|Publication number||US6274182 B1|
|Application number||US 09/443,590|
|Publication date||Aug 14, 2001|
|Filing date||Nov 19, 1999|
|Priority date||Nov 19, 1999|
|Also published as||CA2325216A1, CA2325216C, CN1240270C, CN1296740A, DE60009424D1, DE60009424T2, EP1103189A2, EP1103189A3, EP1103189B1|
|Publication number||09443590, 443590, US 6274182 B1, US 6274182B1, US-B1-6274182, US6274182 B1, US6274182B1|
|Inventors||Glen S. Axelrod, Ajay Gajria|
|Original Assignee||Tfh Publications, Inc.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (26), Non-Patent Citations (1), Referenced by (44), Classifications (16), Legal Events (6)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
The present invention relates to a biodegradable animal chew, and a process for forming such a biodegradable chew toy from a polyesteramide and starch.
In U.S. Pat. No. 5,827,565 it is pointed out that most dogs enjoy chewing on a flavored object although preferences vary as to the hardness. Some dogs like to chew on very hard materials such as cow bones, wood, nylon, while others prefer softer chews such as polyurethane or rubber while still others favor freeze dried snacks. Some dogs, due to their age, may not be able to chew on very hard substances. Young dogs have insufficiently developed teeth, while old dogs may have diseased gums or may have lost some of their teeth.
Applicants' assignee, T.F.H. Publications Inc., has previously developed an edible dog chew that is wholly digestible, nutritious and maintains a texture or hardness which is individually adjustable by the application of heat to suit a wide variety of a dog's preferences or needs. Such dog chews utilize a mixture containing primarily casein and are described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,200,212 and 5,240,720.
In U.S. Pat. No. 5,827,565 owned by the common assignee of this Application there is disclosed a process for making a heat expandable dog chew comprised primarily of injection molding potato starch granules and an attractant. Attractants recited include chicken powder, liver powder, ham, turkey, beef and or fish. Natural vegetable additives such as spinach or carrots also may be added. The resultant mixture is molded under heat and pressure into a desired form, such as a dog bone. The dog bone so produced can be modified in texture or hardness by subsequent heating, preferably in a microwave oven.
In U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/138,804, which is a continuation-in-part of U.S. Pat. No. 5,827,565, and which is owned by the common assignee of this Application, there is disclosed a dog chew having natural fruit flavor to increase the dog's appetite for such chew. Such fruit flavored dog chew may also include natural food coloring to enhance the attractiveness of the chew to the dog owner. The food coloring may also correspond to the fruit flavor, and the dog chew disclosed therein may also embody a breath sweetener for a dog such as mint, spearmint, peppermint or wintergreen and may also include parsley. The preferred form of such edible chew maintained the basic ingredient of a heat-expandable starch, such as potato starch. Fruit flavoring may be added to the granules of a mixture of potato starch, water and calcium carbonate along with natural fruit flavorings.
Attention is also directed to the following U.S. Patents and copending applications, commonly owned by the assignee herein: U.S. Pat. No. 5,476,069; U.S. patent application Ser. No. 08/923,070 filed Sep. 3, 1997 entitled “Vegetable Based Dog Chew” now U.S. Pat. No. 6,093,427; Ser. No. 08/738,423 filed Oct. 25, 1997 entitled “Edible Dog Chew” now U.S. Pat. No. 5,827,565; Ser. No. 08/784,834 filed Jan. 17, 1997 entitled “Carrot-Based Dog Chew” now U.S. Pat. No. 5,941,197; Ser. No. 08/888,611 filed Jul. 7, 1997 entitled “Vegetable Dog Chew” now abandoned; Ser. No. 09/114,872 filed Jul. 14, 1998 entitled “Heat Modifiable Edible Dog Chew” now U.S. Pat. No. 6,180,161; Ser. No. 09/138,804 filed Aug. 21, 1998 entitled “Improved Edible Dog Chew” now U.S. Pat No. 6,126,978; Ser. No. 09/116,070 filed Jul. 15, 1998 entitled “Wheat & Casein Dow Chew With Modifiable Texture” now U.S. Pat. No. 6,110,521; Ser. No. 09/116,555 filed Jul. 15, 1998 entitled “Heat Modifiable Peanut Dog Chew” now U.S. Pat. No. 6,093,441; Ser. No. 09/227,767 filed Jan. 8, 1999 entitled “Method of Molding Edible Starch” now U.S. Pat. No. 6,159,516. In addition to such patents and applications, attention is also directed to the art cited in said patents and applications, as such art relates to the field of molded starch products.
