capturing and Processing Subsystem 282 within the Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem 7 can then compute the amount of metal-oxide (MOAt) existing on the identified metal-fuel zone at time “t”. As illustrated in FIG. 5B16, each such data element is automatically recorded within an information storage structure in the Metal-Fuel Database Management Subsystem 282 of the Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem 7. The address of each such recorded information structure is linked to the identification data of the identified metal-fuel zone ID data read during recharging operations.

During recharging operations, the above-described metal-oxide presence update procedure is carried out every ti-ti+1 seconds for each metal-fuel zone that is automatically identified by the data reading head 60 (60′, 60″), over which the metal-fuel tape is transported.

Second Method of Metal-Fuel Presence Management During Recharging Operations

According to the second method of metal-fuel presence management, (i) the data reading head 60 (60′, 60″) is used to identify each metal-fuel zone passing under the recharging head assembly and produce zone identification data indicative thereof, while (ii) the Data Capturing and Processing Subsystem 282 automatically collects information relating to the various recharging parameters and computes parameters pertaining to the availability of metal-fuel and metal-oxide presence along each metal-fuel zone along a particular supply of metal-fuel tape. As will be described in greater detail hereinafter, this method of metal-oxide management is realized as a three-step procedure cyclically carried out within the Metal-Fuel Database Management Subsystem 280 of the Recharging Subsystem 7. After each cycle of computation, the Metal-Fuel Database Management Subsystem 280 contains current (up-to-date) information on the amount of metal-fuel disposed along each metal-fuel zone (disposed along any particular fuel track). Such information on each identifiable zone of the metal-fuel tape can be used to: manage the presence of metal-oxide for efficient conversion into its primary metal; as well as, set the recharging parameters in an optimal manner during recharging operations.

As shown in FIG. 5B16, information structures 286 are recorded for each identified metal-fuel zone (MFZk) along each metal-fuel track (MFTj), at each sampled instant of time ti. Typically, the metal-fuel tape has been completely or partially discharged and loaded into the FCB subsystem hereof, and in this discharged state, each metal-fuel zone has an initial amount of metal-oxide present along its surface which cannot be used to produced electrical power within the FCB subsystem. This initial metal-fuel amount can be determined in a variety of different ways, including for example: by encoding such initialization information on the metal-fuel tape itself; by prerecording such initialization information within the Metal-Fuel Database Management Subsystem 282 at the factory and automatically initialized upon reading a code applied along the metal-fuel tape by data reading head 60 (60′, 60″); by actually measuring the initial amount of metal-oxide by sampling values at a number of metal-fuel zones using the metal-oxide sensing assembly 23′; or by any other suitable technique.

As part of the first step of the metal-oxide management procedure, this initial metal-oxide amount available at initial time instant t0, and designated as MOA0, is quantified by the Data Capture and Processing Subsystem 282 and recorded within the information structure of FIG. 5B16 maintained within the Metal-Fuel Database Management Subsystem 282 of the Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem 7. While this initial metal-oxide measure (MOA0) can be determined empirically through metal-oxide sensing techniques, in many applications it may be more expedient to use theoretical principles to compute this measure after the tape has been subjected to a known course of treatment (e.g. complete discharging).

The second step of the procedure involves subtracting from the initial metal-oxide amount MOA0, the computed metal-fuel estimate MFE0-1 which corresponds to the amount of metal-fuel produced during recharging operations conducted between time interval t0-t1. During the recharging operation, metal-oxide estimate MOE0-1 is computed using the following recharging parameters collected—electrical recharge current iacr, time duration thereof ΔT, and tape zone velocity v0-1.

The third step of the procedure involves adding to the computed measure (MOA0−MFE0-1), the metal-oxide estimate MOE0-1 which corresponds to the amount of metal-oxide produced during any discharging operations conducted between time interval t0-t1. Notably, the metal-oxide estimate MOE0-1 is computed using the following discharging parameters collected—electrical discharge current iacd, time duration thereof ΔTr and average tape zone velocity v0-1 over this time duration during discharging operations. As this metal-oxide estimate MOE0-1 will have been previously computed and recorded within the Metal-Fuel Database Management Subsystem within the Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystem 6, it will be necessary to read this prerecorded information element from the database within the Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystem 6 during recharging operations.

The computed result of the above-described accounting procedure (i.e. MOA0−MFE0-1+MOE0-1) is then posted within the Metal-Fuel Database Management Subsystem 280 within Recharging Subsystem 7 as the new current metal-oxide amount (MOA1) which will be used in the next metal-oxide presence update procedure.

During recharging operations, the above-described accounting update procedure is carried out every ti-ti+1 seconds for each metal-fuel zone that is automatically identified by the data reading head 60 (60′, 60″), by which the metal-fuel tape is transported. Notably, each element of metal-fuel zone identification data (zone ID data) is collected by the data reading head 60 (60′, 60″) during recharging operations and is used to address memory storage locations within the Metal-Fuel Database Management Subsystem 280 where correlated information structures are to be recorded during database updating operations. While such database updating operations are carried out at the same time that recharging operations are carried out, it may be convenient in some applications to perform such updating operations after the occurrence of some predetermined delay period.

Uses For Metal-Oxide Presence Management During The Recharging Mode Of Operation

During recharging operations, the computed amounts of metal-oxide present over any particular metal-fuel zone (i.e. MOAt1-t2), along any particular fuel track, determined at the j-th recharging head, can be used to compute in real-time the presence of metal-fuel at the (j+1)th, (j+2)th, or (j+n)th recharging head downstream from the j-th recharging head. Using such computed measures, the system controller 18′ within the Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem 7 can determine (i.e. anticipate) in real-time, which metal-fuel zones along a supply of metal-fuel tape contain metal-oxide (e.g. zinc-oxide) requiring recharging, and which contain metal-fuel not requiring recharging. For those metal-fuel zones requiring recharging, the system controller 18′ can temporarily increasing the instantaneous velocity of the metal-fuel tape so that tape supporting metal-oxide content (e.g. deposits) along particular tracks are readily available for conversion into metal-fuel within the recharging head assembly.

Another advantage derived from such metal-oxide management capabilities is that the system controller 18′ within the Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem 7 can control recharge parameters during recharging operations using information collected and recorded within the Metal-Fuel Database Management Subsystem 280 during the immediately prior discharging operations, and vice versa. Such advantages will be described in greater detail hereinafter.

During Recharging operations, information collected can be used to compute an accurate measure of the amount of metal-oxide that exists along each metal-fuel zone at any instant in time. Such information, stored within information storage structures maintained within the Metal-Fuel Database Subsystem 280, can be accessed and used by the system controller 18′ within the Metal-Fuel Tape Discharging Subsystem 7 to control the amount of electrical current supplied across the cathode-anode structures of each recharging head 11. Ideally, the magnitude of electrical current will be selected to ensure complete conversion of the estimated amount of metal-oxide (present at each such zone) into its source metal (e.g. zinc).

Means For Controlling Recharging Parameters During The Recharging Mode Using Information Recorded During the Prior Modes of Operation

In the FCB subsystem of the first illustrative embodiment, the system controller 18′ within the Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem 7 can automatically control recharge parameters using information collected during prior discharging and recharging operations and recorded within the Metal-Fuel Database Management Subsystems of the FCB subsystem of FIG. 4.

During the recharging operations, the system controller 18′ within the Metal-Fuel Tape Recharging Subsystem 7 can access various types of information stored within the Metal-Fuel Database Management Subsystem 275. One important information element stored therein will relate to the amount of metal-oxide currently present at each metal-fuel zone along a particular fuel track at a particular instant of time (i.e. MOEt). Using this information, the system controller 18′ can determine exactly where metal-oxide deposits are present along particular sections of tape, and thus can advance the metal fuel tape thereto in order to efficiently and quickly carry out recharging operations therealong. The system controller 18′ can anticipate such metal-fuel conditions prior to the section of tape being transported over the recharging heads. Depending on the metal-fuel condition of “upstream” sections of tape, the system controller 18′ of the illustrative embodiment may respond as follows: (i) increase the tape speed when the metal-oxide is thinly present on identified zones, and decrease the tape speed when the metal-oxide is thickly present thereon; (ii) connect cathode-anode structures of metal-oxide “rich” tracks into the recharging power regulation subsystem 92 for longer periods of recharging, and connect metal-oxide “depleted” tracks from this subsystem for shorter periods of recharging; (iii) increase the rate of oxygen evacuation from cathode-anode structures having thickly formed metal-oxide formations present on identified metal-fuel zones, and decrease the rate of oxygen evacuation from cathode-anode structures having thinly formed metal-oxide formations present on identified metal-fuel zones being transported through the recharging heads; (iv) control the temperature of the recharging heads when the sensed temperature thereof exceeds predetermined thresholds; etc. It is understood that in alternative embodiments of the present invention, the system controller 18′ may operate in different ways in response to the detected condition of a particular track on an identified fuel zone.