In addition, the prior art has recently grown considerably to include a variety of other disclosures directed at flavored pet products. For example, U.S. Pat. No. 5,786,383 entitled “Use of Valerian Plant and/or Root as a Scent-Attractant for Stimulating Canines and Felines”. This patent discloses the use of the herb/plant Valerian in all of its forms whether whole or in part, for use in food product, in such a manner that the natural aroma emitted by the Valerian plant will act as a scent/attractant for dogs and cats.
U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,985,964 and 5,007,879 entitled “Dog Chew Processing Method” disclose methods for processing cattle hoofs for use as a dog chew product.
U.S. Pat. No. 5,149,550 entitled “Methods for Making Pet Chews” discloses that ligaments from cattle and other hoofstocks are rendered substantially free of fat and can be dried and hardened for use as a pet chew.
U.S. Pat. No. 5,407,661 entitled “Pet Chew Product Having Oral Care Properties” discloses an edible pet chew product having a flexible cellular matrix in which is contained cellulosic fibrous material such as corn cob fractions which are described as having a mechanical cleansing function when chewed by a pet.
U.S. Pat. No. 5,635,237 entitled “Method of Manufacturing Substantially Pure Rawhide Pet Products” discloses a chew of pure rawhide utilizing twin screw extrusion with multiple heating zones and interchangeable extrusion dies.
U.S. Pat. No. 5,711,254 entitled “Dog Chew Toy” discloses a chew toy for dogs formed of a length of composite rope having an inner core defined by strands of twisted threads of natural plant or synthetic fibers and a soft outer shell defined by a plurality of strands of soft cotton threads twisted about the inner core. The inner core is said to be less water absorbent than the outer shell to promote drying of the toy when wetted with dog saliva to inhibit bacteria growth.
U.S. Pat. No. 5,750,196 entitled “Process for Manufacturing Dog Chew Toys of Tire Sidewalls” discloses the use of a dye to cut toy bases from sidewalls recovered from used tires.
Other earlier examples of such products are disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 3,871,334 to Axelrod (nylon substrate containing liquid flavor and odor components) and U.S. Pat. No. 4,711,773 to Axelrod (polyurethane toy containing aqueous-based flavor and odor components). U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,557,219 and 4,513,014 to Edwards disclose the use of flavorings in a molded polyurethane chew objects.
Accordingly, it is an object herein to improve further upon Applicants' earlier disclosures regarding animal chews, to form a biodegradable animal chew from a thermoplastic polyesteramide and starch. Furthermore, it is also an object of the present invention to form a biodegradable animal chew wherein the polyesteramide component is present in distinct domains dispersed within a continuous starch phase.
An improved biodegradable animal chew comprising a thermoplastic biodegradable polyesteramide and starch. In a second embodiment, a process for forming such a biodegradable animal chew is disclosed.
The present invention comprises a biodegradable animal chew formed from a polyesteramide and starch. Polyesteramides are polymers containing both ester linkages and amide linkages. The biodegradability of such polymers arises from the susceptibility of their ester linkages to hydrolysis. On the other hand, the amide linkages of such polyesteramides confer desirable mechanical properties characteristic of more conventional polyamides, i.e. nylons. Nylon refers to a family of high strength, resilient synthetic materials, the long chain of which contains recurring amide groups.
The polyesteramides used in this invention can be prepared from the reaction of one or more dicarboxylic acids of formula I, with one or more glycols of formula II and one or more diamines of formula III:
in which R1, R2, and R3 may be identical or different and are selected from the group consisting of linear aliphatic, cycloaliphatic, aromatic, and araliphatic. Where R1, R2, and R3 comprise divalent aliphatic and/or cycloaliphatic groups, the resulting polyesteramides are generally referred to as aliphatic polyesteramides. On the other hand, where R1, R2, or R3 comprise, in part, divalent aromatic and/or araliphatic groups, the resulting polyesteramides are generally referred to as mixed aliphatic/aromatic polyesteramides. Where R1, R2, and R3 substantially comprise divalent aromatic moieties, the resulting polyesteramides are generally referred to as aromatic polyesteramides. U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,081,428 and 4,474,936 describe methods to prepare polyesteramides from dicarboxylic acids, gycols, and diamines, whose teachings are incorporated herein by reference.
Alternatively, polyesteramides used in the present invention can be formed from the reaction of dicarboxylic acids of formula I and hydroxylamines of formula IV:
in which R4 is selected from the group consisting of linear aliphatic, cycloaliphatic, aromatic, and araliphatic. U.S. Pat. No. 4,373,085 describes methods to prepare polyesteramides from dicarboxylic acids, diamines, and hydroxylamines, whose teachings are incorporated herein by reference.
Polyesteramides used in the present invention can also be prepared from reaction of aminocarboxylic acids, lactams, and/or nylon salts with various diols, including polycaprolactonediols. U.S. Pat. No. 4,663,428 describes methods to prepare polyesteramides from aminocarboxylic acids, lactams, nylon salts and diols, whose teachings are incorporated herein by reference.
Preferred polyesteramides for use in the present invention are commercial materials sold by Bayer under the trademark “BAK.” Bayer's product BAK 404-004 is a semicrystalline, largely transparent, aliphatic, biodegradable thermoplastic material. BAK 404-004 has a DSC melting point of 137° C.
The starch used in the present invention is a natural material extracted from various plants such as corn, potato, tapioca, and cereals. Starches are polysaccharide compounds which on hydrolysis produce sugars. Starch can include a mixture of linear components generally referred to as amylose, and branched components generally referred to as amylopectin. Amylose generally has a molecular weight of several hundred thousand, while amylopectin generally has a molecular weight in the order of several million. Starches containing 0 to 100% amylose or 0 to 100% amylopectin can be employed in the invention.
As used herein, starch should be understood to preferably include starches with a high amylopectin content sometimes called waxy starches, as well as chemically and physically modified starches, such as for example starches whose acid values have been reduced, starches in which the type and concentration of cations associated with the phosphate groups have been modified, ethoxylated starches, starch acetates, cationic starches, oxidated starches and cross-linked starches.
Use of a potato starch product sold under the trademark PARAGON 1010 IM by AVEBE of Veendam, The Netherlands, is preferred. The PARAGON 1010 IM is sold in the form of thermoplastic granules.
The polyesteramide component of the present invention can be made present between about 0-99% by weight based upon the weight of starch used. Preferably, 1-50% (wt), 1-40% (wt) and 1-30% (wt) of polyesteramide is combined with starch to form the mixtures herein. Most preferably, 10-30% polyesteramide (wt) is employed, and in a most preferably embodiment 15-25%. The polyesteramide component is preferably dry mixed with the starch component, and that mixture is then molded into a desired shape.