Additional Embodiments Of The FCB subsystem of The Present Invention

In the FCB subsystems described hereinabove, multiple discharging heads and multiple recharging heads have been provided for the noted advantages that such features provide. It is understood, however, that FCB subsystems of the present invention can be made with a single discharging head alone or in combination with one or more recharging heads, as well as, with a single discharging head alone or in combination with one or more discharging heads.

In the FCB subsystems described hereinabove, the cathode structure of the discharging heads and the recharging heads are shown as being planar or substantially planar structures which are substantially stationary relative to the anode-contacting electrodes or elements, while the metal-fuel (i.e. the anode) material is moving relative to the cathode structures in the metal-fuel tape embodiments of the present invention shown in FIGS. 4 and 5 above. Alternatively, the metal-fuel (i.e. the anode) material may be stationary relative to the cathode structures when the fuel material is realized in the form of the metal-fuel card as taught in Applicants' copending application Ser. Nos. 09/074,337 entitled “METAL-AIR FUEL-CELL BATTERY SYSTEM HAVING MEANS FOR MANAGING AVAILABILITY OF METAL-FUEL THEREWITHIN” filed May 7, 1998, and 08/944,507 entitled “High-Power Density Metal-air FCB Subsystem” by Sadeg Faris, et al. filed Oct. 6, 1997, both incorporated herein by reference. In these patent applications, it is taught that metal-fuel cards stored within a cassette-type storage device can be: automatically loaded into position for discharging, then transported back into the cassette-type storage device when completely discharged; thereafter automatically loaded into position for recharging; automatically loaded into position for discharging once again; then transported back into the cassette-type storage device when completely discharged; and so on.

Also, it is understood that the metal-air FCB subsystem designs of the present invention are not limited to the use of planar stationary cathode structures, but can be alternatively constructed using one or more cylindrically-shaped cathode structures adapted to rotate relative to, and come into ionic contact with metal-fuel tape or metal-fuel cards during discharging and/or recharging operations, while carrying out all of the electrochemical functions that cathode structures must enable in metal-air FCB subsystems. Such alternative cathode structures are disclosed in greater detail in copending application Ser. No. 09/110,761 entitled “METAL-AIR FCB SUBSYSTEM EMPLOYING A PLURALITY OF MOVING CATHODE STRUCTURES FOR IMPROVED VOLUMETRIC POWER DENSITY” filed Jul. 3, 1998; copending application Ser. No. 09/110,762 entitled “METAL-AIR FCB SUBSYSTEM EMPLOYING METAL-FUEL TAPE AND LOW-FRICTION CATHODE STRUCTURES” filed Jul. 3, 1998, each incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. Notably, the same techniques that are used to construct planar stationary cathodes structures described hereinabove can be readily adapted to fashion cylindrically-shaped cathode structures realized about hollow, air-pervious support tubes driven by electric motors and bearing the same charge collecting substructure that the cathode structures typically are provided with, as taught in detail hereinabove.

In such alternative embodiments of the present invention, the ionically-conducting medium disposed between the cylindrically-shape rotating cathode structure(s) and transported metal-fuel tape can be realized in a number of different ways, for example, as: (1) a solid-state electrolyte-impregnated gel or other medium affixed to the outer surface of the rotating cathode; (2) a solid-state electrolyte-impregnated gel or other medium affixed to the surface of the transported metal-fuel tape arranged in ionic-contact with the rotating cylindrically-shaped cathode structure; (3) a belt-like structure comprising a flexible porous substrate embodying a solid-state ionically conducting medium, transportable relative to both the rotating cylindrically-shaped cathode structure and the moving metal-fuel tape or (card) during discharging and/or recharging operations; or (4) a liquid-type ionically conducting medium (e.g. such as an electrolyte) disposed between the rotating cathode structure and transported metal-fuel tape (or card) to enable ionic charge transport between the cathode and anode structures during discharging and recharging operations.

One particular advantage in using a solid-state ionically-conducting belt like structure of the type-described above is that it provides “frictionless” contact between transported metal-fuel tape and its rotating cylindrical cathode structure, thereby reducing the amount of electrical power required to transport metal-fuel tape, as well as minimize wear, tear and damage to the cathode and anode structures in the FCB subsystem during operation.

In embodiments where multiple cathode cylinders or belts are mounted within an array-like structure as taught in Applicants' copending application Ser. No. 09/110,762 entitled “METAL-AIR FCB SUBSYSTEM EMPLOYING METAL-FUEL TAPE AND LOW-FRICTION CATHODE STRUCTURES” filed Jul. 3, 1998, it is possible to generate very high electrical power output from physical structures occupying relatively small volumes of space, thereby providing numerous advantages over prior art FCB subsystems.

Each of the above-described FCB subsystems can be configured into the power supply network of the system shown in FIG. 2A, and controlled by way of network subsystem controller 711 in the manner described in detail hereinabove. While the host system consuming produced electrical power has been shown to be an automotive or other transportation vehicle, it is understood that the electrical power generation system of the present invention can be used as a power plant installable in virtually any environment and having the capacity of satisfying the peak power demands of diverse electrical loads regardless of the total amount of unconsumed metal-fuel remaining within the network of FCB subsystems thereof.

Having described in detail the various aspects of the present invention described above, it is understood that modifications to the illustrative embodiments will readily occur to persons with ordinary skill in the art having had the benefit of the present disclosure. All such modifications and variations are deemed to be within the scope and spirit of the present invention as defined by the accompanying Claims to Invention.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3252838Jan 12, 1962May 24, 1966CsfFuel cell having rotatable electrode
US3260620Oct 22, 1962Jul 12, 1966Monsanto Res CorpTape fed fuel cell
US3357864Dec 11, 1964Dec 12, 1967Varta AgPrimary battery having one of the electrodes wound up on a rotatable shaft
US3432354Aug 15, 1966Mar 11, 1969Texas Instruments IncElectrochemical power supply with movable anode material
US3436270Dec 30, 1965Apr 1, 1969Leesona CorpOxygen depolarized cell and method of producing electricity therewith
US3454429Mar 29, 1966Jul 8, 1969Monsanto Res CorpMethod of generating electricity in tape type fuel cell
US3532548Oct 25, 1966Oct 6, 1970Yardney International CorpElectrochemical cell utilizing three electrodes
US3536535Nov 25, 1969Oct 27, 1970Whittaker CorpElectric power source with movable anode means
US3577281Apr 28, 1969May 4, 1971Amp IncRechargeable moving tape cell
US3663298Mar 3, 1970May 16, 1972North American RockwellRotatable electrode structure with conductive particle bed
US3717505Jun 25, 1970Feb 20, 1973Gulf Oil CorpElectrochemical cell stack
US3822149Feb 17, 1972Jul 2, 1974Du PontRechargeable zinc electrochemical energy conversion device
US3845835 *Mar 14, 1973Nov 5, 1974Petit EtienneElectric power plant for land vehicles
US3909685 *Oct 16, 1974Sep 30, 1975Massachusetts Inst TechnologyElectrical apparatus
US3928072Jul 18, 1974Dec 23, 1975Accumulateurs FixesAir depolarized electric cell
US3963519Aug 3, 1971Jun 15, 1976Leesona CorporationAir cellconsumable anode
US3977901Oct 23, 1974Aug 31, 1976Westinghouse Electric CorporationMetal/air cells and improved air electrodes for use therein
US4052541Dec 1, 1975Oct 4, 1977Aktiebolaget TudorElectric accumulator cell with at least one dissoluble electrode
US4152489Aug 26, 1977May 1, 1979Westinghouse Electric Corp.Current collectors, catalysts
US4172924Feb 21, 1978Oct 30, 1979Societe Generale De Constructions Electriques Et Mecaniques AlsthomOxidation of metals to their oxides produces electricity
US4246324Apr 9, 1979Jan 20, 1981Diamond Shamrock Technologies S.A.Consumable replaceable anodes for batteries
US4331742Dec 24, 1980May 25, 1982Lovelace Alan M AdministratorSolid electrolyte cell
US4341847Oct 14, 1980Jul 27, 1982Institute Of Gas TechnologyOxygen flows through diffusion cathode and liquid electrolyte flows in space between cathode and anode