As those skilled in the art will appreciate, an injection molding apparatus, which is one preferred mixing apparatus, typically contains a hopper feed section, a barrel, and an output nozzle, including a plurality of heating zones in the barrel extending from the hopper section to the nozzle. In accordance with the present invention, it has been found preferable to maintain the temperature in the first zone adjacent to the hopper at a temperature of less than about 150° F. More preferably, the first zone adjacent to the hopper is set in the range of about 45-150° F. In an even more preferred embodiment, i.e. that situation wherein there is a first zone adjacent to the hopper, and a second zone adjacent to that first zone, the temperature of the first zone is set to between about 45-70° F., and the temperature of the second zone is set to between about 70-150° F. These temperatures are most conveniently achieved by use of cooling coils placed about the barrel of the injection molding apparatus. These cooling coils are preferably made from copper tubing, and are cooled with circulating water.
In a particularly preferred embodiment, the following temperature profile is used to mold the polyesteramide/starch composition of the present invention: Zone 4 (closest to hopper)=45-70° F.; Zone 3=70-150° F.; Zone 2=150-300° F.; Zone 1=275-375° F.; Nozzle=275-390° F. In addition, the bushing inside the mold is preferably set to about 325-425° F. The mold temperature is preferably set at 35-65° F.
As opposed to a more conventional practice of heating the barrel of the screw to melt the material in the zones proximate to the hopper, the temperature profile set forth above results in cooling the barrel in those zones thereby preventing overheating and burning of the polyesteramide/starch mixture. In addition, use of this temperature profile does not result in a thorough melt based intermixing of the polyesteramide component with the starch component. Rather, the molded polyesteramide/starch article contains discrete polyesteramide domains dispersed within a continuous starch phase. In the context of the present invention, such discrete polyesteramide domains may be visually distinct from the continuous starch phase, or readily viewable via optical microscopy.
As those skilled in the art will appreciate, the product may be molded into any of a variety of shapes, including a bone, rod, ring, disk, and the like. Accordingly, in broad aspects, although injection molding is preferred, any other type of molding process is contemplated. For example, the polyesteramide/starch composition of the present invention is suitable for compression molding as well as other thermoplastic processing techniques available in the art. In that regard, the herein starch/polyesteramide mixture can be prepared by extrusion techniques.
In accordance with the present invention, flavorings may optionally be added to the polyesteramide/starch composition during the molding process. Natural flavorings are preferred. As will be appreciated by those skilled in the art, such flavorings may comprise both powders and liquids. The weight content of such fruit flavorings in the animal chew of the present invention may be preferably between about 0.1 weight percent and about 5.0 weight percent, but preferably fall in the range of 0.25-1.0 weight percent.
In addition, a food coloring may be added to the polyesteramide/starch mixture prior to molding to enhance the attractiveness of the chew. A natural food coloring is preferred. The weight content of such food coloring in the present invention may preferably be between about 0.05 weight percent and about 10 weight percent. More preferably, food coloring is set between 0.1-1.0 weight percent.
A fragrance may also be added to the polyesteramide/starch mixture prior to molding. The weight content of such a fragrance in the present invention may preferably be between about 0.1 weight percent and about 5.0 weight percent. In that regard, a preferred fragrance would include teatree oil.
The following examples are presented to further illustrate to persons skilled in the art how to make and use the invention and to identify presently preferred embodiments thereof. These examples are not intended as limitations, however, upon the scope of the invention, which is defined only by the appended claims.
In this Example, 5 pounds of BAK 404-004 were mixed with 30 pounds of PARAGON 1010 IM. To this mixture was added 1.5 ounces of a red food coloring, and 0.25 pounds of liver powder. The BAK 404-004/PARAGON 1010 IM/red food coloring/liver powder mixture was injection molded using the preferred molding parameters discussed above to produce a molded, biodegradable animal chew having about 14.28% (wt) polyesteramide dispersed in visually discrete domains within a continuous starch matrix.
In this Example, 10 pounds of BAK 404-004 were mixed with 25 pounds of PARAGON 1010 IM. To this mixture was added 1 ounce of a green food coloring and 0.25 pounds of liver powder. The BAK 404-004 /PARAGON 1010 IM/green food coloring/liver powder mixture was injection molded using the molding parameters discussed above to produce a molded, biodegradable animal chew having about 28.69% (wt) polyesteramide dispersed in visually discrete domains within a continuous starch matrix.