US4551399May 31, 1984Nov 5, 1985Aleksandar DespicSelf-perpetuating semi-wedge anodes
US4560626Sep 20, 1982Dec 24, 1985The United States Of America As Represented By The United States Department Of EnergyRapidly refuelable fuel cell
US4626482Nov 18, 1985Dec 2, 1986Alupower, Inc.Aluminum alloy anode
US4689531 *Jul 1, 1985Aug 25, 1987Ewers, And WillisElectric regeneration apparatus and method for driving a load
US4693946Mar 11, 1986Sep 15, 1987Eltech Systems CorporationBattery with modular air cathode and anode cage
US4714662Mar 17, 1987Dec 22, 1987Gould Inc.Power module assembly of electrochemical cells
US4828939Jun 1, 1987May 9, 1989Eltech Systems CorporationConsumable anode
US4913983Sep 13, 1988Apr 3, 1990Dreisbach Electromotive, Inc.Air flow over power supply container
US4916036Oct 20, 1988Apr 10, 1990Dreisbach Electromotive, Inc.Lithium on flexible substrate
US4950561Jun 29, 1989Aug 21, 1990Eltech Systems CorporationElastomeric rubber to seal access opening
US4957826Apr 25, 1989Sep 18, 1990Dreisbach Electromotive, Inc.Air cathode, porous anode, serparator containing liquid electrolytes
US4968396Jan 30, 1989Nov 6, 1990The Academy Of Applied ScienceScavengers of noxious emissions
US5250370Jul 23, 1992Oct 5, 1993Faris Sades MVariable area dynamic battery
US5260144Mar 22, 1990Nov 9, 1993Alcan International LimitedMetal/air battery with seeded recirculating electrolyte
US5306579Oct 30, 1992Apr 26, 1994Aer Energy Resources, Inc.Bifunctional metal-air electrode
US5318861Jan 11, 1993Jun 7, 1994Electric Fuel LimitedElectrochemical metal-air cell and electrically and mechanically rechargeable anodes for use therein
US5328777Jul 14, 1992Jul 12, 1994Aer Energy Resources, Inc.Cathode cover for metal-air cell
US5328778Aug 10, 1993Jul 12, 1994Matsi, Inc.Metal-air cells comprising collapsible foam members and means for minimizing internal pressure buildup
US5354625Mar 16, 1992Oct 11, 1994Aer Energy Resources, Inc.Metal-air power supply and air-manager system, and metal-air cell for use therein
US5362577Jun 4, 1993Nov 8, 1994Aer Energy Resources, Inc.Diffusion vent for a rechargeable metal-air cell
US5387477Jun 25, 1993Feb 7, 1995Dreisbach Electromotive Inc.Air manager system for metal-air battery
US5389456Feb 14, 1994Feb 14, 1995Westinghouse Electric CorporationMethod and closing pores in a thermally sprayed doped lanthanum chromite interconnection layer
US5405713Sep 15, 1993Apr 11, 1995Electric Fuel (E.F.L.) Ltd.Refueling system
US5418080Jul 1, 1994May 23, 1995Electric Fuel (E.F.L.) Ltd.Mechanically rechargeable, electrochemical metal-air battery
US5439758Jun 23, 1993Aug 8, 1995Voltek, Inc.Electrochemical power generating system
US5462816Oct 27, 1994Oct 31, 1995Koa Oil Company, Ltd.Air cell
US5486429Apr 24, 1995Jan 23, 1996Aer Energy Resources, Inc.Diffusion vent for a rechargeable metal-air cell
US5512384May 18, 1995Apr 30, 1996Biocybernetics Laboratories Inc.Battery and method of battery control for enhancing electrochemical reactions
US5525441Sep 13, 1994Jun 11, 1996Power Conversion, Inc.Folded electrode configuration for galvanic cells
US5536592Apr 25, 1994Jul 16, 1996Biocybernetics Laboratories, Inc.Galvanic battery with replenishable electrodes and/or electrolyte for extended battery operation
US5554452Sep 22, 1994Sep 10, 1996Matsi, Inc.Metal-air batteries having improved air access valves
US5582931Apr 3, 1995Dec 10, 1996Canon Kabushiki KaishaRectangular cell
US5599637Oct 11, 1995Feb 4, 1997Electric Fuel Limited (E.F.L)Used as a power source in electric vehicles
US5691074Oct 18, 1995Nov 25, 1997Aer Energy Resources, Inc.Diffusion controlled air vent for a metal-air battery
US5711648Nov 12, 1996Jan 27, 1998Unlimited Range Electric Car Systems CompanyBattery charging and transfer system
US5721064May 21, 1996Feb 24, 1998Aer Energy Resources Inc.Air manager system for reducing gas concentrations in a metal-air battery