In this Example, 15 pounds of BAK 404-004 were mixed with 20 pounds of PARAGON 1010 IM. To this mixture was added 1.0 pounds of an orange food coloring. The BAK 404-004 /PARAGON 1010 IM/green food coloring mixture was injection molded using the molding parameters discussed above to produce a molded, biodegradable animal chew having about 43% (wt) polyesteramide dispersed in visually discrete domains within a continuous starch matrix.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US3871334||Dec 3, 1973||Mar 18, 1975||Herbert R Axelrod||Pet toy|
|US4373085 *||Aug 24, 1981||Feb 8, 1983||Schering Aktiengesellschaft||Polyesteramide adhesives|
|US4513014||Oct 11, 1983||Apr 23, 1985||Edwards Philip L||Chewable toy for animal|
|US4557219||Oct 26, 1984||Dec 10, 1985||Edwards Philip L||Chewable toy for animal|
|US4663428 *||Dec 26, 1984||May 5, 1987||Daicel Chemical Industries, Ltd.||Polyesteramide|
|US4771773||May 30, 1986||Sep 20, 1988||Medinvent S.A.||Insertion device|
|US4985964||Nov 29, 1989||Jan 22, 1991||Product Carousel Inc.||Dog chew processing method|
|US5007879||Oct 12, 1990||Apr 16, 1991||Lawson Richard L||Dog chew processing method|
|US5149550||Sep 10, 1991||Sep 22, 1992||Pet Center, Inc.||Methods for making pet chews|
|US5200212||Feb 20, 1992||Apr 6, 1993||Axelrod Herbert R||Dog chew with modifiable texture|
|US5240720||Mar 20, 1992||Aug 31, 1993||Axelrod Herbert R||Dog chew with modifiable texture|
|US5407661||Sep 8, 1993||Apr 18, 1995||Colgate-Palmolive Company||Pet chew product having oral care properties|
|US5419283 *||Aug 17, 1993||May 30, 1995||Ciuffo Gatto S.R.L.||Animal chew toy of starch material and degradable ethylene copolymer|
|US5476069||Sep 22, 1994||Dec 19, 1995||Axelrod; Herbert R.||Molded rawhide chew toy|
|US5485809 *||May 6, 1994||Jan 23, 1996||Epp, Inc.||Chewable animal toy|
|US5635237||Jan 31, 1995||Jun 3, 1997||Rawhide Select||Method of manufacturing substantially pure rawhide pet products|
|US5750196||Mar 14, 1997||May 12, 1998||Cb Worldwide Inc.||Process for manufacturing dog chew toys of tire sidewalls|
|US5771254||Jun 3, 1996||Jun 23, 1998||Hewlett-Packard Company||Integrated controlled intensity laser-based light source|
|US5786383||Jun 28, 1994||Jul 28, 1998||Clement; Bernd||Pharmaceutical preparation|
|US5827565||Oct 25, 1996||Oct 27, 1998||T.F.H. Publications, Inc.||Process for making an edible dog chew|
|US5844023 *||Mar 17, 1997||Dec 1, 1998||Bio-Tec Biologische Naturverpackungen Gmbh||Biologically degradable polymer mixture|
|US5912285 *||Jan 21, 1998||Jun 15, 1999||Godsey; Samuel W.||Dog bones using vegetable flavoring|
|US6067941 *||May 3, 1999||May 30, 2000||Tfh Publications, Inc.||Animal chew|
|US6111058 *||Jan 8, 1996||Aug 29, 2000||Basf Aktiengesellschaft||Biodegradable polyesteramide and a process of preparing|
|NZ289824A||Title not available|
|WO1996021689A2 *||Jun 27, 1995||Jul 18, 1996||Basf Aktiengesellschaft||Biologically degradable polymers, processes for manufacturing the same and the use thereof for producing biodegradable moulded articles|
|1||"Microcell Limited and Others' Application" Dixon et al Fleet Street Patent Law Reports; 1977; pp. 163-164.|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US6586027 *||Feb 23, 2001||Jul 1, 2003||T.F.H. Publications, Inc.||Health chew toy|
|US6601539||Apr 16, 2002||Aug 5, 2003||Patrice Michelle Snook||Vegetable based animal chew and animal chew toy and method for making the same|
|US6886497||Jun 8, 2004||May 3, 2005||Frank Jay Hague||Animal chews|
|US6916497||Feb 25, 2002||Jul 12, 2005||T.F.H. Publications, Inc.||Health chew toy|
|US6935275||Jan 16, 2004||Aug 30, 2005||The Hartz Mountain Corporation||Dental chew roll and method of making the same|
|US6990927||Jun 22, 2004||Jan 31, 2006||T.F.H. Publications, Inc.||Collapsible pet treat|
|US7332188||Nov 22, 2004||Feb 19, 2008||T.F.H. Publications, Inc.||Animal chew containing fermented soyfood|
|US7647894||Aug 30, 2005||Jan 19, 2010||T.F.H. Publications, Inc.||Treat holder for pets|
|US7677203||Nov 21, 2006||Mar 16, 2010||Mark Stern||Edible pet chew|
|US7691315||Jul 18, 2005||Apr 6, 2010||T.F.H. Publications, Inc.||Injection mold having cavities in series|
|US7691424||Oct 28, 2005||Apr 6, 2010||T.F.H. Pulications, Inc.||Nutritional supplement|
|US7950353||Mar 28, 2006||May 31, 2011||T.F.H. Publications, Inc.||Pet chew with rigid hollow base and fabric elements|
|US8182855||Feb 19, 2008||May 22, 2012||T.F.H. Publications, Inc.||Fish food containing fermented soyfood|
|US8227007||Oct 14, 2005||Jul 24, 2012||T.F.H. Publications, Inc.||Direct melt processing of resins|
|US8231920||Apr 5, 2006||Jul 31, 2012||T.F.H. Publications, Inc.||Direct melt processing of resins|
|US8455025||Apr 21, 2010||Jun 4, 2013||Petmatrix LLC||Edible pet chew made from a single initially malleable sheet|
|US9226480||May 23, 2013||Jan 5, 2016||T.F.H. Publications, Inc.||Pet chew toys of rubber and polyamide, and methods of manufacture thereof|
|US9526231||Jan 5, 2016||Dec 27, 2016||T.F.H. Publications, Inc.||Pet chew toys of rubber and polyamide, and methods of manufacture thereof|
|US20040037869 *||Aug 16, 2002||Feb 26, 2004||Douglas Cleverly||Non-animal product containing veterinary formulations|
|US20040131732 *||Feb 25, 2002||Jul 8, 2004||Axelrod Glen S||Health chew toy|
|US20040151759 *||Dec 23, 2003||Aug 5, 2004||Douglas Cleverly||Non-animal product containing veterinary formulations|
|US20040170732 *||Feb 27, 2003||Sep 2, 2004||Glen Axelrod||Method for improved absorption of additives in molded edible products|
|US20040194732 *||Apr 16, 2003||Oct 7, 2004||Tiandong Jia||Pet chews and methods of making pet chews|
|US20040228958 *||Jan 16, 2004||Nov 18, 2004||Tiandong Jia||Dental chew chips for dogs and method of making the same|
|US20040237904 *||Jan 16, 2004||Dec 2, 2004||Tiandong Jia||Dental chew roll and method of making the same|
|US20040244720 *||Jan 16, 2004||Dec 9, 2004||Tiandong Jia||Flavored dental crew|
|US20050123585 *||Dec 8, 2003||Jun 9, 2005||The Iams Company||Edible compositions which are adapted for use by a companion animal|
|US20060000424 *||Jun 22, 2004||Jan 5, 2006||Axelrod Glen S||Collapsible pet treat|