US5726551 *Oct 21, 1996Mar 10, 1998Hitachi, Ltd.Battery charging device having time shared charging cycle
US5756228Sep 12, 1996May 26, 1998Roseanou; LouElectrochemical device for generating direct current
US5771476 *Dec 29, 1995Jun 23, 1998Dbb Fuel Cell Engines GmbhPower control system for a fuel cell powered vehicle
GB1176488A Title not available
Non-Patent Citations
Reference
1105-040PCT000 Search Report, 1998.
2105-041PCT000 International Search Report, 1997.
3105-044 PCT000 Search Report, 1988.
4Batteries for Cordless Appliances by Ralph J. Brodd, Ch. 3 of Batteries for Cordless Appliances, 1987, p. 49-59.
5Battery Chargers by Mike Allen, Popular Mechanics, 1991, p. 30-31.
6Electric Car Showdown in Phoenix by Rick Cook, Popular Science, 1991, p. 64-65,82.
7Fabrication of Thin-Flim LIMN204 Cathodes for Rechargeable Microbateries by F.K. Shokoohi, et al., Applied Physics Letters, 1991, p. 1260-1262.
8Marketing Study for AER Energy Resources, Inc. by Authors not indicated, AER Energy Resources, Inc., 1991, p. 6-28.
9New Age EVs by Herb Schuldner, Popular Mechanics, 1991, p. 27-29.
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US6625539 *Nov 18, 2002Sep 23, 2003Electricab Taxi CompanyRange prediction in fleet management of electric and fuel-cell vehicles
US6826460 *Aug 27, 2003Nov 30, 2004Michael M. SchneckRange prediction in fleet management of electric and fuel-cell vehicles
US6856045Jan 29, 2002Feb 15, 2005Hamilton Sundstrand CorporationPower distribution assembly with redundant architecture
US7583051 *Mar 24, 2005Sep 1, 2009Prelec Sr Michael LBattery charger casing
US7711460 *Jun 12, 2007May 4, 2010Oshkosh CorporationControl system and method for electric vehicle
US7807307May 5, 2005Oct 5, 2010Motorola Mobility, Inc.System and method for distributing fuel to multiple fuel cells
US7928603 *Jul 2, 2007Apr 19, 2011Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki KaishaPower supply system, vehicle using the same and its control method
US8089242 *Jan 3, 2007Jan 3, 2012Renault S.A.S.Electrical management device for vehicle power supply
US20100045215 *Sep 10, 2007Feb 25, 2010Syson Technology LimitedMotor driving apparatus
CN100483475CAug 3, 2005Apr 29, 2009上海神力科技有限公司Fuel cell measurement control device using dual CAN bus redundancy communication
WO2003005476A1 *May 15, 2002Jan 16, 2003Funktionswerkstoffe ForschungsCharging or discharging station for a redox flow battery
WO2003043170A2 *Oct 14, 2002May 22, 2003Krisada KampanatsanyakornRedox flow battery system and method of operating it
WO2003088392A2 *Apr 4, 2003Oct 23, 2003Charles M HolmesMethod of and system for determining the remaining energy in a metal fuel cell
WO2005034611A1Oct 12, 2004Apr 21, 2005Reveo IncHillside farming module and system
WO2005034620A1Oct 12, 2004Apr 21, 2005Reveo IncAquaculture module and system
Classifications
U.S. Classification307/9.1, 320/124, 429/61, 307/10.7, 324/434, 318/139, 307/10.1, 429/497, 429/403
International ClassificationH01M4/02, H01M4/00, H01M4/70, H01M2/12, H01M10/46, H01M10/48, H01M8/04, H01M12/06, H01M2/02
Cooperative ClassificationH01M12/06, H01M10/4214, H01M2004/024, H01M4/42, H01M10/44, H01M8/186, H01M12/08, Y02E60/528, H01M8/184, H01M2300/0085, H01M8/22, H01M4/8605, H01M6/5011, Y02E60/128, H02J7/00, H01M2/1673, Y02E60/522
European ClassificationH01M12/06, H01M10/42C, H01M8/18C, H01M12/08, H01M8/18C2, H02J7/00, H01M4/42, H01M8/22, H01M6/50B
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Jul 21, 2009FPExpired due to failure to pay maintenance fee
Effective date: 20090529
May 29, 2009LAPSLapse for failure to pay maintenance fees
Dec 8, 2008REMIMaintenance fee reminder mailed
Nov 29, 2004FPAYFee payment
Year of fee payment: 4
Feb 12, 1999ASAssignment
Owner name: REVEO, INC., NEW YORK
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:FARIS, SADEG M.;TSAI, TSEPIN;REEL/FRAME:009765/0876;SIGNING DATES FROM 19990129 TO 19990201