|US20060110500 *||Nov 22, 2004||May 25, 2006||Axelrod Glen S||Animal chew containing fermented soyfood|
|US20060110501 *||Nov 22, 2004||May 25, 2006||Axelrod Glen S||Vaccinium injection molding|
|US20070013104 *||Jul 18, 2005||Jan 18, 2007||Axelrod Glen S||Injection mold having cavities in series|
|US20070031555 *||Aug 5, 2005||Feb 8, 2007||Axelrod Glen S||Direct starch molding|
|US20070031556 *||Oct 14, 2005||Feb 8, 2007||Axelrod Glen S||Direct melt processing of resins|
|US20070044730 *||Aug 30, 2005||Mar 1, 2007||Axelrod Glen S||Treat holder for pets|
|US20070098840 *||Oct 28, 2005||May 3, 2007||Axelrod Glen S||Nutritional supplement|
|US20070227464 *||Mar 28, 2006||Oct 4, 2007||Axelrod Glen S||Pet chew with rigid hollow base and fabric elements|
|US20080118606 *||Nov 21, 2006||May 22, 2008||Mark Stern||Edible pet chew|
|US20080199568 *||Feb 19, 2008||Aug 21, 2008||T.F.H. Publications, Inc.||Fish Food containing Fermented Soyfood|
|CN101111146B||Nov 22, 2005||Oct 26, 2011||T·F·H·发行公司||Animal chew containing fermented soyfood|
|WO2006058033A3 *||Nov 22, 2005||Nov 23, 2006||Tfh Publications Inc||Animal chew containing fermented soyfood|
|WO2007027659A2||Aug 29, 2006||Mar 8, 2007||T.F.H. Publications, Inc.||Treat holder for pets|
|WO2007101115A2 *||Feb 23, 2007||Sep 7, 2007||Mgp Ingredients, Inc.||Low calorie injection molded starch-based pet chew bodies|
|WO2007101115A3 *||Feb 23, 2007||Nov 15, 2007||Sukh D Bassi||Low calorie injection molded starch-based pet chew bodies|
|WO2014189710A1 *||May 13, 2014||Nov 27, 2014||T.F.H. Publications, Inc.||Pet chew toys of rubber and polyamide|
|U.S. Classification||426/132, 528/332, 426/661, 426/805|
|International Classification||A01K11/00, A23K1/00, A01K15/02, A23K1/18, A01K29/00|
|Cooperative Classification||A23K40/20, A23K50/40, Y10S426/805, A01K15/026|
|European Classification||A23K1/00B2, A01K15/02C1, A23K1/18N|
|Nov 19, 1999||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: TFH PUBLICATIONS, INC., NEW JERSEY
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:AXELROD, GLEN S.;GAJRIA, AJAY;REEL/FRAME:010412/0693
Effective date: 19991116
|Feb 14, 2005||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4
|Apr 11, 2006||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: JPMORGAN CHASE BANK, NATIONAL ASSOCIATION, AS ADMI
Free format text: SECURITY AGREEMENT;ASSIGNOR:T.F.H. PUBLICATIONS, INC.;REEL/FRAME:017448/0622
Effective date: 20060407
|Feb 17, 2009||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 8
|Feb 14, 2013||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 12
|Dec 24, 2013||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: T.F.H. PUBLICATIONS, INC., NEW JERSEY
Free format text: RELEASE BY SECURED PARTY;ASSIGNOR:JPMORGAN CHASE BANK, NATIONAL ASSOCIATION, AS ADMINISTRATIVE AGENT;REEL/FRAME:031869/0122
Effective date: 20131205
Owner name: SUNTRUST BANK, AS ADMINISTRATIVE AGENT, GEORGIA
Free format text: SECURITY AGREEMENT;ASSIGNOR:T.F.H. PUBLICATIONS, INC.;REEL/FRAME:031869/0033
Effective date: 20131205